Sat . 20 Aug 2020
TR | RU | UK | KK | BE |

Trail of Broken Treaties

trail of broken treaties, trail of broken treaties march
The Trail of Broken Treaties also known as the Trail of Broken Treaties Caravan and the Pan American Native Quest for Justice1 was a cross-country protest, that was staged in the autumn of 1972 in the United States by American Indian and First Nations organizations Designed to bring national attention to American Indian issues, such as treaty rights, living standards, and inadequate housing, it brought to the national capital the largest gathering ever of American Indians presenting their hopes

The eight organizations sponsoring the caravan included the American Indian Movement, the National Indian Brotherhood a Canadian organization, the Native American Rights Fund, the National Indian Youth Council, the National American Indian Council, the National Council on Indian Work, National Indian Leadership Training, and the American Indian Committee on Alcohol and Drug Abuse In Minneapolis, AIM headquarters, activists developed a Twenty-Point Position paper to define their demands2

The caravan began on the west coast of North America in October, with protesters traveling by car, bus, and van It reached the national capital of Washington, DC in early November the week before the day of the presidential election This was the largest gathering ever in the capital of American Indians wanting to meet with government to discuss their needs and negotiate a new relationship

The Nixon Administration refused to meet with the protesters to receive the Twenty-Point Position paper Protesters believed they had been doublecrossed and occupied the Department of Interior headquarters building, where Bureau of Indian Affairs national offices were located3 During their occupation, some protesters took out and destroyed records and deeds, burning papers in the building's corridors and lobbies, and vandalizing areas The stand-off ended after about a week, with presidential aides negotiating with protest leaders In these talks the federal government made concessions to the protesters, including further treaty negotiations3


  • 1 Summary of the Twenty-Point Position Paper
  • 2 Representation in other media
  • 3 Notes
  • 4 References
  • 5 External links

Summary of the Twenty-Point Position Paperedit

The following is a summary of the Twenty-Point Position Paper that was drawn up by the American Indians, including Hank Adams and Carter Camp, who participated in the Trail of Broken Treaties The paper was intended to assert the sovereignty of the Indian Nations2

  1. The United States Federal Government should retract the component of the 1871 Indian Appropriations Act which eliminated the power of the Indian Nations to contract constitutionally bound treaties with the US government
  2. The United States Federal Government should establish a Treaty Commission that will have the power to contract new treaties to ensure the future of the Indian Nations In addition, it should be established that no terms of existing treaties can be violated
  3. The Federal Government should pledge that they will meet with four American Indian representatives before June 2, 1974 in order to discuss the future of the Indian Nations The national media should be present for this meeting
  4. The President of the United States should establish a committee consisting of both Indians and non-Indians to examine treaty commitments and violations
  5. Treaties that have not been ratified should be presented to the Senate
  6. All American Indian peoples should be considered to be in treaty relations with the United States Federal Government
  7. The United States Federal Government should ensure that there is judicial enforcement and protection of the treaty rights of American Indians
  8. The United States Federal Government should provide a new system of federal court jurisdiction through which American Indians can address treaty or tribal rights This system of jurisdiction must apply both in cases between American Indians and between American Indians and non-Indians It is of utmost importance that leaders of the Indian Nations take part in the process of interpreting treaties
  9. The Congress of the United States should relinquish their control over Indian Affairs and instead create a joint committee This committee is to be called the “Committee on Reconstruction of Indian Relations and Programs” The members of the committee must be willing to commit significant amounts of their time to restructure Indian relations in America
  10. By July 4, 1976 the United States Federal Government should restore a permanent Native American land area of no less than 110 million acres 450,000 km2 This area should be perpetually non-taxable by the federal government In addition the Termination Acts of the 1950s and 1960s should be immediately repealed
  11. There should be a revision of 25 USC 163 This revision will call for all Indian rights to be restored to individuals that have lost them due to issues with enrollment In addition, American Indians must be able to qualify for membership in more than one tribe and not be prohibited from receiving dual benefits
  12. Congress must repeal state laws passed under the Public Law 280 PL280 allows for people not belonging to the Indian community to gain control over governing in reservation areas The law takes away American Indian’s ability to govern themselves without external conflict
  13. All violent offenses against Indians should be treated as federal crimes and the persons committing the crimes must face penalties under federal prosecution Congress should also create a national federal Indian grand jury This grand jury should consist only of Indians that are chosen by the President as well as by Indian people In addition this jury will have jurisdiction over non-Indian peoples living on Indian reservations
  14. The Bureau of Indian Affairs should be dismantled by 1976 and a new government structure that maintains Indian-Federal relations should be established
  15. The new structure that will replace the Bureau of Indian Affairs will be called the “Office of Federal Indian Relations and Community Reconstruction”
  16. The “Office of Federal Indian Relations and Community Reconstruction” will promote equality between the Indian Nations and the federal government and seek to remedy the wrongdoings of the federal government against the American Indians
  17. Congress should enact a statute that allows for trade, commerce, and transportation of Indians to remain outside the jurisdiction of the federal government American Indians within reservation areas should have immunity from federal and state taxation
  18. The United States government should recognize and protect the spiritual and cultural integrity of the Indian Nations
  19. Forms of Indian organization should be consolidated so as to regain the unification of the Indian Nations
  20. The United States Federal Government should focus on the improvement and creation of better housing, education, employment and economic development for the American Indians

Representation in other mediaedit

  • The documentary film Trudell, directed by Heather Rae, includes activist John Trudell discussing his part in the Trail Caravan, as well as the social context of the full action4


  1. ^ Trail of Broken Treaties, Alan C Downs, ABC-CLIO
  2. ^ a b "Trail of Broken Treaties 20-Point Position Paper - An Indian Manifesto" American Indian Movement 
  3. ^ a b Carter August Camp obituary, Ponca City News, Dec 30, 2013
  4. ^ Trudell, a documentary by Heather Rae on YouTube


  • Deloria, Vine, Jr 1974 Behind the Trail of Broken Treaties: An Indian Declaration of Independence New York: Delacorte Press

External linksedit

  • Trail of Broken Treaties Caravan page
  • Jason Heppler, Framing Red Power: Newspapers, the Trail of Broken Treaties, and the Politics of Media, an Internet history project, 2009-2016, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, includes links to extensive primary sources, including media
  • 30th Anniversary Memory, Indian Country Today, 2002

trail of broken treaties, trail of broken treaties 1972, trail of broken treaties 20 point position paper, trail of broken treaties caravan, trail of broken treaties history, trail of broken treaties little steven, trail of broken treaties march, trail of broken treaties outcome, trail of broken treaties protest, trail of broken treaties tdq text

Trail of Broken Treaties Information about

Trail of Broken Treaties

  • user icon

    Trail of Broken Treaties beatiful post thanks!


Trail of Broken Treaties
Trail of Broken Treaties
Trail of Broken Treaties viewing the topic.
Trail of Broken Treaties what, Trail of Broken Treaties who, Trail of Broken Treaties explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

Random Posts



A book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or...
Boston Renegades

Boston Renegades

Boston Renegades was an American women’s soccer team, founded in 2003 The team was a member of the U...
Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement

Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement

Sa Caleta Phoenician Settlement can be found on a rocky headland about 10 kilometers west of Ibiza T...

Bodybuildingcom is an American online retailer based in Boise, Idaho, specializing in dietary supple...