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Tokyo Bay

tokyo bay, tokyo bay cruise
Coordinates: 35°31′21″N 139°54′34″E / 35522577°N 139909570°E / 35522577; 139909570

Tokyo Bay
東京湾
Tōkyō-wan
Landsat image of Tokyo Bay
Tokyo Bay, in a narrow sense pink and in a broad sense pink and blue
Location Honshu, Japan
Coordinates 35°25′N 139°47′E / 35417°N 139783°E / 35417; 139783
River sources Ara River
Edo River
Obitsu River
Yoro River
Ocean/sea sources Pacific Ocean
Basin countries Japan
Surface area 1,500 square kilometres 580 sq mi
Average depth 40 metres 130 ft
Max depth 70 metres 230 ft
Islands Sarushima

Tokyo Bay 東京湾, Tōkyō-wan is a bay located in the southern Kantō region of Japan, and spans the coasts of Tokyo, Kanagawa Prefecture, and Chiba Prefecture Tokyo Bay is connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Uraga Channel Its old name was Edo Bay 江戸湾, Edo-wan The Tokyo Bay region is both the most populous and largest industrialized area in Japan12345

Contents

  • 1 Naming
  • 2 Geography
    • 21 Boundaries
    • 22 Depth
    • 23 Islands
    • 24 Rivers
    • 25 Land reclamation
    • 26 Bridges
  • 3 Development
    • 31 Fishing
    • 32 Ports
    • 33 Industrial zones
    • 34 Military facilities
  • 4 History
    • 41 Perry Expedition
    • 42 World War II
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References

Namingedit

In ancient times, Japanese knew Tokyo Bay as the uchi-umi 内海 or "inner sea" By the Azuchi-Momoyama period 1568 – 1600 the area had become known as Edo Bay, a reference to the city of Edo The bay took its present name of Tokyo Bay in modern times, after the Imperial court moved to Edo and renamed that city as Tokyo in 18686

Geographyedit

Tokyo Bay juts prominently into the Kantō Plain4 It is surrounded by the Bōsō Peninsula in Chiba Prefecture to the east and the Miura Peninsula in Kanagawa Prefecture to the west12 The shore of Tokyo Bay consists of a diluvial plateau and is subject to rapid marine erosion Sediments on the shore of the bay make for a smooth, continuous shoreline5

Boundariesedit

In a narrow sense, Tokyo Bay is the area north of the straight line from Cape Kannon on the west of Miura Peninsula to Cape Futtsu on the east Bōsō Peninsula This area covers about 922 square kilometres 356 sq mi45

In a broader sense, Tokyo Bay includes the Uraga Channel By this definition the bay opens from an area north of the straight line from Cape Tsurugisaki on the east of Miura Peninsula to Cape Sunosaki on the west of the Boso Peninsula This area covers about 1,100 square kilometres 420 sq mi The area of Tokyo Bay combined with the Uraga Channel covers 1,500 square kilometres 580 sq mi345

Depthedit

The shoal between Cape Futtsu in Chiba Prefecture and Cape Honmaku in Yokohama is known as Nakanose, and has a depth of 20 metres 66 ft5 North of this area the bay has a depth of 40 metres 130 ft and an uncomplicated underwater topography Areas south of Nakanose are significantly deeper moving towards the Pacific Ocean

Islandsedit

The only natural island in Tokyo Bay is Sarushima 0055 square kilometres 0021 sq mi at Yokosuka, Kanagawa Prefecture Sarushima was one of the locations fortified with coastal artillery during the Bakumatsu period and was subsequently incorporated into the Tokyo Bay Fortress during the Meiji period The Imperial Japanese Navy maintained a degaussing station on the island until the end of World War II The island is now uninhabited and is a marine park7

Many artificial islands were built as naval fortifications in the Meiji and Taishō period After World War II these islands were converted to residential or recreational use Odaiba, also known as Daiba, was one of six artificial islands constructed in 1853 as a fortification to protect the Tokugawa shogunate at Edo, and was known as the Shinagawa Daiba After World War II Odaiba was incorporated into Tokyo and redeveloped for commercial and recreational use8 After World War II Yumenoshima was planned as a solution to dispose of the large quantities of garbage from the Tokyo Metropolitan Area The island was constructed between 1957 and 1967 and hosts numerous recreational facilities Hakkei Island 024 square kilometres 0093 sq mi, formerly Landfill Number 14, was constructed in 1985 and is home to Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradise9 Other artificial islands include Heiwa, Katsushima, Shōwa, Keihin, and Higashiōgi islands

Riversedit

Numerous rivers empty into Tokyo Bay, and all provide water for residential and industrial areas along the bay The Tama and Sumida rivers empty into the bay at Tokyo3 The Edo River empties into Tokyo Bay between Tokyo and Chiba Prefecture The Obitsu and Yōrō rivers empty into the bay in Chiba Prefecture

Land reclamationedit

Land reclamation has been carried out along the coast of Tokyo Bay since the Meiji period Areas along the shore with a depth of less than 5 metres 16 ft are simplest to carry out landfill, and sand from the floor of Tokyo Bay is used for these projects The topography of the shoreline of Tokyo Bay differs greatly from that of the pre-modern period due to ongoing land reclamation projects5 Tokyo Bay includes about 249 square kilometres 96 sq mi of reclaimed land area

Bridgesedit

A panoramic view of northern Tokyo Bay facing Tokyo from Odaiba island

The Tokyo Bay Aqua-Line bridge-tunnel crosses Tokyo Bay between Kawasaki and Kisarazu; Tokyo-Wan Ferry also crosses the bay toward the Uraga Channel between Kurihama in Yokosuka and Kanaya in Futtsu on the Chiba side

Developmentedit

Fishingedit

Tokyo Bay was a historical center of the fishing industry, a source of shellfish, and other aquaculture These industries decreased with the industrialization of the Tokyo Bay region early in the 20th century, and almost completely ceased with the construction of the Keihin and Keiyō industrial zones directly after World War II1

Portsedit

A number of Japan's most important ports are located in Tokyo Bay1 The Port of Yokohama, the Port of Chiba, the Port of Tokyo, the Port of Kawasaki, the Port of Yokosuka, the Port of Kisarazu, rank not only as the busiest ports in Japan, but also in the Asia-Pacific Region

Industrial zonesedit

Industrial zones on Tokyo Bay were developed as early as the Meiji Era 1868 – 1912 The Keihin Industrial Zone was built on reclaimed land in Kanagawa Prefecture to the west of Tokyo This was expanded to the Keiyo Industrial Zone in Chiba Prefecture along the north and east coasts of Tokyo Bay after World War II The development of the two zones has resulted in the largest industrialized area in Japan5 The large-scale industrial zones of the coastal Tokyo region have caused significant air and water pollution1

Military facilitiesedit

The Port of Yokosuka contains the naval bases of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force and the United States Forces Japan

Historyedit

American planes over USS Missouri and Tokyo Bay, September 2, 1945

Perry Expeditionedit

Tokyo Bay was the venue for the Perry Expedition, which involved two separate trips from 1853 to 1854 between the United States and Japan by Commodore Matthew Perry 1794 – 1858 Perry sailed on his four "Black Ships" into Edo Bay on July 8, 1853, and began negotiations with the Tokugawa shogunate that led to a peace and trade treaty between the United States and Japan in 18541011

World War IIedit

The Japanese Instrument of Surrender at the end of World War II was signed on September 2, 1945 on board USS Missouri BB-63, which was anchored at 35° 21′ 17″ N 139° 45′ 36″ E A flag from one of Commodore Perry's ships was flown in from the Naval Academy Museum and displayed at the ceremony

See alsoedit

  • Port of Tokyo
  • Uraga Channel
  • Miura Peninsula
  • Bōsō Peninsula
  • Keihin
  • Keiyō

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b c d e "Tokyo Bay" Encyclopedia of Japan Tokyo: Shogakukan 2012 OCLC 56431036 Retrieved 2012-07-30 
  2. ^ a b "東京湾" Tokyo Bay Dijitaru Daijisen in Japanese Tokyo: Shogakukan 2012 OCLC 56431036 Retrieved 2012-07-30 
  3. ^ a b c "東京湾" Tokyo Bay Nihon Kokugo Daijiten in Japanese Tokyo: Shogakukan 2012 OCLC 56431036 Retrieved 2012-07-30 
  4. ^ a b c d "千葉県:総論 > 東京湾" Overview of Chiba Prefecture: Tokyo Bay Nihon Rekishi Chimei Taikei in Japanese Tokyo: Shogakukan 2012 OCLC 173191044 dlc 2009238904 Retrieved 2012-07-30 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "東京湾" Tokyo Bay Nihon Daihyakka Zensho Nipponika in Japanese Tokyo: Shogakukan 2012 OCLC 153301537 Retrieved 2012-07-30 
  6. ^ "神奈川県:総論 > 東京湾" Overview of Kanagawa Prefecture: Tokyo Bay Nihon Rekishi Chimei Taikei in Japanese Tokyo: Shogakukan 2012 OCLC 173191044 dlc 2009238904 Retrieved 2012-07-30 
  7. ^ "猿島" Sarushima Nihon Kokugo Daijiten in Japanese Tokyo: Shogakukan 2012 OCLC 56431036 Retrieved 2012-07-31 
  8. ^ "台場" Daiba Dijitaru Daijisen in Japanese Tokyo: Shogakukan 2012 OCLC 56431036 Retrieved 2012-07-31 
  9. ^ "夢の島" Yumenoshima Dijitaru Daijisen in Japanese Tokyo: Shogakukan 2012 OCLC 56431036 Retrieved 2012-07-31 
  10. ^ "Perry Ceremony Today; Japanese and U S Officials to Mark 100th Anniversary" New York Times July 14, 1953,
  11. ^ "ペリー" Matthew Perry Nihon Daihyakka Zensho Nipponika in Japanese Tokyo: Shogakukan 2012 OCLC 153301537 Retrieved 2012-08-15 

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Tokyo Bay


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    29.10.2014


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