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Toulouse

toulouse, toulouse lautrec
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² 0386 sq mi or 247 acres and river estuaries

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes eg, students and military personnel only counted once

Toulouse UK /tuːˈluːz/; French pronunciation:  locally: ; Occitan: Tolosa , Latin: Tolosa is the capital city of the southwestern French department of Haute-Garonne, as well as of the Occitanie region It lies on the banks of the River Garonne, 150 kilometres 93 miles from the Mediterranean Sea, 230 km 143 mi from the Atlantic Ocean, and 680 km 420 mi from Paris It is the fourth-largest city in France with 458,298 inhabitants in January 2013 Moreover, with 1,291,517 inhabitants at the January 2013 census, the Toulouse metropolitan area is also the fourth-largest in France, after Paris 123 million, Lyon 22 million and Marseille 17 million

Toulouse is the centre of the European aerospace industry, with the headquarters of Airbus, the Galileo positioning system, the SPOT satellite system, the Airbus Group former EADS, ATR and the Aerospace Valley

The city also hosts the European headquarters of Intel and CNES's Toulouse Space Centre CST, the largest space centre in Europe Thales Alenia Space, and Astrium Satellites, Airbus Group's satellite system subsidiary, also have a significant presence in Toulouse Its world-renowned university is one of the oldest in Europe founded in 1229 and, with more than 103,000 students, is the fourth-largest university campus of France after Paris, Lyon and Lille

The air route between Toulouse Blagnac and Paris Orly is the busiest in Europe, transporting 24 million passengers in 2014 According to the rankings of L'Express and Challenges, Toulouse is the most dynamic French city

The city was the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom in the 5th century and the capital of the province of Languedoc in the late Middle Ages and early modern period provinces were abolished during the French Revolution, making it the unofficial capital of the cultural region of Occitania Southern France It is now the capital of the Occitanie region, the largest region in metropolitan France

A city with unique architecture made of pinkish terracotta bricks, which earned it the nickname la Ville Rose "the Pink City", Toulouse counts two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Canal du Midi designated in 1996 and shared with other cities, and the Basilica of St Sernin, the largest remaining Romanesque building in Europe, designated in 1998 because of its significance to the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route

Contents

  • 1 Geography
    • 11 Hydrography
    • 12 Climate
  • 2 History
    • 21 Early history
    • 22 County of Toulouse
    • 23 Within the Kingdom of France
    • 24 Within the French Republic
  • 3 Population
  • 4 Government and politics
    • 41 Community of the Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse
    • 42 Local politics
    • 43 Mayors
  • 5 Sights
    • 51 Religious buildings
  • 6 Economy
  • 7 Education
    • 71 Colleges and universities
    • 72 Primary and secondary schools
  • 8 Transport
    • 81 Metro
    • 82 Train
    • 83 Tramway
    • 84 Bicycle
    • 85 Airports
  • 9 Communications
  • 10 Culture
  • 11 Sport
  • 12 Notable people linked with Toulouse
  • 13 International relations
    • 131 Twin towns and sister cities
    • 132 Other cooperations
  • 14 Literature
  • 15 See also
  • 16 References
    • 161 Bibliography
  • 17 External links

Geography

Toulouse is in the south of France, north of the department of Haute-Garonne, on the axis of communication between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean

Toulouse
Average max and min temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Average max and min temperatures in °F

Hydrography

The city is traversed by the Canal de Brienne, the Canal du Midi and the rivers Garonne, Touch and Hers-Mort

Climate

Toulouse has a humid subtropical climate Cfa in the Koeppen climate classification Though the city lies near the Mediterranean climate zone, its uniform precipitation maintains its Cfa classification

Climate data for Toulouse 1981–2010 averages and records 1882–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C °F 212
702
221
718
271
808
300
86
334
921
398
1036
402
1044
407
1053
353
955
308
874
243
757
211
70
407
1053
Average high °C °F 95
491
111
52
145
581
170
626
210
698
252
774
280
824
279
822
246
763
195
671
133
559
99
498
185
653
Daily mean °C °F 59
426
70
446
97
495
119
534
159
606
196
673
220
716
219
714
189
66
149
588
95
491
65
437
136
565
Average low °C °F 24
363
30
374
50
41
71
448
109
516
143
577
165
617
165
617
134
561
105
509
58
424
32
378
91
484
Record low °C °F −170
14
−192
−26
−84
169
−30
266
−08
306
40
392
76
457
55
419
19
354
−30
266
−75
185
−120
104
−192
−26
Average precipitation mm inches 513
202
416
1638
491
1933
696
274
740
2913
603
2374
377
1484
468
1843
474
1866
570
2244
511
2012
524
2063
6383
2513
Average precipitation days 92 78 86 96 99 71 50 61 65 81 92 86 957
Average snowy days 21 20 10 02 00 00 00 00 00 00 06 16 75
Average relative humidity % 87 82 77 76 76 72 68 71 74 81 85 88 781
Mean monthly sunshine hours 925 1150 1751 1861 2092 2276 2526 2388 2040 1492 960 853 2,0313
Source #1: Météo France
Source #2: Infoclimatfr humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990

History

Main articles: History of Toulouse and Timeline of Toulouse Vomitorium at the Roman amphitheatre in Toulouse

Early history

The Garonne Valley was a focal point for trade between the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean and the Atlantic since at least the Iron Age The historical name of the city, Tolosa Τώλοσσα in Greek, and of its inhabitants, the Tolosates, first recorded in the 2nd century BC, it is of unknown meaning or origin, possibly from Aquitanian, or from Iberian, but has also been connected to the name of the Gaulish Volcae Tectosages

Tolosa enters the historical period in the 2nd century BC, when it became a Roman military outpost After the conquest of Gaul, it was developed as a Roman city of Gallia Narbonensis In the 5th century, Tolosa fell to the Visigothic kingdom and became one of its major cities, in the early 6th century even serving as its capital, before it fell to the Franks under Clovis in 507 Battle of Vouillé From this time, Toulouse was the capital of Aquitaine within the Frankish realm

In 721, Duke Odo of Aquitaine defeated an invading Umayyad Muslim army at the Battle of Toulouse Odo's victory was a small obstacle to Muslim expansion into Christian Europe, and Muslims finally occupied a large territory including Poitiers Charles Martel, a decade later, won the renowned Battle of Tours, also called the Battle of Poitiers

The Frankish conquest of Septimania followed in the 750s, and a quasi-independent County of Toulouse emerged within the Carolingian sub-kingdom of Aquitaine by the late 8th century The Battle of Toulouse of 844, pitting Charles the Bald against Pepin II of Aquitaine, was key in the Carolingian Civil War

County of Toulouse

Further information: County of Toulouse Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse was a leader of the First Crusade

During the Carolingian era, the town rose in status, becoming the capital of the County of Toulouse

In the 12th century, consuls took over the running of the town and these proved to be difficult years In particular, it was a time of religious turmoil In Toulouse, the Cathars tried to set up a community here, but were routed by Simon de Montfort's troops The subsequent arrival of the Inquisition led to a period of religious fervour during which time the Dominican Couvent des Jacobins was founded Governed by Raimond II and a group of city nobles, Toulouse's urban boundaries stretched beyond its walls to the north and as far south as Saint Michel

In the Treaty of Paris of 1229, Toulouse formally submitted to the crown of France The county's sole heiress Joan was engaged to Alphonse, Count of Poitiers, a younger brother of Louis IX of France The marriage became legal in 1241, but it remained childless so that after Joan's death the county fell to the crown of France by inheritance Also in 1229, University of Toulouse was established after the Parisian model, intended as a means to dissolve the heretic movement

Various monastic orders, like the congregation of the order of frères prêcheurs, were started They found home in Les Jacobins In parallel, a long period of inquisition began inside the Toulouse walls The fear of repression obliged the notabilities to exile, or to convert themselves The inquisition lasted nearly 400 years, making Toulouse its capital Count Raimond VII was convicted of heresy and died in 1249 without an heir

Within the Kingdom of France

In 1271, Toulouse was incorporated into the kingdom of France and declared a "royal city" With this accolade, it started to transform itself into an intellectual and artistic centre In 1323 the Consistori del Gay Saber was established in Toulouse to preserve the lyric art of the troubadours Toulouse became the centre of Occitan literary culture for the next hundred years; the Consistori was last active in 1484

But the 14th century was to mark a downturn in the city's fortunes First came a pogrom against Toulouse's Jewish population by Crusaders in 1320, then, in 1348, the Black Death, then the Hundred Years' War Famine and floods also took their toll on the city Despite strong immigration, the population lost 10,000 inhabitants in 70 years By 1405 Toulouse had only 19,000 people

It was not until the 15th century that Toulouse started to prosper Reinforcing its place as an administrative center, the city grew richer, participating in the trade of Bordeaux wine with England, as well as cereals and textiles A parliament was set up by Charles VII and the city's merchants grew ever wealthier Their economic well-being was mostly based on a plant-based blue dye known as pastel, made from woad, which they exported throughout Europe These pastel merchants built grand town houses and, before long, both architecture and the fine arts flourished in the city as never before

The bubble finally burst in the mid-16th century Another blue dye arrived from India, known as indigo It wiped out the pastel trade in one fell swoop Religious conflict broke out between the Catholics and the Protestant Calvinists At the same time, buildings were destroyed by fire and there were yet more outbreaks of famine and plague

The Capitole de Toulouse is an example of the 18th-century architectural projects in the city

In 1761, a Toulouse merchant, Jean Calas, was accused of murdering his own son to prevent his conversion to Catholicism Calas was put to death a year later Toulouse's persecution of Protestants such as Calas was widely condemned and religious intolerance did gradually disappear

During the remainder of the 18th century, the city was slowly modernised This included a period of urban rebuilding, which began in earnest from 1750 New projects included the building of the Jardin Royal The Grand Rond also dates to this period, along with the Canal de Brienne and the Quai Dillon

Within the French Republic

The Battle of Toulouse 1814 was one of the final battles of the Napoleonic Wars, four days after Napoleon's surrender of the French Empire to the nations of the Sixth Coalition Toulouse, the regional capital, proved stoutly defended by Marshal Soult

In 1856, the Matabiau Station was opened, launching a new age in transportation Other transport improvements included the widening of streets to form more spacious boulevards Gradually, Toulouse emerged as a modern French city

During the early decades of the 20th century, Toulouse witnessed the mass arrival of immigrants from northern France, Italy and Spain New industries were developed in the city, including aircraft and chemical manufacturing The French airmail service was set up here as well During the Second World War, Toulouse played a vital role in the Resistance movement

In the 1960s, a new wave of immigrants arrived in the city, this time from Algeria New homes were built and the city's boundaries were extended Toulouse's industry interests have more recently expanded to include space exploration and electronics Today, it is France's fourth-largest city

Population

Historical population
Urban Area Metropolitan
Area
1695 43,000
1750 48,000
1790 52,863
1801 50,171
1831 59,630
1851 95,277
1872 126,936
1911 149,000
1936 213,220
1946 264,411
1954 268,865
1962 329,044
1968 439,764 474,000
1975 509,939 585,000
1982 541,271 645,000
1990 650,336 797,373
1999 761,090 964,797
2006 851,947 1,169,865
2013 920,402 1,291,517

The population of the city proper French: commune was 458,298 at the January 2013 census, with 1,291,517 inhabitants in the metropolitan area within the 2010 borders of the metropolitan area, up from 1,169,865 at the January 2006 census within the same 2010 borders of the metropolitan area Thus, the metropolitan area registered a population growth rate of +134% per year between 2006 and 2011, the highest growth rate of any French metropolitan area larger than 500,000 inhabitants, although it is slightly lower than the growth rate registered between the 1999 and 2006 censuses

Toulouse is the fourth largest city in France, after Paris, Marseille and Lyon, and the fourth-largest metropolitan area after Paris, Lyon, and Marseille

Fueled by booming aerospace and high-tech industries, population growth of +149% a year in the metropolitan area in the 1990s compared with +037% for metropolitan France, and a record +187% a year in the early 2000s +068% for metropolitan France, which is the highest population growth of any French metropolitan area larger than 500,000 inhabitants, means the Toulouse metropolitan area overtook Lille as the fourth-largest metropolitan area of France at the 2006 census

A local Jewish group estimates there are about 2,500 Jewish families in Toulouse A Muslim association has estimated there are some 35,000 Muslims in town

Government and politics

Community of the Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse

Main article: Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse

The Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Communauté d'agglomération du Grand Toulouse was created in 2001 to better coordinate transport, infrastructure and economic policies between the city of Toulouse and its immediate independent suburbs It succeeds a previous district which had been created in 1992 with less powers than the current council It combines the city of Toulouse and 24 independent communes, covering an area of 380 km2 147 sq mi, totalling a population of 583,229 inhabitants as of 1999 census, 67% of whom live in the city of Toulouse proper As of February 2004 estimate, the total population of the Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse was 651,209 inhabitants, 655% of whom live in the city of Toulouse Due to local political feuds, the Community of Agglomeration only hosts 61% of the population of the metropolitan area, the other independent suburbs having refused to join in Since 2009, the Community of agglomeration has become an urban community in French: communauté urbaine

Local politics

The Capitole of Toulouse, and the square of the same name with the Occitan cross designed by Raymond Moretti on the ground The fountain in "Wilson Square" shows the poet Pèire Godolin

One of the major political figures in Toulouse was Dominique Baudis, the mayor of Toulouse between 1983 and 2001, member of the centrist UDF First known as a journalist famous for his coverage of the war in Lebanon, 36-year-old Dominique Baudis succeeded his father Pierre Baudis in 1983 as mayor of Toulouse Pierre Baudis was mayor from 1971 to 1983 The Baudis dynasty succeeded in turning Toulouse into a center-right stronghold, whereas historically the city had been left-leaning since the 19th century

During his time as mayor, Toulouse's economy and population boomed He tried to strengthen the international role of Toulouse such as its Airbus operations, as well as revive the cultural heritage of the city The Occitan cross, flag of Languedoc and symbol of the counts of Toulouse, was chosen as the new flag of the city, instead of the traditional coat of arms of Toulouse which included the fleur de lis of the French monarchy Many cultural institutions were created, in order to attract foreign expatriates and emphasise the city's past For example, monuments dating from the time of the counts of Toulouse were restored, the city's symphonic concert hall Halle aux Grains was refurbished, a city theater was built, a Museum of Modern Art was founded, the Bemberg Foundation European paintings and bronzes from the Renaissance to the 20th century was established, a huge pop music concert venue Zénith, the largest in France outside Paris was built, the space museum and educational park Cité de l'Espace was founded, etc

To deal with growth, major housing and transportation projects were launched Perhaps the one for which Baudis is most famous is the Toulouse Metro: line A of the underground was opened in 1993, and Baudis succeeded in having work started on line B which opened in 2007, despite strong local opposition to the anticipated costs The creation of a system of underground car parking structures in Toulouse city centre was sharply criticised by the Green Party

In 2000, Dominique Baudis was at the zenith of his popularity, with approval rates of 85% He announced that he would not run for a fourth 6-year term in 2001 He explained that with 3 terms he was already the longest-serving mayor of Toulouse since the French Revolution; he felt that change would be good for the city, and that the number of terms should be limited He endorsed Philippe Douste-Blazy, then UDF mayor of Lourdes as his successor Baudis has since been appointed president of the CSA Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel in Paris, the French equivalent of the American FCC

Philippe Douste-Blazy narrowly won in the 2001 elections, which saw the left making its best showing in decades Douste-Blazy had to deal with a reinvigorated political opposition, as well as with the dramatic explosion of the AZF plant in late 2001

In March 2004, he entered the national government, and left Toulouse in the hands of his second-in-command Jean-Luc Moudenc, elected mayor by the municipal council In March 2008, Moudenc was defeated by the Socialist Party's candidate Pierre Cohen

At the next elections in 2014 Moudenc defeated Cohen in a rematch to re-take the job with more than 52% of the votes

Mayors

Mayor Term start Term end   Party
Raymond Badiou 1944 September 1958 SFIO
G Carrère September 1958 16 October 1958 SFIO
Louis Bazerque 16 October 1958 1971 SFIO
Pierre Baudis March 1971 March 1983 UDF
Dominique Baudis March 1983 23 January 2001 UDF
Guy Hersant 23 January 2001 23 March 2001 UDF
Philippe Douste-Blazy 23 March 2001 30 April 2004 UDF
Françoise de Veyrinas 30 April 2004 6 May 2004 UMP
Jean-Luc Moudenc 6 May 2004 17 March 2008 UMP
Pierre Cohen 17 March 2008 4 April 2014 PS
Jean-Luc Moudenc 4 April 2014 incumbent UMP

Sights

Toulouse Cathedral

The Capitole de Toulouse mainly 18th century, houses the Hôtel de Ville, the Théâtre du Capitole opera house, and the Donjon du Capitole 16th century It is located on the Place du Capitole Cité de l'espace City of Space is a theme park of space exploration The Médiathèque José Cabanis is a library The Jardin des Plantes is a botanical garden Toulouse has many hôtel particulier palace, the most significant in Toulouse is the Hôtel d'Assézat

The Bazacle is a ford across the Garonne, built in the late 12th century and also used for hydroelectricty The river is crossed by the Pont Neuf from the 16th century

Religious buildings

Toulouse Cathedral is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toulouse Saint-Sernin Basilica, part of the Way of Saint James UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the largest Romanesque church in Europe It contains what is widely considered to be the most beautiful pipe organ in France The Daurade basilica, of the 18th–19th century, was founded as a temple to the Roman god Apollo before conversion to Christianity in 410 AD The Church of the Jacobins, French: Ensemble conventuel des Jacobins in Toulouse is the burial place of Saint Thomas Aquinas

Economy

The main Airbus factory in Blagnac, near Toulouse, lies next to Toulouse Airport

The main industries are aeronautics, space, electronics, information technology and biotechnology Toulouse hosts the Airbus headquarters and assembly-lines of Airbus A320, A330, A350 and A380 A320 lines also exist in Hamburg, Germany, Tianjin, China, and Mobile, Alabama, USA Airbus has its head office in Blagnac, near Toulouse Airbus's France division has its main office in Toulouse Toulouse also hosts the headquarters of ATR, Sigfox and Groupe Latécoère

Education

A typical "Pink City" street

Toulouse has the fourth-largest student population in France after Paris, Lyon and Lille with 103,000 students 2012

Colleges and universities

The University of Toulouse Université de Toulouse, established in 1229, is located here now split into three separate universities Like the universities in Oxford and Paris, the University of Toulouse was established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Arabs of Andalus and Greek philosophers These writings challenged European ideology—inspiring scientific discoveries and advances in the arts—as society began seeing itself in a new way These colleges were supported by the Church, in hopes of reconciling Greek philosophy and Christian theology

  • Catholic University of Toulouse
  • Université Toulouse I, Toulouse School of Economics and Institut d'études politiques de Toulouse
  • University of Toulouse II – Le Mirail
  • Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse III

Toulouse is also the home of Toulouse Business School TBS, Toulouse School of Economics TSE, the Institut supérieur européen de gestion group ISEG Group, the Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action ISEFAC, E-Artsup and several engineering schools:

  • ICAM Toulouse Institut catholique d'arts et métiers
  • INSA Toulouse
  • ISAE SUPAERO Institut supérieur de l'aéronautique et de l'espace
  • ENAC École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile
  • INP ENSEEIHT École Nationale Supérieure d'Électronique, d'Électrotechnique, d'Informatique, d'Hydraulique et des Télécommunications
  • INP ENSIACET École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs en art chimique et technologique
  • INP ENSAT 'École Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Toulouse
  • INP ENM École Nationale de la Météorologie
  • EPITECH École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies or European Institute of Information Technology
  • IPSA Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées
  • EIPurpan École d'ingénieurs de Purpan

According to the French newspaper "L'Etudiant", Toulouse is the best city in France to study, and according to the British company QS Quacquarelli Symonds, Toulouse is the 46th best student city in the world

Primary and secondary schools

The most well known high schools in Toulouse are Lycée Pierre-de-Fermat fr, Lycée Saint-Joseph and Lycée Saint-Sernin In 2012 a Jewish school was struck by an attack in which a rabbi, his two sons and the daughter of the school's director were murdered by Mohammed Merah

International schools serving area expatriates are in nearby Colomiers:

  • International School of Toulouse
  • Deutsche Schule Toulouse German school

Transport

Line A of the Toulouse Metro

Metro

In addition to an extensive bus system, the Toulouse Metro is a VAL Véhicule Automatique Léger metro system made up of driverless automatic rubber-tired trains Line A runs for 125 km 78 mi from Balma-Gramont in the north-east to Basso Cambo in the south-west Line B, which opened in June 2007, serves 20 stations north to south and intersects line A at Jean Jaurès

Train

The main railway station, with regional and national services, is Toulouse-Matabiau

Line C has existed since line A was completed It is not VAL but an urban railway line operated by SNCF It connects to line A at Arènes Two other stations located in Toulouse are also served by line C Lardenne, formerly named "Gare des Capelles", changed its name in September 2003 when line C opened Le TOEC station opened on 1 September 2003 with the creation of line C, allowing an urban train service in Toulouse and close western suburbs

Similarly, Line D runs south from Toulouse Matabiau to Muret

Tramway

The tramway line T1 operating since December 2010, runs from Beauzelle to Toulouse passing through Blagnac All urban bus, metro and tram services are operated by Tisséo Tramway line T2 is a branch of the first line serving notably Toulouse Blagnac airport

Bicycle

In 2007, a citywide bicycle rental scheme called VélôToulouse was introduced , with bicycles available from automated stations for a daily, weekly, monthly or yearly subscription

Airports

Airports include:

  • Toulouse Blagnac, the principal local airport
  • Toulouse Lasbordes

The Canal du Midi begins in Toulouse and runs up to Sète

Communications

Toulouse is the home of Bonhoure Radio Tower, a 61-metre high lattice tower used for FM and TV transmission In 2001 a large 100 km optical fiber symmetric 360Gbit/s network named Infrastructure Métropolitaine de Télécommunications was deployed around the city and suburbs

Culture

Musée des Augustins Tolosa, Occitania's capital, in occitan

The Théâtre du Capitole is the home of opera and ballet; there has been a theatre on the site since 1736 The Orchestre National du Capitole, long associated with Michel Plasson, plays at the Halle aux Grains

Le Château d'Eau, an old 19th-century water-tower, was converted as a gallery in 1974 by Jean Dieuzaide, a French photographer from Toulouse and is now one of the oldest public places dedicated to photography in the world Toulouse's art museums include the Musée des Augustins, the Musée des Abattoirs, the Musée Georges Labit, and the Fondation Bemberg in the Hôtel d'Assézat The Musée Saint-Raymond is devoted to Antiquity and the Muséum de Toulouse to natural history

Toulouse is the seat of the Académie des Jeux Floraux, the equivalent of the French Academy for the Occitan-speaking regions of southern France, making Toulouse the unofficial capital of Occitan culture The traditional Cross of Toulouse, emblem of the County of Toulouse and commonly widespread around all of Occitania during the Middle Ages is the symbol of the city and of the newly founded Midi-Pyrénées région, as well as a popular Occitan symbol

The city's gastronomic specialties include the Saucisse de Toulouse, a type of sausage, cassoulet Toulousain, a bean and pork stew, and garbure, a cabbage soup with poultry Also, foie gras, the liver of an overfed duck or goose, is a delicacy mainly made in the Midi-Pyrénées

Sport

Toulouse Olympique playing rugby league against Gateshead Thunder June 2009

Stade Toulousain of the Top 14 is considered one of the most successful rugby union clubs in all of Europe, having been crowned the Heineken Cup champions four times

Toulouse Olympique represents the city in rugby league, playing in the English/European 3rd tier League 1 from 2016

The city also has a professional football team, Toulouse FC, who play in Ligue 1, the highest level of football in France, and won the 1957 Coupe de France Final The club play at the Stadium Municipal, which was a venue during the 1998 FIFA World Cup and 2007 Rugby World Cup, as well as hosting important club rugby games and several Rugby League World Cups Toulouse was also a host of EuroBasket 1999

Notable people linked with Toulouse

Main category: People from Toulouse Bust of mathematician Pierre de Fermat in the Capitole de Toulouse

Several notable Toulousains have been scientists, such as Jean Dausset, 1980 winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; 17th-century mathematician Pierre de Fermat, who spent his life in Toulouse, where he wrote Fermat's Last Theorem and was a lawyer in the city's Parlement; Paul Sabatier, 1912 winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry; Albert Fert, 2007 winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics who grew up in Toulouse where he attended the Lycée Pierre-de-Fermat fr and Jean Tirole, owner of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, chairman and founder of the Toulouse School of Economics along with Jean-Jacques Laffont

Musically, Toulouse is one of the two controversial, disputed birthplaces of Carlos Gardel the other being Tacuarembo, Uruguay, probably the most prominent Argentine figure in the history of the tango The city's most renowned songwriter is Claude Nougaro

Concerning arts, Toulouse is the birthplace of Impressionist painter Henri Martin as well as sculptors Alexandre Falguière and Antonin Mercié Moreover, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Antoine Bourdelle were trained at the Toulouse fine arts school

Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, one of the leaders of the First Crusade, was born in Toulouse Aviation pioneer Clément Ader and psychiatrist Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol were also natives

International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France

Twin towns and sister cities

Toulouse is twinned with:

  • Atlanta, United States, since 1975
  • Bologna, Italy, since 1981
  • Elche, Spain, since 1981
  • Chongqing, China, since 1981
  • Kiev, Ukraine, since 1975
  • Tel Aviv, Israel, since 1962

Other cooperations

Toulouse also has accords of cooperation with the following towns:

  • Zaragoza, Aragón, Spain
  • N'Djamena, Chad
  • Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Saint-Louis, Senegal
  • Düsseldorf, Germany

Literature

Toulouse is a location briefly mentioned in the MR James short ghost story, Canon Alberic's Scrap-Book published in Ghost Stories of an Antiquary in 1904

See also

  • France portal
  • 138 Tolosa, an asteroid
  • Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toulouse
  • André Abbal
  • Listing of the works of Alexandre Falguière
  • The works of Antonin Mercié

References

  1. ^ a b "Insee – Populations légales 2012 – 31555-Toulouse" INSEE Retrieved 24 December 2014 
  2. ^ "Séries historiques des résultats du recensement – Unité urbaine 2010 de Toulouse 31701" INSEE Retrieved 2 August 2014 
  3. ^ a b c "Séries historiques des résultats du recensement – Aire urbaine 2010 de Toulouse 004" INSEE Retrieved 2 August 2014 
  4. ^ "Toulouse" Collins Dictionary nd Retrieved 24 September 2014 
  5. ^ INSEE "Les 30 premières aires urbaines en 2010" in French Retrieved 2 August 2014 
  6. ^ CNES "Ademefr" PDF in French Retrieved 30 May 2007 
  7. ^ http://cachemediaenseignementsup-recherchegouvfr/file/Atlas_2012-2013/24/0/Midi-Pyrenees_316240pdf
  8. ^ Infographic / Air transport in Europe Aertec, Eurostat
  9. ^ Palmarès des villes les plus dynamiques : la revanche de la province L'Express
  10. ^ Les villes les plus dynamiques de France Challenges
  11. ^ Toulouse, métropole la plus dynamique La Dépêche du Midi
  12. ^ Toulouse’s Saint Sernin, Largest Romanesque Church in Europe Europe Close
  13. ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Toulouse" in French Meteo France Retrieved 8 January 2016 
  14. ^ "Climat Midi-Pyrénées" in French Meteo France Retrieved 8 January 2016 
  15. ^ "Normes et records 1961–1990: Toulouse-Blagnac 31 – altitude 152m" in French Infoclimat Retrieved 8 January 2016 
  16. ^ Albert Dauzat et Charles Rostaing, Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de lieux en France, 2nd ed, Librairie Guénégaud 1978
  17. ^ Le Nom de Toulouse de Pierre Moret, 1996, Université Toulouse le Mirail – Toulouse II, p 11; Histoire de Toulouse, 1974, p 11
  18. ^ "Simon de Montfort et la croisade contre les Albigeois" 
  19. ^ " "Goldberg, Jeffrey "Is it Time for the Jews to Leave Europe" The Atlantic April 2015" Retrieved 2015-03-21 
  20. ^ Biraben, Jean-Noël La Population de Toulouse au XIVe et au XVe siècles Journal des savants, 1964, p 300
  21. ^ Brumont, Francis La commercialisation du pastel toulousain 1350–1600 Privat presse, 1994, p 27
  22. ^ "terredepastelcom" terredepastelcom Retrieved 3 May 2015 
  23. ^ Irish, John "Killings sour good life for high-flying Toulouse" Reuterscom Retrieved 2013-10-01 
  24. ^ "Toulouse politics information" Bonjourlafrancecom Retrieved 2013-10-01 
  25. ^ "Airbus A380 lands after making aviation history" USA Today 27 April 2005 Updated 28 April 2005 Retrieved 12 February 2010
  26. ^ a b "Contacts" Airbus Retrieved 12 February 2010
  27. ^ a b "Le RER toulousain entre en gares" ladepechefr Retrieved 2016-02-06 
  28. ^ Bonhoure Transmission Tower at Structurae
  29. ^ "Garonne-networkscom" Garonne-networkscom Retrieved 14 March 2011 
  30. ^ "L'univers du Théâtre" Theatre-du-capitolefr Retrieved 14 March 2011 
  31. ^ "Orchestre National du Capitole de Toulouse" Onctmairie-toulousefr Retrieved 14 March 2011 
  32. ^ "'''''Le Château d'Eau''''' Official website" in French Galeriechateaudeauorg Retrieved 2013-10-01 
  33. ^ "Europe's Top Rugby Clubs – For Dummies" Dummiescom 4 January 2010 Retrieved 2013-10-01 
  34. ^ "ERC : Classement Européen" Ercrugbycom 21 September 2010 Retrieved 2013-10-01 
  35. ^ "Albert Fert retrouve son Toulouse" La Dépêche du Midi Retrieved 23 May 2008 
  36. ^ "Les villes jumelées" in French Toulouse, France: Mairie de Toulouse Retrieved 2015-07-05 
  37. ^ "Accords de coopération" in French Toulouse, France: Mairie de Toulouse Retrieved 2015-07-05 

Bibliography

  • Le Stang, Anne 2006 Histoire de Toulouse illustrée in French leperegrinateurediteurcom ISBN 2-910352-44-7 
  • Kerrison, Helen & Jeremy 2008 The Practical Guide to Toulouse leperegrinateurediteurcom ISBN 2-910352-46-3 

External links

  • French ToulouseCitycom
  • Toulouse : pink, violets, red and black – Official French website
  • French Official site


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