Type II hypersensitivitytype ii hypersensitivity, type ii hypersensitivity examples
In type II hypersensitivity also tissue-specific, or cytotoxic hypersensitivity1 the antibodies produced by the immune response bind to antigens on the patient's own cell surfaces The antigens recognized in this way may either be intrinsic "self" antigen, innately part of the patient's cells or extrinsic adsorbed onto the cells during exposure to some foreign antigen, possibly as part of infection with a pathogen These cells are recognized by macrophages or dendritic cells, which act as antigen-presenting cells This causes a B cell response, wherein antibodies are produced against the foreign antigen
An example of type II hypersensitivity is the ABO blood incompatibility where the red blood cells have different antigens, causing them to be recognized as different; B cell proliferation will take place and antibodies to the foreign blood type are produced IgG and IgM antibodies bind to these antigens to form complexes that activate the classical pathway of complement activation to eliminate cells presenting foreign antigens That is, mediators of acute inflammation are generated at the site and membrane attack complexes cause cell lysis and death The reaction takes hours to a day
Type II reactions can affect healthy cells Examples include red blood cells in autoimmune2 hemolytic anemia and acetylcholine receptors in myasthenia gravis
Another example of type II hypersensitivity reaction is Goodpasture's syndrome where the basement membrane containing collagen type IV in the lung and kidney is attacked by one's own antibodies3
Another form of type II hypersensitivity is called antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity ADCC Here, cells exhibiting the foreign antigen are tagged with antibodies IgG or IgM These tagged cells are then recognised by natural killer cells NK and macrophages recognised via IgG bound via the Fc region to the effector cell surface receptor, CD16 FcγRIII, which in turn kill these tagged cells
- Type I hypersensitivity
- Type III hypersensitivity
- Type IV hypersensitivity
- Type V hypersensitivity
- ^ "Hypersensitivity reactions"
- ^ Inkling "Unsupported Browser" Student Consult Retrieved 2016-01-23
- ^ Goodpasture Syndrome at eMedicine
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