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Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

tractatus logico-philosophicus, tractatus logico-philosophicus by ludwig wittgenstein
The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus TLP Latin for "Logico-Philosophical Treatise" is the only book-length philosophical work published by the Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein in his lifetime The project had a broad aim – to identify the relationship between language and reality and to define the limits of science – and is recognized as a significant philosophical work of the twentieth century G E Moore originally suggested the work's Latin title as homage to the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus by Baruch Spinoza

Wittgenstein wrote the notes for the Tractatus while he was a soldier during World War I and completed it when a prisoner of war at Como and later Cassino in August 1918 It was first published in German in 1921 as Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung The Tractatus was influential chiefly amongst the logical positivists of the Vienna Circle, such as Rudolf Carnap and Friedrich Waismann Bertrand Russell's article "The Philosophy of Logical Atomism" is presented as a working out of ideas that he had learned from Wittgenstein

The Tractatus employs a notoriously austere and succinct literary style The work contains almost no arguments as such, but rather consists of declarative statements that are meant to be self-evident The statements are hierarchically numbered, with seven basic propositions at the primary level numbered 1–7, with each sub-level being a comment on or elaboration of the statement at the next higher level eg, 1, 11, 111, 112

Wittgenstein's later works, notably the posthumously published Philosophical Investigations, criticised many of the ideas in the Tractatus

Contents

  • 1 Main theses
    • 11 Proposition 1
    • 12 Propositions 2 and 3
    • 13 Propositions 4N to 5N
    • 14 Proposition 6N
    • 15 Proposition 7
    • 16 The picture theory
    • 17 Logical atomism
    • 18 Distinction between saying and showing
  • 2 Reception and influence
    • 21 Philosophical
    • 22 Artistic
  • 3 Editions
  • 4 Notes
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Main theses

There are seven main propositions in the text These are:

  1. The world is everything that is the case
  2. What is the case a fact is the existence of states of affairs
  3. A logical picture of facts is a thought
  4. A thought is a proposition with a sense
  5. A proposition is a truth-function of elementary propositions An elementary proposition is a truth-function of itself
  6. The general form of a proposition is the general form of a truth function, which is:[p¯,ξ¯,Nξ¯],,N] This is the general form of a proposition
  7. Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent

Proposition 1

The first chapter is very brief:

1 The world is all that is the case
11 The world is the totality of facts, not of things
111 The world is determined by the facts, and by their being all the facts
112 For the totality of facts determines what is the case, and also whatever is not the case
113 The facts in logical space are the world
12 The world divides into facts
121 Each item can be the case or not the case while everything else remains the same

This along with the beginning of two can be taken to be the relevant parts of Wittgenstein's metaphysical view that he will use to support his picture theory of language

Propositions 2 and 3

These sections concern Wittgenstein's view that the sensible, changing world we perceive does not consist of substance but of facts Proposition two begins with a discussion of objects, form and substance

2 What is the case—a fact—is the existence of atomic facts
201 An atomic fact is a combination of objects entities, things

This epistemic notion is further clarified by a discussion of objects or things as metaphysical substances

20141 The possibility of its occurrence in atomic facts is the form of an object
202 Objects are simple

2021 Objects make up the substance of the world That is why they cannot be composite

His use of 'composite' in 2021 can be taken to mean a combination of form and matter, in the Platonic sense

The notion of a static unchanging Form and its identity with Substance represents the metaphysical view that has come to be held as an assumption by the vast majority of the Western philosophical tradition since Plato and Aristotle, as it was something they agreed on "…what is called a form or a substance is not generated" Z8 1033b13 The opposing view states that unalterable Form does not exist, or at least if there is such a thing, it contains an ever changing, relative substance in a constant state of flux Although this view was held by Greeks like Heraclitus, it has existed only on the fringe of the Western tradition since then It is commonly known now only in "Eastern" metaphysical views where the primary concept of substance is Qi, or something similar, which persists through and beyond any given Form The former view is shown to be held by Wittgenstein in what follows

2024 The substance is what subsists independently of what is the case
2025 It is form and content

2026 There must be objects, if the world is to have unalterable form
2027 Objects, the unalterable, and the substantial are one and the same
20271 Objects are what is unalterable and substantial; their configuration is what is changing and unstable

Although Wittgenstein largely disregarded Aristotle Ray Monk's biography suggests that he never read Aristotle at all it seems that they shared some anti-Platonist views on the universal/particular issue regarding primary substances He attacks universals explicitly in his Blue Book "The idea of a general concept being a common property of its particular instances connects up with other primitive, too simple, ideas of the structure of language It is comparable to the idea that properties are ingredients of the things which have the properties; eg that beauty is an ingredient of all beautiful things as alcohol is of beer and wine, and that we therefore could have pure beauty, unadulterated by anything that is beautiful"

And Aristotle agrees:"The universal cannot be a substance in the manner in which an essence is…" Z13 1038b17 as he begins to draw the line and drift away from the concepts of universal Forms held by his teacher Plato

The concept of Essence, taken alone is a potentiality, and its combination with matter is its actuality "First, the substance of a thing is peculiar to it and does not belong to any other thing" Z13 1038b10, ie not universal and we know this is essence This concept of form/substance/essence, which we've now collapsed into one, being presented as potential is also, apparently, held by Wittgenstein:

2033 Form is the possibility of structure
2034 The structure of a fact consists of the structures of states of affairs
204 The totality of existing states of affairs is the world

2063 The sum-total of reality is the world

Here ends what Wittgenstein deems to be the relevant points of his metaphysical view and he begins in 21 to use said view to support his Picture Theory of Language "The Tractatus's notion of substance is the modal analogue of Kant's temporal notion Whereas for Kant, substance is that which 'persists,' ie, exists at all times, for Wittgenstein it is that which, figuratively speaking, 'persists' through a 'space' of possible worlds" Whether the Aristotelian notions of substance came to Wittgenstein via Immanuel Kant, or via Bertrand Russell, or even whether Wittgenstein arrived at his notions intuitively, one cannot but see them

The further thesis of 2 & 3 and their subsidiary propositions is Wittgenstein’s picture theory of language This can be summed up as follows:

  • The world consists of a totality of interconnected atomic facts, and propositions make "pictures" of the world
  • In order for a picture to represent a certain fact it must in some way possess the same logical structure as the fact The picture is a standard of reality In this way, linguistic expression can be seen as a form of geometric projection, where language is the changing form of projection but the logical structure of the expression is the unchanging geometric relationships
  • We cannot say with language what is common in the structures, rather it must be shown, because any language we use will also rely on this relationship, and so we cannot step out of our language with language

Propositions 4N to 5N

The 4s are significant as they contain some of Wittgenstein's most explicit statements concerning the nature of philosophy and the distinction between what can be said and what can only be shown It is here, for instance, that he first distinguishes between material and grammatical propositions, noting:

4003 Most of the propositions and questions to be found in philosophical works are not false but nonsensical Consequently we cannot give any answer to questions of this kind, but can only point out that they are nonsensical Most of the propositions and questions of philosophers arise from our failure to understand the logic of our language They belong to the same class as the question whether the good is more or less identical than the beautiful And it is not surprising that the deepest problems are in fact not problems at all

A philosophical treatise attempts to say something where nothing can properly be said It is predicated upon the idea that philosophy should be pursued in a way analogous to the natural sciences; that philosophers are looking to construct true theories This sense of philosophy does not coincide with Wittgenstein's conception of philosophy

41 Propositions represent the existence and non-existence of states of affairs
411 The totality of true propositions is the whole of natural science or the whole corpus of the natural sciences
4111 Philosophy is not one of the natural sciences The word "philosophy" must mean something whose place is above or below the natural sciences, not beside them
4112 Philosophy aims at the logical clarification of thoughts Philosophy is not a body of doctrine but an activity A philosophical work consists essentially of elucidations Philosophy does not result in "philosophical propositions", but rather in the clarification of propositions Without philosophy thoughts are, as it were, cloudy and indistinct:its task is to make them clear and to give them sharp boundaries

4113 Philosophy sets limits to the much disputed sphere of natural science
4114 It must set limits to what can be thought; and, in doing so, to what cannot be thought It must set limits to what cannot be thought by working outwards through what can be thought
4115 It will signify what cannot be said, by presenting clearly what can be said

Wittgenstein is to be credited with the invention or at least the popularization of truth tables 431 and truth conditions 4431 which now constitute the standard semantic analysis of first-order sentential logic The philosophical significance of such a method for Wittgenstein was that it alleviated a confusion, namely the idea that logical inferences are justified by rules If an argument form is valid, the conjunction of the premises will be logically equivalent to the conclusion and this can be clearly seen in a truth table; it is displayed The concept of tautology is thus central to Wittgenstein's Tractarian account of logical consequence, which is strictly deductive

513 When the truth of one proposition follows from the truth of others, we can see this from the structure of the propositions
5131 If the truth of one proposition follows from the truth of others, this finds expression in relations in which the forms of the propositions stand to one another:nor is it necessary for us to set up these relations between them, by combining them with one another in a single proposition; on the contrary, the relations are internal, and their existence is an immediate result of the existence of the propositions

5132 If p follows from q, I can make an inference from q to p, deduce p from q The nature of the inference can be gathered only from the two propositions They themselves are the only possible justification of the inference "Laws of inference", which are supposed to justify inferences, as in the works of Frege and Russell, have no sense, and would be superfluous

Proposition 6N

At the beginning of Proposition 6, Wittgenstein postulates the essential form of all sentences He uses the notation [p¯,ξ¯,Nξ¯],,N], where

  • p¯ stands for all atomic propositions,
  • ξ¯ stands for any subset of propositions, and
  • Nξ¯ stands for the negation of all propositions making up ξ¯

What proposition 6 really says is that any logical sentence can be derived from a series of NOR operations on the totality of atomic propositions This is in fact a well-known logical theorem produced by Henry M Sheffer, of which Wittgenstein makes use Sheffer's result was, however, restricted to the propositional calculus, and so, of limited significance Wittgenstein's N-operator is however an infinitary analogue of the Sheffer stroke, which applied to a set of propositions produces a proposition that is equivalent to the denial of every member of that set Wittgenstein shows that this operator can cope with the whole of predicate logic with identity, defining the quantifiers at 552, and showing how identity would then be handled at 553-5532

The subsidiaries of 6 contain more philosophical reflections on logic, connecting to ideas of knowledge, thought, and the a priori and transcendental The final passages argue that logic and mathematics express only tautologies and are transcendental, ie they lie outside of the metaphysical subject’s world In turn, a logically "ideal" language cannot supply meaning, it can only reflect the world, and so, sentences in a logical language cannot remain meaningful if they are not merely reflections of the facts

In the final pages, Wittgenstein veers towards what might be seen as religious considerations This is founded on the gap between propositions 65 and 64 A logical positivist might accept the propositions of the Tractatus before 64 But 651 and the succeeding propositions argue that ethics is also transcendental, and thus we cannot examine it with language, as it is a form of aesthetics and cannot be expressed He begins talking of the will, life after death, and God In his examination of these issues he argues that all discussion of them is a misuse of logic Specifically, since logical language can only reflect the world, any discussion of the mystical, that which lies outside of the metaphysical subject's world, is meaningless This suggests that many of the traditional domains of philosophy, eg ethics and metaphysics, cannot in fact be discussed meaningfully Any attempt to discuss them immediately loses all sense This also suggests that his own project of trying to explain language is impossible for exactly these reasons He suggests that the project of philosophy must ultimately be abandoned for those logical practices which attempt to reflect the world, not what is outside of it The natural sciences are just such a practice, he suggests

At the very end of the text he borrows an analogy from Arthur Schopenhauer, and compares the book to a ladder that must be thrown away after one has climbed it

Proposition 7

As the last line in the book, proposition 7 has no supplementary propositions It ends the book with the proposition "Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent" „Wovon man nicht sprechen kann, darüber muss man schweigen"

Both the first and the final proposition have acquired something of a proverbial quality in German, employed as aphorisms independently of discussion of Wittgenstein

The picture theory

A prominent view set out in the Tractatus is the picture theory The picture theory is a proposed description of the relation of representation:p44 This view is sometimes called the picture theory of language, but Wittgenstein discusses various representational picturing relationships, including non-linguistic "pictures" such as photographs and sculptures TLP 21–2225

According to the theory, propositions can "picture" the world, and thus accurately represent it If someone thinks the proposition, "There is a tree in the yard," then that proposition accurately pictures the world if and only if there is a tree in the yard:p53 If there is no tree in the yard, the proposition does not accurately picture the world Although something need not be a proposition to represent something in the world, Wittgenstein was largely concerned with the way propositions function as representations

Wittgenstein was inspired for this theory by the way that traffic courts in Paris reenact automobile accidents:p35 A toy car is a representation of a real car, a toy truck is a representation of a real truck, and dolls are representations of people In order to convey to a judge what happened in an automobile accident, someone in the courtroom might place the toy cars in a position like the position the real cars were in, and move them in the ways that the real cars moved In this way, the elements of the picture the toy cars are in spatial relation to one another, and this relation itself pictures the spatial relation between the real cars in the automobile accident:p45

When writing about these picturing situations, Wittgenstein used the word "Bild," which may be translated as "picture" or "model" Although the theory is commonly known as the "picture" theory, "model" is probably a more appropriate way of thinking of what Wittgenstein meant by "Bild"

Pictures have what Wittgenstein calls Form der Abbildung, or pictorial form, in virtue of their being similar to what they picture The fact that the toy car has four wheels, for example, is part of its pictorial form, because the real car had four wheels The fact that the toy car is significantly smaller than the real car is part of its representational form, or the differences between the picture and what it pictures, which Wittgenstein is interpreted to mean by Form der Darstellung :p46

This picturing relationship, Wittgenstein believed, was our key to understanding the relationship a proposition holds to the world We can't see a proposition like we can a toy car, yet he believed a proposition must still have a pictorial form:p47

The pictorial form of a proposition is best captured in the pictorial form of a thought, as thoughts consist only of pictorial form This pictorial form is logical structure :p48

Wittgenstein believed that the parts of the logical structure of thought must somehow correspond to words as parts of the logical structure of propositions, although he did not know exactly how Here, Wittgenstein ran into a problem he acknowledged widely:we cannot think about a picture outside of its representational form Recall that part of the representational form of toy cars is their size—specifically, the fact that they are necessarily smaller than the actual cars Just so, a picture cannot express its own pictorial form

One outcome of the picture theory is that an a priori true thought does not exist Truth comes from the accurate representation of a state of affairs ie, some aspect of the real world by a picture ie, a proposition "The totality of true thoughts is a picture of the world TLP 301" Thus without holding a proposition up against the real world, we cannot tell whether the proposition is true or false

Logical atomism

Although Wittgenstein did not use the term himself, his metaphysical view throughout the Tractatus is commonly referred to as logical atomism While his logical atomism resembles that of Bertrand Russell, the two views are not strictly the same:p58

Russell's theory of descriptions is a way of logically analyzing objects in a meaningful way regardless of that object's existence According to the theory, a statement like "There is a man to my left" is made meaningful by analyzing it into:"There is some x such that x is a man and x is to my left, and for any y, if y is a man and y is to my left, y is identical to x" If the statement is true, x refers to the man to my left

Whereas Russell believed the names like x in his theory should refer to things we can know epistemically, Wittgenstein thought they should refer to the "objects" that make up his metaphysics:p63

By objects, Wittgenstein did not mean physical objects in the world, but the absolute base of logical analysis, that can be combined but not divided TLP 202–20201 According to Wittgenstein's logico-atomistic metaphysical system, objects each have a "nature," which is their capacity to combine with other objects When combined, objects form "states of affairs" A state of affairs that obtains is a "fact" Facts make up the entirety of the world Facts are logically independent of one another, as are states of affairs That is, one state of affair's or fact's existence does not allow us to infer whether another state of affairs or fact exists or does not exist:pp58–59

Within states of affairs, objects are in particular relations to one another:p59 This is analogous to the spatial relations between toy cars discussed above The structure of states of affairs comes from the arrangement of their constituent objects TLP 2032, and such arrangement is essential to their intelligibility, just as the toy cars must be arranged in a certain way in order to picture the automobile accident

A fact might be thought of as the obtaining state of affairs that Madison is in Wisconsin, and a possible but not obtaining state of affairs might be Madison's being in Utah These states of affairs are made up of certain arrangements of objects TLP 2023 However, Wittgenstein does not specify what objects are Madison, Wisconsin, and Utah cannot be atomic objects:they are themselves composed of numerous facts Instead, Wittgenstein believed objects to be the things in the world that would correlate to the smallest parts of a logically analyzed language, such as names like x Our language is not sufficiently ie, not completely analyzed for such a correlation, so one cannot say what an object is:p60 We can, however, talk about them as "indestructible" and "common to all possible worlds" Wittgenstein believed that the philosopher's job was to discover the structure of language through analysis:p38

Anthony Kenny provides a useful analogy for understanding Wittgenstein's logical atomism:a slightly modified game of chess:pp60–61 Just like objects in states of affairs, the chess pieces do not alone constitute the game—their arrangements, together with the pieces objects themselves, determine the state of affairs

Through Kenny's chess analogy, we can see the relationship between Wittgenstein's logical atomism and his picture theory of representation:p61 For the sake of this analogy, the chess pieces are objects, they and their positions constitute states of affairs and therefore facts, and the totality of facts is the entire particular game of chess

We can communicate such a game of chess in the exact way that Wittgenstein says a proposition represents the world We might say "WR/KR1" to communicate a white rook's being on the square commonly labeled as king's rook 1 Or, to be more thorough, we might make such a report for every piece's position

The logical form of our reports must be the same logical form of the chess pieces and their arrangement on the board in order to be meaningful Our communication about the chess game must have as many possibilities for constituents and their arrangement as the game itself Kenny points out that such logical form need not strictly resemble the chess game The logical form can be had by the bouncing of a ball for example, twenty bounces might communicate a white rook's being on the king's rook 1 square One can bounce a ball as many times as one wishes, which means the ball's bouncing has "logical multiplicity," and can therefore share the logical form of the game:p62 A motionless ball cannot communicate this same information, as it does not have logical multiplicity

Distinction between saying and showing

According to the picture theory, when a proposition is thought or expressed, each of its constituent parts correspond if the proposition is true to some aspect of the world However, the correspondence itself is something Wittgenstein believed we could not say anything about We can say that there is correspondence, but the correspondence itself can only be shown:p56

His logico-atomistic metaphysical view led Wittgenstein to believe that we could not say anything about the relationship that pictures bear to what they picture Thus the picture theory allows us to be shown that some things can be said while others are shown:p40 Our language is not sufficient for expressing its own logical structure:p47 Wittgenstein believed that the philosopher's job was to discover the structure of language through analysis

Something sayable must have content that is fully intelligible to a person without that person's knowing if it is true or false In the case of something's inability to be said, such as the logical structure of language, it can only be shown A proposition can say something, such as "George is tall," but it cannot express say this function of itself It can only show that it says that George is tall

Reception and influence

Philosophical

Wittgenstein concluded that the Tractatus had resolved all philosophical problems

The book was translated into English by C K Ogden with help from the teenaged Cambridge mathematician and philosopher Frank P Ramsey Ramsey later visited Wittgenstein in Austria Translation issues make the concepts hard to pinpoint, especially given Wittgenstein's usage of terms and difficulty in translating ideas into words

The Tractatus caught the attention of the philosophers of the Vienna Circle 1921–1933, especially Rudolf Carnap and Moritz Schlick The group spent many months working through the text out loud, line by line Schlick eventually convinced Wittgenstein to meet with members of the circle to discuss the Tractatus when he returned to Vienna he was then working as an architect Although the Vienna Circle's logical positivists appreciated the Tractatus, they argued that the last few passages, including Proposition 7, are confused Carnap hailed the book as containing important insights, but encouraged people to ignore the concluding sentences Wittgenstein responded to Schlick, commenting:"I cannot imagine that Carnap should have so completely misunderstood the last sentences of the book and hence the fundamental conception of the entire book"

30321 Though a state of affairs that would contravene the laws of physics can be represented by us spatially, one that would contravene the laws of geometry cannot

A more recent interpretation comes from the New Wittgenstein family of interpretations under development since 2000 This so-called "resolute reading" is controversial and much debated The main contention of such readings is that Wittgenstein in the Tractatus does not provide a theoretical account of language that relegates ethics and philosophy to a mystical realm of the unsayable Rather, the book has a therapeutic aim By working through the propositions of the book the reader comes to realize that language is perfectly suited to all his needs, and that philosophy rests on a confused relation to the logic of our language The confusion that the Tractatus seeks to dispel is not a confused theory, such that a correct theory would be a proper way to clear the confusion, rather the need of any such theory is confused The method of the Tractatus is to make the reader aware of the logic of our language as he is already familiar with it, and the effect of thereby dispelling the need for a theoretical account of the logic of our language spreads to all other areas of philosophy Thereby the confusion involved in putting forward eg ethical and metaphysical theories is cleared in the same coup

Wittgenstein would not meet the Vienna Circle proper, but only a few of its members, including Schlick, Carnap, and Waissman Often, though, he refused to discuss philosophy, and would insist on giving the meetings over to reciting the poetry of Rabindranath Tagore with his chair turned to the wall He largely broke off formal relations even with these members of the circle after coming to believe Carnap had used some of his ideas without permission

Alfred Korzybski credits Wittgenstein as an influence in his book, Science and Sanity:An Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics

Artistic

The Tractatus was the theme of a 1992 film by the Hungarian filmmaker Peter Forgacs The 32-minute production, named Wittgenstein Tractatus, features citations from the Tractatus and other works by Wittgenstein

In 1989 the Finnish artist M A Numminen released a black vinyl album, The Tractatus Suite, consisting of extracts from the Tractatus set to music, on the Forward! label GN-95 The tracks were"The World is","In order to tell","A thought is","A proposition is","The general form of a truth-function", and"Wovon man nicht sprechen kann" It was recorded at Finnvox Studios, Helsinki between February and June 1989 The "lyrics" were provided in German, English, Esperanto, French, Finnish and Swedish The music was reissued as a CD in 2003, MA Numminen sings Wittgenstein

Editions

The Tractatus is the English translation of:

  • Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung, Wilhelm Ostwald ed, Annalen der Naturphilosophie, 14 1921

A notable German Edition of the works of Wittgenstein is:

  • Werkausgabe Vol 1 includes the Tractatus Frankfurt am Main:Suhrkamp Verlag

Both English translations of the Tractatus include an introduction by Bertrand Russell Wittgenstein revised the Ogden translation

  • C K Ogden 1922, prepared with assistance from G E Moore, F P Ramsey, and Wittgenstein Routledge & Kegan Paul, parallel edition including the German text on the facing page to the English text:1981 printing:ISBN 0-415-05186-X, 1999 Dover reprint
  • David Pears and Brian McGuinness 1961, Routledge, hardcover:ISBN 0-7100-3004-5, 1974 paperback:ISBN 0-415-02825-6, 2001 hardcover:ISBN 0-415-25562-7, 2001 paperback:ISBN 0-415-25408-6

A manuscript version of the Tractatus, dubbed and published as the Prototractatus, was discovered in 1965 by Georg Henrik von Wright

Notes

  1. ^ TLP 4113
  2. ^ Nils-Eric Sahlin, The Philosophy of F P Ramsey 1990, p 227
  3. ^ Monk p158
  4. ^ Bertrand Russell 1918, "The Philosophy of Logical Atomism" The Monist p 177, as published, for example in Bertrand Russell Robert Charles Marsh ed Logic and Knowledge Accessed 2010-01-29
  5. ^ a b c Aristotle's Metaphysics:© 1979 by HG Apostle Peripatetic Press Des Moines, Iowa Online translation:http://classicsmitedu/Aristotle/metaphysics7viihtml
  6. ^ "Blue Book on Universals citation" Blacksacademynet Retrieved 2011-12-10 
  7. ^ "Wittgenstein's Logical Atomism Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy" Platostanfordedu Retrieved 2011-12-10 
  8. ^ Grayling, AC Wittgenstein:A Very Short Introduction, Oxford
  9. ^ Kneale, M & Kneale, W 1962, The Development of Logic
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj Kenny 2005
  11. ^ a b c d e f Stern 1995
  12. ^ Kenny 2005:p47 Might need an additional citation here
  13. ^ "Descriptions Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy" Platostanfordedu Retrieved 2011-12-10 
  14. ^ Biletzki, Anat & Matar, Anat 2002-11-08 "Ludwig Wittgenstein" Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://platostanfordedu/entries/wittgenstein/#Bio:Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Editorial Board 
  15. ^ Richard H Popkin November 1985, "Philosophy and the History of Philosophy", Journal of Philosophy, 82 11:625–632, doi:102307/2026418, JSTOR 2026418, Many who knew Wittgenstein report that he found it extremely difficult to put his ideas into words and that he had many special usages of terms 
  16. ^ Conant, James F "Putting Two and Two Together:Kierkegaard, Wittgenstein and the Point of View for Their Works as Authors", in Philosophy and the Grammar of Religious Belief 1995, ed Timothy Tessin and Marion von der Ruhr, St Martins Press, ISBN 0-312-12394-9
  17. ^ Crary, Alice M and Rupert Read eds The New Wittgenstein, Routledge, 2000
  18. ^ Hintikka 2000, p 55 cites Wittgenstein's accusation of Carnap upon receiving a 1932 preprint from Carnap
  19. ^ http://wwwgeneralsemanticsorg/store/all-books/56-science-and-sanity-an-introduction-to-non-aristotelian-systems-and-general-semanticshtml
  20. ^ "MA Numminen – The Tractatus Suite" Discogscom Retrieved 16 March 2015 
  21. ^ Numminen, M A 2003 "M A Numminen Sings Wittgenstein EFA SP 142" Zweitausendeins  Missing or empty |url= help
  22. ^ a b R W Newell January 1973, "Reviewed Works:Prototractatus, an Early Version of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus", Philosophy, 48 183:97–99, doi:101017/s0031819100060514, ISSN 0031-8191, JSTOR 3749717 

References

  • Philosophy portal
  • Hintikka, Jaakko 2000, On Wittgenstein, ISBN 0-534-57594-3 
  • Kenny, Anthony 2005, Wittgenstein, Williston, VT:Wiley-Blackwell 
  • McManus, Denis 2006, The Enchantment of Words:Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Oxford:Oxford University Press 
  • Stern, David G 1995, Wittgenstein on Mind and Language, Oxford:Oxford University Press 
  • Ray Monk, Ludwig Wittgenstein, the Duty of Genius, Jonathan Cape, 1990
  • Zalabardo, José 2015 Representation and Reality in Wittgenstein's Tractatus Oxford University Press ISBN 9780198743941 

External links

Online English versions

  • Umassedu, Contains German, and Ogden and Pears & McGuinness translations side-by-side-by-side
  • Gutenbergorg Ogden translation
  • TractatusLogico-Philosophicus As a hierarchically nested document
  • Philosurficalopenacuk Research software tool aimed at facilitating the study of the Tractatus The text is available in German and in both English translations Ogden & Pears-McGuinness
  • Graphical tabs-centered version of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus based on Pears & McGuinness translation
  • LibriVox audiobook version of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus Ogden translation Version 1
  • LibriVox audiobook version of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus Ogden translation Version 2
  • Tree-like version of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus Ogden translation

Online German versions

  • Tractatus-Onlineappspotcom
  • Hochholzerinfo
  • TractatusNet
  • KFSorg, Ogden translation incomplete
  • Philosurficalopenacuk

Online English-German version

  • Project TLP Ogden translation / Data visualization graphs

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Antelope County is the county located in the state of Nebraska of the United States with a populatio
Troitsky District (Altai Territory)

Troitsky District (Altai Territory)

Russia RussiaStatusMunicipal districtIncluded in the Altai Territory and the Administrative Ce
Bolshakovo (Chelyabinsk region)

Bolshakovo (Chelyabinsk region)

Bolshakovo is a village in the Chebarkulsky district of the Chelyabinsk region of Russia. It is a pa
Pashayev, Arif Mir-Jalal oglu

Pashayev, Arif Mir-Jalal oglu

February 15, 1934 (1934-02-15) (81 year)Place of birth: Baku Country: Science field: Radiofiz