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Tuareg rebellion (2012)

tuareg rebellion locale of 2012
MNLA/Ansar Dine victory5

  • Malian president Amadou Toumani Touré is ousted by a coup d'état6
  • MNLA and Ansar Dine take control of all Northern Mali territory7
  • Independent state of Azawad declared by the MNLA8 and initially supported by Ansar Dine9
  • Conflict between the MNLA and Ansar Dine the latter receiving support from AQIM10 and MOJWA
Belligerents

 Mali

FLNA12

Ganda Iso

 Azawad

  • MNLA

Islamists

  • Ansar Dine3
  • MOJWA4
Commanders and leaders

Amadou Toumani Touré until March
Sadio Gassama until March
El Haji Ag Gamou until March
Amadou Sanogo since March 2012

Mohamed Lamine Ould Sidatt FLNA
Housseine Khoulam FLNA Mahmoud Ag Aghaly
Bilal Ag Acherif
Moussa Ag Acharatoumane
Ag Mohamed Najem11 Iyad ag Ghaly12
Omar Ould Hamaha13 Strength

7,000–7,800 regulars,
4,800 paramilitaries,
3,000 militia overall military strength

~500 FLNA1

MNLA: 3,0001415 - 9000MNLA claime16

Ansar Dine: ~30015 Casualties and losses 200+ killed or missing,1718
400 captured19
1,00020–1,60021 defected
Total: 1,000–1,500+ killed, captured or deserted14 ~165 killed Malian sources1822 Displaced: ~100,000 refugees abroad23
100,000+ internally displaced persons24
Total: ~250,00025


The Tuareg Rebellion of 2012 was an early stage of the Northern Mali conflict; from January to April 2012, a war was waged against the Malian government by rebels with the goal of attaining independence for the northern region of Mali, known as Azawad26 It was led by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad MNLA and was part of a series of insurgencies by traditionally nomadic Tuaregs which date back at least to 1916 The MNLA was formed by former insurgents and a significant number of heavily armed Tuaregs who fought in the Libyan Civil War27

On 22 March, President Amadou Toumani Touré was ousted in a coup d'état over his handling of the crisis, a month before a presidential election was to have taken place28 Mutineering soldiers, under the banner of the National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State, CNRDR suspended the constitution of Mali, although this move was reversed on 1 April29

The Islamist group Ansar Dine, too, began fighting the government in later stages of the conflict, claiming control of vast swathes of territory, albeit disputed by the MNLA As a consequence of the instability following the coup, Northern Mali's three largest cities—Kidal, Gao and Timbuktu—were overrun by the rebels30 on three consecutive days3132 On 5 April, after the capture of Douentza, the MNLA said that it had accomplished its goals and called off its offensive The following day, it proclaimed Azawad's independence from Mali33

After the end of hostilities with the Malian Army, however, Tuareg nationalists and Islamists struggled to reconcile their conflicting visions for the intended new state34 On 27 June, Islamists from the Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa MOJWA clashed with the MNLA in the Battle of Gao, wounding MNLA secretary-general Bilal Ag Acherif and taking control of the city35 By 17 July, MOJWA and Ansar Dine had pushed the MNLA out of all the major cities36

On 14 February 2013 the MNLA renounced their claim of independence for Azawad and asked the Malian government to start negotiations on its future status37

Contents

  • 1 Background
  • 2 Course of the conflict
    • 21 January 2012
    • 22 February
    • 23 March: until the coup d'état
    • 24 Coup d'état
    • 25 Renewed offensives
    • 26 Capture of Timbuktu and Douentza
    • 27 Declaration of independence and escalating tensions
  • 3 Human rights situation
    • 31 Ethnic tensions
  • 4 Towns captured by rebels
  • 5 Reactions
    • 51 States
    • 52 Media
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 Further reading
  • 9 External links

Backgroundedit

For decades prior to the 2012 rebellion, Tuareg political leaders had asserted that the nomadic Tuareg people were marginalized and consequently impoverished in both Mali and Niger, and that mining projects had damaged important pastoral areas Issues such as climate change and a rooted background of forced modernization onto the northern Nomadic areas of Mali have caused much tension between the Tuareg peoples and the Malian government38 Tuareg separatist groups had staged previous unsuccessful rebellions in 1990 and in 2007 Many of the Tuaregs currently fighting in the rebellion have received training from Gaddafi's Islamic Legion during his tenure in Libya Hence many of the combatants are experienced with a variety of warfare techniques that have posed major problems to the national governments of Mali and Niger39

The MNLA is an offshoot of a Tuareg political movement known as the National Movement for Azawad MNA prior to the 2012 insurgency27 After the end of the Libyan Civil War, an influx of weaponry led to the arming of the Tuareg in their demand for independence for Azawad40 Many of the returnees from Libya were said to have come back for financial reasons such as losing their savings, as well as due to the alleged racism of the NTC's fighters and militias41 Another commentator described the US as a catalyst for the rebellion, citing the training of Tuareg rebels by the US and the overthrow of Libya's government in 201142

The strength of this uprising and the use of heavy weapons, which were not present in the previous conflicts, were said to have "surprised" Malian officials and observers Such issues arise from an illicit weapons trade around the Sahel region that is linked to a variety of factors, including the funneling of weapons from Libya43 Though dominated by Tuaregs, the MNLA claimed to represent other ethnic groups as well,44 and was reportedly joined by some Arab leaders27 The MNLA's leader Bilal Ag Acherif said that the onus was on Mali to either give the Saharan peoples their self-determination or they would take it themselves41

Another Tuareg-dominated group, the Islamist Ansar Dine Defenders of Faith, also fought against the government However, unlike the MNLA it does not seek independence but rather the impositions of sharia across united Mali23 The movement's leader Iyad Ag Ghaly, who was part of the early 1990s rebellion, is believed to be linked to an offshoot of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb AQIM that is led by his cousin Hamada Ag Hama45

Iyad Ag Ghaly was also said to have been affiliated with Algeria's Département du Renseignement et de la Sécurité DRS since 2003 There were also reports of an Algerian military presence in the area on 20 December 2011 Though Mali said they were in coordination against AQIM, there were no reported attacks in the region at the time; the MNLA even complained that the Malian government had not done enough to fight AQIM Locals believed that the presence was due to the MNLA's promise to root out AQIM which was involved in drug trafficking allegedly with the connivance of high-ranking officers and threatened to turn Mali into a narcostate14

Course of the conflictedit

January 2012edit

Main articles: Battle of Tessalit and Battle of Aguelhok Azawad rebels in Mali, January 2012

According to Stratfor, the first attacks took place in Ménaka on 16 and 17 January, which left 2 Malian soldiers and 1 rebel dead46 On 17 January attacks in Aguelhok and Tessalit were reported The Mali government claimed to have regained control of all three towns the next day47 On 21 January, a Malian convoy bringing army reinforcements and an arsenal of weapons to the garrison in recently liberated Aguelhok was ambushed near the village of In-Esmal, killing between 50 and 101 Malian soldiers including several captains On 24 January the rebels retook Aguelhok after the Malian army ran out of ammunition/14 On 24 January, after the rebels captured Aguelhok the Islamists group AQIM summarily executed 97 Malian soldiers after they surrendered46 The next day the Mali government once again recaptured the city47 According to an independent estimate around 153 Malian soldiers and 35 rebels were killed in the fight for the towncitation needed

On 26 January, rebels attacked and took control over the northern Mali towns of Andéramboukane and Léré after clashes with the military46 Stratfor also reported an attack on Niafunké on 31 January47 The Agence France-Presse AFP reported that the rebels had captured Ménaka on 1 February1448

On 13 February, the French radio station RFI reported statements by the Malian army that the MNLA had carried out executions of its soldiers on 24 January by slitting their throats or shooting them in the head French Development Minister Henri de Raincourt mentioned that there had been about 60 deaths, while a Malian officer involved in burying the dead told the AFP that 97 soldiers had been killed49 However, the evidence was unverified and partly denied as fabricated by the MNLA14

Mali launched air and land counter operations to take back seized territory,50 and Touré then reorganised his senior commanders for the fight against the rebels51

Februaryedit

In early February 2012, talks were held in Algiers between Malian Foreign Minister Soumeylou Boubeye Maiga and a Tuareg rebel group known as the 23 May 2006 Democratic Alliance for Change The agreement called for a ceasefire and the opening of a dialogue However, the MNLA rejected the agreement and said that they were not represented in these talks52

On 1 February, the MNLA took control of the city of Menaka when the Malian army operated what they called a tactical retreat The violence in the north led to anti-rebellion protests which shut down Bamako, Mali's capital Dozens of Malian soldiers were also killed in fighting in Aguelhok53 Following the Bamako protests, the interior minister took the place of the defense minister President Touré also called on the population to not attack any community after some Tuaregs' properties were attacked in the protests53

On 4 February, the rebels said that they were attacking the city of Kidal, while the Malian army said that their troops were firing heavy weapons to prevent the city from being attacked As a result of the fighting, 3,500 civilians left the city to cross the border into Mauritania Previously an estimated 10,000 civilians had fled to refugee camps in Niger after the fighting in Menaka and Andéramboukane54 Official Malian sources reported that 20 Tuareg rebels have been killed by the army in the Timbuktu region, most of them being killed by helicopter gunships22

Tuareg rebels in 2012

On 8 February, the MNLA seized the Mali-Algeria border town of Tinzaouaten, forcing Malian soldiers to escape into Algeria55 A rebel spokesman said that they were able to gain weapons and military vehicles found in the military camps of the city The fight for the town killed one government soldier and one rebel56 During the month, Niafunké was also captured and then lost again by the rebels57

On 23 February, Médecins Sans Frontières stated that a girl had been killed and ten other women and children injured when the Malian air force bombed a camp for IDPs in the north The MNLA had repeatedly accused the Malian government of indiscriminate bombings by Malian attack helicopters piloted by foreign mercenaries58

March: until the coup d'étatedit

On 4 March, a new round of fighting was reported near the formerly rebel-held town of Tessalit59 The next day, three Malian army units gave up trying to lift the siege1460 The United States Air Force air-dropped supplies via a C-130 in support of the besieged Malian soldiers61

On 11 March, the MNLA re-took Tessalit and its airport after efforts by the government and its allies to re-supply the town failed and the Malian military forces fled towards the border with Algeria The MNLA announced that they had also captured several soldiers, as well as light and heavy weapons and armored vehicles62 About 600 Tuareg fighters took part in the battle63

The rebels advanced to about 125 kilometers away from Timbuktu and their advance was unchecked when they entered without fighting in the towns of Diré and Goundam64 A Malian military source said that as the cities were overrun the military planned to defend Niafunké65 The French newspaper Libération also reported claims that the rebels controlled one third of Mali and that the Malian army was struggling to fight back One of the three government helicopters manned by Ukrainian mercenaries had also broke down, while the two others were being kept to protect the south666768 Ansar Dine also claimed to have control of the Mali-Algeria border It was reported that its leaders were planning a prisoner swap with the Malian government69

Coup d'étatedit

Main article: 2012 Malian coup d'état

On 21 March, Malian soldiers attacked defense minister Sadio Gassama, who was there to speak to them about the rebellion, at an army base near Bamako The mutineers were dissatisfied with Touré's handling of the insurgency and the equipment they had received to fight the insurgents70 Later that day, soldiers stormed the presidential palace, forcing Touré into hiding71

The next morning, Captain Amadou Sanogo, the chairman of the new National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State CNRDR, made a television appearance in which he announced that the junta had suspended Mali's constitution and taken control of the nation72 The CNRDR would serve as an interim regime until power could be returned to a new, democratically elected government73

The coup was "unanimously condemned" by the international community,74 including by the United Nations Security Council,75 the African Union,75 and the Economic Community of West African States ECOWAS, which announced on 29 March that the CNRDR had 72 hours to relinquish control before landlocked Mali's borders would be closed by its neighbours,76 its assets would be frozen by the West African Economic and Monetary Union, and individuals in the CNRDR would get freezes on their assets and travel bans77 ECOWAS78 and the African Union also suspended Mali The US, the World Bank, and the African Development Bank suspended development aid funds in support of ECOWAS and the AU's reactions to the coup7980

An agreement was mediated between the junta and ECOWAS negotiators on 6 April, in which both Sanogo and Touré would resign, sanctions would be lifted, the mutineers would be granted amnesty, and power would pass to National Assembly of Mali Speaker Diouncounda Traoré81 Following Traoré's inauguration, he pledged to "wage a total and relentless war" on the Tuareg rebels unless they released their control of northern Malian cities82

Renewed offensivesedit

As a result of the uncertainty following the coup, the rebels launched an offensive with the aim of capturing several towns and army camps abandoned by the Malian army83 The MNLA took the town of Anefis without a fight, and the Malian Army reportedly abandoned their posts in several other northern towns as well84 Though the offensive ostensibly included both the MNLA and Ansar Dine, according to Jeremy Keenan of the University of London's School of Oriental and African Studies, the latter group's contribution was slight: "What seems to happen is that when they move into a town, the MNLA take out the military base – not that there's much resistance – and Iyad ag Aghaly goes into town and puts up his flag and starts bossing everyone around about sharia law"85

On 24 March, Amadou Sanogo, the leader of the National Committee for the Restoration of Democracy and State, announced his intention to seek peace talks with the MNLA86 Negotiations reportedly took place in Niger87 France's Henri de Raincourt later said that the MNLA were in talks with the government under the auspices of ECOWAS in Burkina Faso88

Main article: Battle of Kidal

On 30 March, the rebels seized control of Kidal, the capital of the Kidal Region89 Ansar Dine reportedly entered the town from the south after a day of heavy fighting90 Responding to the loss, Sanogo called on Mali's neighbours to provide military aid to "save the civilian population and Mali's territorial integrity"89

On the same day, the MNLA took control of the cities of Ansongo and Bourem in the Gao region,91 as the army said it was leaving its positions in both cities to support the defence of Gao,92 which was the headquarters of the Malian Army in the north93 One administrator in Bourem was reportedly killed by the rebels94 In the morning of 31 March,87 rebels entered Gao carrying their Azawad flag95 The MOJWA also stated that it was part of the forces attacking and occupying Gao96

Though the Malian Army then used helicopters to respond to the attack,95 they abandoned their bases around Gao later in the day97 The MNLA then took control of the city98

Both MNLA and Ansar Dine flags were reported around the city, leading to conflicting reports of which group was in control30 The Associated Press reported accounts of a refugee that "signs of disunity" had begun to appear between the MNLA and Ansar Dine, including the removal of MNLA flags from Kidal99 Of the city's two military camps, the MNLA took control of Camp 1, the Malian Army's former operational centre against the rebellion,100 while Ansar Dine took control of Camp 2101

A prison was reportedly opened, while public buildings were said to have been looted by civilians102 The rebels were also alleged to have looted bank safes, while Ansar Dine had begun imposing Sharia103 Shops in the city also closed87 Gao MP Abdou Sidibe said that Gao's residents were not being allowed to leave the city31

Checkpoints were erected around Timbuktu87 as rebel forces encircled it101 with the MNLA saying that it sought to "dislodge Mali's remaining political and military administration" in the region104 Malian soldiers with southern origins were reported to have started evacuating Timbuktu, while Arab soldiers from the north were left to defend the city105

Capture of Timbuktu and Douentzaedit

The next day, the rebels began attacking the outskirts of Timbuktu106 at dawn103 as reports indicated that government soldiers had deserted at least one of the bases102 The attack occurred with the use of heavy arms and automatic weapons,103 which had been left by the Malian Army's deserters earlier107 Al Jazeera reported the capture of Timbuktu the day an ECOWAS imposed 72-hour deadline to start returning to civilian rule was set to expire77 The defence of the city was left mostly to local Arab militias as most of the Malian Army fled108 The MNLA then took over Timbuktu without much fighting, celebrating its victory carrying the Azawad flag on pick-up trucks around the city102

The MNLA then stated that it had succeeded in the "full liberation" of the Timbuktu region109 Kidal-based Colonel El Haji Ag Gamou of the Malian Army67 announced his defection to the MNLA with 500 of his troops110 Ag Gamou and his men later fled to Niger, Ag Gamou stating that he had pretended to join the MNLA only to save his men His regiment was disarmed by the Nigerien army and placed in a refugee camp, pushing the numbers of Malian soldiers who have sought refuge in Niger to more than 1,00020

On 6 April, it was reported that Douentza was also under the control of the MNLA, who announced that the city was last capture in the region they claimed111 The speed of capturing the larger towns was read as a consequence of the instability in Bamako with the junta's hands bound between the rebels and the threat of economic sanctions by ECOWAS and others112 With ECOWAS troops on stand-by for a first-ever intervention in a membership country, Sanogo said: "As of today we are committed to restore the 1992 constitution and all the institutions of the republic However given the multi-dimensional crisis we face, we'll need a transition period to preserve the national unity We will start talks with all political entities to put into place a transitional body that will oversee free and transparent elections in which we won't take part"78

Declaration of independence and escalating tensionsedit

Further information: Azawadi declaration of independence

After the fall of Douentza, amidst reports of tensions between secularists and Islamists in Timbuktu and Gao, the MNLA called for the international community to protect what they called Azawad However, other African states and supranational bodies unanimously rejected the partition of Mali The day before the UNSC had called for an end to hostilities French Foreign Minister Alain Juppé said, "There will not be a military solution with the Tuaregs There needs to be a political solution"113 Juppé referred to the MNLA as a credible interlocutor in the ongoing dialogue between Paris and the feuding factions in Mali, acknowledging it as distinct from Ansar Dine and Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, groups with which he ruled out negotiations114

On 6 April, stating that it had secured all of its desired territory, the MNLA declared independence from Mali However, the declaration was rejected as invalid by the African Union and the European Union5

As of 8 April, the MNLA was holding 400 Malian soldiers captured during the conflict The prisoners suffered from a lack of hygiene, and an MNLA commander said that neither the government of Bamako nor the humanitarian organizations cared about them19

On 15 May, Amnesty International released a report alleging that fighters with the MNLA and Ansar Dine were "running riot" in Mali's north,115 documenting instances of gang rape, extrajudicial executions, and the use of child soldiers by both Tuareg and Islamist groups116

Human rights situationedit

On 4 April 2012, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees said that in addition to the roughly 200,000 displaced persons, up to 400 people a day were crossing the borders into Burkina Faso and Mauritania The UNHCR's spokesperson Melissa Fleming said: "The north of the country is becoming more and more dangerous due to the proliferation of armed groups in the region We are stepping up our assistance to Malian refugees across the Sahel region who face acute water and food shortages We'd like to reiterate that UNHCR is committed to helping neighbouring countries and host communities which have been providing safety and shelter to the refugees despite these shortages and the difficult conditions"117

The rebellion was described by BBC News as having adverse effects on Mali's impending food shortage, with more than 13 million Malians expected to be affected by drought118 On 3 April, armed groups looted 2,354 tons of food from United Nations' World Food Programme's warehouses in Kidal, Gao and Timbuktu, causing the WFP to suspend its operations in northern Mali119 Other targets of looting included hospitals, hotels, government offices, Oxfam offices and the offices and warehouses of other unnamed aid groups120 The WFP also stated that 200,000 had so far fled the fighting, predicting that the number would rise121 Ansar Dine were reported to have intervened against looters The spokesman of Mali's junta Amadou Konare claimed that "women and girls have been kidnapped and raped by the new occupants who are laying down their own law"31 On 6 April, Amnesty International warned that Mali was "on the brink of a major humanitarian disaster"122

Ansar Dine were also reported to have ransacked bars and establishments that served alcohol, while banning western music from being broadcast23 Most hotels in the city were empty or closed, with the tourism industry in the doldrums123 Similar reports of changing music on the radio to prayers chants was reported from Kidal, while in Gao, shops and churches were ransacked, while Ansar Dine were also reported to have put the head of a dead soldier on a spike at a military base they briefly held before the MNLA took it over124

Ethnic tensionsedit

The conflict has strained the ethnic tolerance that Mali was once known for The Tuaregs and Arabs who lived in Bamako and elsewhere in "South" Mali have been subjects of a rash of ethnic attacks by "black Malians" as opposed to Mediterranean Arabs and racially mixed Tuaregs, despite many of them being hostile to Azawad separatism as well as the Islamists In fact, many of these actually had only recently come to the "South", fleeing the violence in the North125 and ideological repression for not supporting Azawad separatism126 By May, 60000 people, mostly Tuaregs, had fled ethnic reprisals One Tuareg interviewee, who had originally fled from the Northern town of Kidal to Bamako, and then to Mbera, said that "Some of them were saying the Tuareg people killed their relatives — and that now they must do the same to the Tuareg who are among them", and that the incident that prompted him to leave was watching policemen beat a Tuareg fellow policeman125

The Jamestown Foundation, a US-based think tank, challenged MNLA's statement that it represents all the ethnic groups of Azawad, stating that in practice, almost all of its members were Tuaregs, who saw in the rebellion a chance to establish a separate state for the Tuaregs of northern Mali,126 while other ethnic groups of the region—the Arabs/Moors as well as the various black groups Fulani, Songhay, etc—were much less enthusiastic By the late spring of 2012, they began forming their own, often ethnic-based, militias127 Some Arabs/Moors opposed to the rebellion formed the National Liberation Front of Azawad, which held non-secessionist, non-Islamist views, and stated its intention to fight for "a return to peace and economic activity"128

Towns captured by rebelsedit

Town Date captured Date lost Date recaptured Held by
Ménaka 16–17 January 18 January 1 February53 MNLA
Aguelhok 17 January
24 January
18 January
25 January
Tessalit 17 January 18 January 11 March62 MNLA
Andéramboukane46 26 January MNLA
Léré129 26 January MNLA
Tinzaouaten55 8 February MNLA
Niafunké57 ~February February
Diré64 ~13 March unsure if held
Goundam64 ~13 March unsure if held
Anefis130 23 March MNLA
Kidal89 30 March Ansar Dine
Ansongo91 30 March Ansar Dine
Bourem91 30 March MNLA
Gao97 31 March MNLA/Ansar Dine/MOJWA
Timbuktu77 1 April MNLA/Ansar Dine3
Ber129third-party source needed MNLA
Douentzacitation needed after 2 April MNLA
Konna 10 January 2013 Ansar Dine

Reactionsedit

Statesedit

ECOWAS warned the rebels and asked its member states to send logistical support to Mali,131 while also trying to negoitiate a ceasefire132 Mauritania denied working with Mali to quell the uprising;64 however President Abdel Aziz, along with Malian officials, claimed the MNLA worked with AQIM by citing the alleged massacre of soldiers14 Algeria withdrew military advisors and suspended military aid to Mali at the end of January to increase pressure on the government as it also tried to mediate a resolution to the conflict133

On a 26 February visit to Bamako, French Foreign Minister Alain Juppé suggested the government of Mali negotiate with the MNLA; however, he was criticised for trying to legitimise a rebellion seen in the south as run by sectarian opportunists134 After the coup and the advances by the rebels, the United States followed a warning that the region was becoming an Al Qaeda base with its support of ECOWAS' efforts as it was further worried by the rebel advances93

In early April, the AU said it had imposed targeted sanctions on the leaders of the rebel groups117 The United Nations Security Council held an emergency session over the dual crisis on 4 April23 after France called for the meeting Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations for political affairs B Lynn Pascoe gave a brief to the UNSC, after which US ambassador to the UN, Susan Rice said that an UN official had complained that the Malian government gave up ground to the rebels "without much of a fight"135 Juppé called for a collective response by the UNSC to the "Islamist threat" in the region136

Mediaedit

Amongst the media reactions to the uprising, Agence France-Presse was accused by Andy Morgan of Think Africa Press of uncritically accepting the government portrayal of the rebels as "armed bandits," "drug traffickers" and "Qaddafi mercenaries"27 The Los Angeles Times suggested that even without international recognition the gains by the rebels would be a de facto partitioning of Mali137 The Editorial Board of The Washington Post called for NATO military intervention against the Tuareg138 Social media amongst the Tuareg diaspora was reported to be euphoric at the imminent "liberation," while those in southern Mali were strongly against what they called "bandits" in the north whom they said should be "killed" The Malian press was also quick to criticise the uprising27 In late June, Reuters noted that in contrast to the Islamists who had "appropriated the uprising" from them, the Tuareg separatists were "regarded in the West as having some legitimate political grievances"139

See alsoedit

  • Mali portal
  • Military history portal
  • Politics portal
  • 2010s portal
  • Aftermath of the Libyan civil war
  • List of modern conflicts in North Africa

Referencesedit

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  9. ^ "Mali Tuareg and Islamist rebels agree on Sharia state" BBC News 26 May 2012 Archived from the original on 23 November 2012 Retrieved 27 May 2012 
  10. ^ Zoe Flood 29 Jun 2012 "Trouble in Timbuktu as Islamists extend control" The Daily Telegraph Archived from the original on 23 November 2012 Retrieved 6 July 2012 Ansar Dine ordered the Tuareg MNLA group to leave the historical city of Timbuktu backed by al-Qaeda’s north African branch 
  11. ^ MISNA 20 January 2012 "Mali: Fighting In North; The New Touareg War" Eurasiareviewcom Archived from the original on 23 November 2012 Retrieved 7 March 2012 
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  13. ^ "Mali Tuareg rebels' call on independence rejected" BBC 6 April 2012 Archived from the original on 23 November 2012 Retrieved 6 April 2012 
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  15. ^ a b Sofia Bouderbala 2 April 2012 "Al-Qaeda unlikely to profit from Mali rebellion: experts" The Daily Star Archived from the original on 23 November 2012 Retrieved 3 April 2012 
  16. ^ "Images et témoignage exclusifs du nord du Mali: un colonel du MNLA dévoile son arsenal militaire" in French France24 21 June 2012 Retrieved 18 January 2013 
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  21. ^ Mali Army, Riding US Hopes, Is Proving No Match for Militants
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  25. ^ Nick Meo 7 April 2012 "Triumphant Tuareg rebels fall out over al-Qaeda's jihad in Mali" The Telegraph Archived from the original on 23 November 2012 Retrieved 23 November 2012 
  26. ^ Andy Morgan 23 March 2012 "Coup threatens to plunge Mali back into the darkness of dictatorship" The Guardian Archived from the original on 23 November 2012 Retrieved 5 April 2012 
  27. ^ a b c d e Andy Morgan 6 February 2012 "The Causes of the Uprising in Northern Mali" Think Africa Press Archived from the original on 23 November 2012 Retrieved 7 March 2012 
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Further readingedit

  • Stephen A Emerson 2011 "Desert insurgency: lessons from the third Tuareg rebellion" Small Wars & Insurgencies 22 4: 669–687 doi:101080/095923182011573406 
  • Jean Sebastian Lecocq 2010 Disputed Desert: Decolonisation, Competing Nationalisms and Tuareg Rebellions in Northern Mali Afrika-Studiecentrum series 19 Leiden ISBN 978-90-04-13983-1 
  • Walther, Olivier; Christopoulos Dimitris 2012 "A social network analysis of Islamic terrorism and the Malian rebellion" CEPS/INSTEAD Working Paper 38 Retrieved 23 November 2012 
  • Dimitris, Christopoulos; Walther, Olivier 2015 "Islamic Terrorism and the Malian Rebellion" Terrorism and Political Violence 27 3: 497–519 doi:101080/095465532013809340 

External linksedit

  • Cartogracy: Tuareg Independence Movement
  • All Peace and Ceasefire Agreements for Mali, UN Peacemaker database

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