Treaty of Pozvol
The Treaty or Peace of Pozvol, Pasvalys or Pozwol was a peace treaty and an alliance concluded on 5 and 14 September 1557 between the Livonian Confederation and the Polish-Lithuanian union, whereby the former put its territories under Polish-Lithuanian protection The treaty was preceded by disputes between the members of the Livonian Confederation and military pressure by Sigismund II Augustus, king of Poland and Grand duke of Lithuania, and provoked Russian tsar Ivan IV "the Terrible" to start the Livonian War
- 1 Background
- 2 Treaty
- 3 Consequences
- 4 Sources
- 41 References
- 42 Bibliography
BackgroundLivonian Confederation The map shows the situation after the medieval Northern Crusades, which remained largely unchanged until the Northern Wars Sigismund II Augustus by Lucas Cranach the Younger
Albert Albrecht, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, had introduced the Protestant Reformation and secularized the southern part of the Teutonic Order State, creating Europe's first Protestant state in the Duchy of Prussia in 1525 under Polish protection His efforts to introduce Protestantism to the order's Livonian territories met with resistance and divided the Livonian Confederation
When Albert's brother Wilhelm, who as Archbishop of Riga attempted to implement a Lutheran church order in his bishopric, appointed Protestant Christopher, Duke of Mecklenburg as his bishop coadjutor, the Catholic estates rebelled and arrested both Wilhelm and Christopher
An ongoing Danish mediation of this conflict became void with the intervention of Sigismund II Augustus, king of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania and by the terms of Cracow protector of Wilhelm's brother, Albert He demanded that Wilhelm and Christopher be released and the Livonian Confederation accept his protection When he declared war and raised an army to underline his demands, which left for Livonia in July 1557, the Livonians gave in and signed three respective treaties on 14 September in the encampment of Sigismund II Augustus' army near Pozvol Pasvalys, Podzwol, Pozwoł
All three treaties concerned the relation between the Livonian estates and Sigismund The first two treaties were the result of a mediation by envoys from the Holy Roman Empire, and were drafted on 5 September Wilhelm was restored to his former position as archbishop, with his liberty and all former rights confirmed Livonia restored its relation to Lithuania, and both realms concluded a defense-offense pact The new grand master, Wilhelm von Fürstenberg, signed the alliance for the order and also ratified the other two treaties on 14 September along with other members of the order
The alliance was directed against the Tsardom of Russia, then striving for hegemony in the area and regarding the treaty as a casus belli Tsar Ivan IV "the Terrible", who in March had ended the Russo-Swedish War with the Treaty of Novgorod and since focussed on Livonia, claiming the subordination of Dorpat Tartu for a start
The tsar reacted to Pozvol by invading Livonia before the alliance would result in an actual mobilization of forces, starting the Livonian War 1558–1583 As a result, Reval Tallinn turned to Sweden for protection, Ösel Saaremaa was occupied by Denmark-Norway, and the order's grand master Gotthard von Kettler secularized what was left of the Russian-occupied order state, formally subordinated it to Sigismund II Augustus, and established himself as duke of Courland
- ^ a b c De Madariaga 2006, p 127
- ^ Frost 2000, pp 4-5
- ^ a b Frost 2000, p 5
- ^ Frost 2000, p 2
- ^ a b c d e f Frost 2000, p 4
- ^ a b Tiberg 1984, p 86
- ^ a b c Reddaway 1978, p 353
- ^ a b Macinnes et al 2000, p 67
- ^ Lubieniecki 1995, p 798
- ^ Kiaupa 2005, p 107
- ^ a b Tiberg 1984, p 90
- De Madariaga, Isabel 2006 Ivan the Terrible Yale University Press p 127 ISBN 0-300-11973-9
- Frost, Robert I 2000 The Northern Wars War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe 1558-1721 Longman ISBN 978-0-582-06429-4
- Kiaupa, Zigmantas 2005 The history of Lithuania 2 ed Baltos lankos ISBN 9955-584-87-4
- Lubieniecki, Stanisław 1995 Williams, George Huntston, ed History of the Polish Reformation Harvard theological studies 37 Fortress Press ISBN 0-8006-7085-X
- Macinnes, Allan I; Riis, Thomas; Pedersen, Frederik, eds 2000 Ships, guns, and Bibles in the North Sea and Baltic States, c 1350-c 1700 Northern European Historical Research Network Proceedings 1 Tuckwell Press ISBN 1-86232-167-1 CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link
- Reddaway, William Fiddian 1978 The Cambridge history of Poland 2 Octagon ISBN 0-374-91250-5
- Tiberg, Erik 1984 Zur Vorgeschichte des Livländischen Krieges Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis Studia historica Upsaliensia in German 134 Almqvist och Wiksell ISBN 91-554-1509-1
|1 Treaties primarily concerning the Northern Seven Years' War which contain agreements regarding Livonia|
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