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Transclusion

transclusion definition, transclusion in angular js
In computer science, transclusion is the inclusion of part or all of an electronic document into one or more other documents by hypertext reference Transclusion is usually performed when the referencing document is displayed, and is normally automatic and transparent to the end user The result of transclusion is a single integrated document made of parts assembled on the fly from separate sources, possibly stored on different computers in disparate places

Transclusion facilitates modular design: a resource is stored once and distributed for reuse in multiple documents Updates or corrections to a resource are then reflected in any referencing documents Ted Nelson coined the term for his 1980 nonlinear book Literary Machines

Contents

  • 1 Technical considerations
    • 11 Context neutrality
    • 12 Parameterization
  • 2 History and implementation by Project Xanadu
  • 3 Implementation on the Web
    • 31 Client-side HTML
    • 32 Server-side transclusion
    • 33 Transclusion of source code
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
  • 6 Further reading
  • 7 External links

Technical considerations

Context neutrality

Transclusion works better when transcluded sections of text are self-contained, so that the meaning and validity of the text is independent of context For example, formulations like "as explained in the previous section" are problematic, because the transcluded section may appear in a different context, causing confusion What constitutes "context neutral" text varies, but often includes things like company information or boilerplate

Parameterization

Under some circumstances, and in some technical contexts, transcluded sections of text may not require strict adherence to the "context neutrality" principle, because the transcluded sections are capable of parameterization Parameterization implies the ability to modify certain portions or subsections of a transcluded text depending on exogenous variables that can be changed independently This is customarily done by supplying a transcluded text with one or more substitution placeholders These placeholders are then replaced with the corresponding variable values prior to rendering the final transcluded output in context

History and implementation by Project Xanadu

Ted Nelson, who also originated the words "hypertext" and "hypermedia", coined the term "transclusion" in his 1980 book Literary Machines Part of his proposal was the idea that micropayments could be automatically exacted from the reader for all the text, no matter how many snippets of content are taken from various places

However, according to Nelson, the concept of transclusion had already formed part of his 1965 description of hypertext Nelson defines transclusion as, "the same content knowably in more than one place," setting it apart from more special cases, such as the inclusion of content from a different location which he calls transdelivery or an explicit quotation that remains connected to its origins, which he calls transquotation

Some hypertext systems, including Ted Nelson's own Xanadu Project, support transclusion

Nelson has delivered a demonstration of Web transclusion, the Little Transquoter programmed to Nelson's specification by Andrew Pam in 2004-2005 It creates a new format built on portion addresses from Web pages; when dereferenced, each portion on the resulting page remains click-connected to its original context

Implementation on the Web

HTTP, as a transmission protocol, has rudimentary support for transclusion via byte serving: specifying a byte range in an HTTP request message

Transclusion can occur either before server-side or after client-side transmission For example:

  • An HTML document may be pre-composed by the server before delivery to the client using Server-Side Includes or another server-side application
  • XML Entities or HTML Objects may be parsed by the client, which then requests the corresponding resources separately from the main document
  • A web browser may cache elements using its own algorithms, which can operate without explicit directives in the document's markup
  • AngularJS employs transclusion for nested directive operation

Publishers of web content may object to the transclusion of material from their own web sites into other web sites, or they may require an agreement to do so Critics of the practice may refer to various forms of inline linking as bandwidth theft or leeching

Other publishers may seek specifically to have their materials transcluded into other web sites, as in the form of web advertising, or as widgets like a hit counter or web bug

Mashups make use of transclusion to assemble resources or data into a new application, as by placing geo-tagged photos on an interactive map, or by displaying business metrics in an interactive dashboard

Client-side HTML

HTML defines elements for client-side transclusion of images, scripts, stylesheets, other documents, and other types of media HTML has relied heavily on client-side transclusion from the earliest days of the Web so web pages could be displayed more quickly before multimedia elements finished loading, rather than embedding the raw data for such objects inline into a web page's markup

Through techniques such as Ajax, scripts associated with an HTML document can instruct a web browser to modify the document in-place, as opposed to the earlier technique of having to pull an entirely new version of the page from the web server Such scripts may transclude elements or documents from a server after the web browser has rendered the page, in response to user input or changing conditions, for example

Future versions of HTML may support deeper transclusion of portions of documents using XML technologies such as entities, XPointer document referencing, and XSLT manipulations XPointer is patent-encumbered

An interesting use of Transclusion is found in the single-page application TiddlyWiki, http://tiddlywikicom/#Transclusion

Proxy servers may employ transclusion to reduce redundant transmissions of commonly requested resources

A popular Front End Framework known as AngularJS developed and maintained by Google has a directive callend ng-transclude that marks the insertion point for the transcluded DOM of the nearest parent directive that uses transclusion

Server-side transclusion

Transclusion can be accomplished on the server side, as through Server Side Includes and markup entity references resolved by the server software It is a feature of substitution templates

Transclusion of source code

Transclusion of source code into software design or reference materials lets source code be presented within the document, but not interpreted as part of the document, preserving the semantic consistency of the inserted code in relation to its source codebase

See also

  • Compound document
  • Cross-reference
  • Darwin Information Typing Architecture DITA and content reuse
  • Macro
  • Object Linking and Embedding OLE
  • Publish and Subscribe Mac OS
  • Single source publishing
  • Subroutine

References

  1. ^ Glushko, Robert J, ed 2013 The Discipline of Organizing Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press p 231 ISBN 9780262518505 
  2. ^ Theodor H Nelson, "A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing and the Indeterminate" Proceedings of the ACM 20th National Conference 1965, pp 84-100
  3. ^ The Little Transquoter Xanaducomau
  4. ^ "AngularJS" docsangularjsorg Retrieved 2016-08-11 
  5. ^ "XPointer Patent Statements" World Wide Web Consortium

Further reading

  • Di Iorio, A; Vitali, F August 2003 "A Xanalogical Collaborative Editing Environment" PDF Proceedings of the Second International Workshop of Web Document Analysis 2003 WDA2003 Edinburgh, UK 
  • Kolbitsch, J; Maurer, H June 2006 "Transclusions in an HTML-Based Environment" Journal of Computing and Information Technology 14 2: 161–174 doi:102498/cit20060207 
  • Kolbitsch, J June 2005 "Fine-Grained Transclusions of Multimedia Documents in HTML" Journal of Universal Computer Science 11
  • Krottmaier, H 2002 "Transcluded Documents: Advantages of Reusing Document Fragments" PDF Proceedings of the 6th International ICCC/IFIP Conference on Electronic Publishing ELPUB2002 Czech Republic: Karlovy Vary pp 359–367 
  • Krottmaier, H; D, Helic 2002 "Issues of Transclusions" PDF Proceedings of the World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, & Higher Education E-Learn 2002 Montreal, Canada pp 1730–1733 
  • Krottmaier, H; Maurer, H July 2001 "Transclusions in the 21st Century" PDF, HTML, PostScript Journal of Universal Computer Science 7 12: 1125–1136 
  • Moore, A; et al 2001 "Personally tailored teaching in WHURLE using conditional translucion" Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia Aarhus, Danmark pp 163–164 
  • Nelson, T H 1993 Literary Machines Mindful Press 
  • Nelson, T H 1995 "The Heart of Connection: Hypermedia Unified by Transclusion" Communications of the ACM 38 8: 31–33 doi:101145/208344208353 
  • Nelson, T H 1996 "Generalized Links, Micropayment and Transcopyright" Almaden Research Center 
  • Nelson, T H 1998 "Transcopyright: Pre-Permission for Virtual Republishing" 
  • Nelson, T H 1999 "Xanalogical Structure, Needed Now More than Ever: Parallel Documents, Deep Links to Content, Deep Versioning and Deep Re-Use" ACM Computing Surveys 31 4es: 33 doi:101145/345966346033 
  • Pam, A 1997 "Fine-Grained Transclusion in the Hypertext Markup Language" Text Internet Draft 
  • Wilde, E; Lowe, D 2002 "Chapter 7: XML Linking Language" XPath, XLink, XPointer, and XML: A Practical Guide to Web Hyperlinking and Transclusion Addison-Wesley Professional pp 169–198 

External links

  • Ted Nelson: Transclusion: Fixing Electronic Literature — on Google Tech Talks, 29 January 2007

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