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Tibet (1912–51)

tibet 1912 51 inches, tibet 1912 51 celsius
The historical era of Tibet from 1912 to 1951 followed the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912, and lasted until the incorporation of Tibet by the People's Republic of China The Tibetan Ganden Phodrang regime was Protectorate of the Qing3456 until 1912,78 when the Provisional Government of the Republic of China replaced the Qing dynasty as the government of China, and signed a treaty with the Qing government inheriting all territories of the previous dynasty into the new republic, giving Tibet the status of a "Protectorate"910 with high levels of autonomy as it was Protectorate under the dynasty At the same time, Tibet was also a British Protectorate111213 However, at the same time, several Tibetan representatives signed a treaty between Tibet and Mongolia proclaiming mutual recognition and their independence from China, although the Government of the Republic of China did not recognize its legitimacy With the high levels of autonomy and the "proclaiming of independence" by several Tibetan representatives, this period of Tibet is often described as "de facto independent", especially by some Tibetan independence supporters, although most countries of the world, as well as the United Nations,14 recognized Tibet as a part of the Republic of China

The era ended after the Nationalist government of China lost the Chinese Civil War against the Chinese Communist Party, when the People's Liberation Army entered Tibet in 1950 and the Seventeen Point Agreement was signed with the Chinese affirming China's sovereignty over Tibet the following year


  • 1 History
    • 11 Downfall of Qing dynasty 1911–12
    • 12 Simla Convention 1914
    • 13 After the death of the 13th Dalai Lama in 1933
    • 14 1930s to 1949
    • 15 Incorporation into the People's Republic of China
  • 2 Tibetan society during the era
  • 3 Foreign relations
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
    • 51 Citations
    • 52 Sources


Part of a series on the
History of Tibet
  • Neolithic Tibet
  • Zhangzhung
  • Yarlung Dynasty
  • Tibetan Empire
  • Era of Fragmentation
  • Mongol Empire
  • Yuan rule
  • Phagmodrupa Dynasty
  • Rinpungpa Dynasty
  • Tsangpa Dynasty
  • Rise of Ganden Phodrang
  • Qing rule
  • Post-Qing to 1950
  • Autonomous region of China
See also
  • Timeline
  • Historical money
  • List of rulers
  • European exploration
Tibet portal
Since the expulsion of the Amban from Tibet in 1912, communication between Tibet and China had taken place only with the British as mediator18 Direct communications resumed after the 13th Dalai Lama's death in December 1933,18 when China sent a "condolence mission" to Lhasa headed by General Huang Musong34

Soon after the 13th Dalai Lama died, according to some accounts, the Kashag reaffirmed their 1914 position that Tibet remained nominally part of China, provided Tibet could manage its own political affairs3536 In his essay Hidden Tibet: History of Independence and Occupation published by the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives at Dharamsala, SL Kuzmin cited several sources indicating then Tibetan government had not declared Tibet a part of China, despite an imitation of Chinese sovereignty made by the KMT government37 Since 1912 Tibet had been de facto independent of Chinese control, but on other occasions it had indicated willingness to accept nominal subordinate status as a part of China, provided that Tibetan internal systems were left untouched, and provided China relinquished control over a number of important ethnic Tibetan areas in Kham and Amdo38 In support of claims that China's rule over Tibet was not interrupted, China argues that official documents showed that the National Assembly of China and both chambers of parliament had Tibetan members, whose names had been preserved all along39

China was then permitted to establish an office in Lhasa, staffed by the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission and headed by Wu Zhongxin Wu Chung-hsin, the Commission's director of Tibetan Affairs,40 which Chinese sources claim was an administrative body39—but the Tibetans claim that they rejected China's proposal that Tibet should be a part of China, and in turn demanded the return of territories east of the Drichu Yangtze River40 In response to the establishment of a Chinese office in Lhasa, the British obtained similar permission and set up their own office there41

The 1934 Khamba Rebellion led by Pandastang Togbye and Pandatsang Rapga broke out against the Tibetan Government during this time, with the Pandatsang family leading Khamba tribesmen against the Tibetan army

1930s to 1949edit

The 14th Dalai Lama as a young boy The 'approval certificate' of the accession of the 14th Dalai Lama said to be issued by the Government of the Republic of China on 1 January 1940, author 'unknown'

In 1935 the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, was born in Amdo in eastern Tibet and recognized by all concerned as the incarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama, without the use of the Chinese "Golden Urn" After ransom of 400,000 silver dragons was paid by Lhasa, contrary to the wishes of the Chinese government, to the Hui Muslim warlord Ma Bufang, who ruled Chinghai from Xining, Ma Bufang released him to travel to Lhasa in 1939 He was then enthroned by the Ganden Phodrang government at the Potala Palace on the Tibetan New Year4243 China claims that the Kuomintang Government 'ratified' the current 14th Dalai Lama, and that KMT representative General Wu Zhongxin presided over the ceremony; both the ratification order of February 1940 and the documentary film of the ceremony still exist intact39 According to Tsering Shakya, Wu Zhongxin along with other foreign representatives was present at the ceremony, but there is no evidence that he presided over it41 The British Representative Sir Basil Gould who was present at the ceremony bore witness to the falsity of the Chinese claim to have presided over it He criticised the Chinese account as follows:

The report was issued in the Chinese Press that Mr Wu had escorted the Dalai Lama to his throne and announced his installation, that the Dalai Lama had returned thanks, and prostrated himself in token of his gratitude Every one of these Chinese claims was false Mr Wu was merely a passive spectator He did no more than present a ceremonial scarf, as was done by the others, including the British Representative But the Chinese have the ear of the world, and can later refer to their press records and present an account of historical events that is wholly untrue Tibet has no newspapers, either in English or Tibetan, and has therefore no means of exposing these falshoods44

In 1942, the US government told the government of Chiang Kai-shek that it had never disputed Chinese claims to Tibet45 In 1944, during World War II, two Austrian mountaineers, Heinrich Harrer and Peter Aufschnaiter, came to Lhasa, where Harrer became a tutor and friend to the young Dalai Lama, giving him sound knowledge of Western culture and modern society, until he was forced to leave in 1949

The Tibetan representative who attended the Chinese Constitutional Assembly

Tibet established a Foreign Office in 1942, and in 1946 it sent congratulatory missions to China and India related to the end of World War II The mission to China was given a letter addressed to Chinese President Chiang Kai-shek which states that, "We shall continue to maintain the independence of Tibet as a nation ruled by the successive Dalai Lamas through an authentic religious-political rule" The mission agreed to attend a Chinese constitutional assembly in Nanjing as observers46

Under orders from the Kuomintang government of Chiang Kai-shek, Ma Bufang repaired the Yushu airport in 1942 to deter Tibetan independencecitation needed Chiang also ordered Ma Bufang to put his Muslim soldiers on alert for an invasion of Tibet in 19424748 Ma Bufang complied, and moved several thousand troops to the border with Tibet49 Chiang also threatened the Tibetans with bombing if they did not comply

In 1947, Tibet sent a delegation to the Asian Relations Conference in New Delhi, India, where it represented itself as an independent nation, and India recognised it as an independent nation from 1947 to 195450 This may have been the first appearance of the Tibetan national flag at a public gathering51

André Migot, a French doctor who travelled for many months in Tibet in 1947, described the complex border arrangements between Tibet and China, and how they had developed:52

In 1947-49, Lhasa sent a trade mission led by Finance Minister Tsepon W D Shakabpa to India, China, Hong Kong, the US, and the UK The visited countries were careful not to express support for the claim that Tibet was independent of China and did not discuss political questions with the mission53 These Trade Mission officials entered China via Hong Kong with their newly issued Tibetan passports that they applied at the Chinese Consulate in India and stayed in China for three months Other countries did, however, allow the mission to travel using passports issued by the Tibetan government The US unofficially received the Trade Mission The mission met with British Prime Minister Clement Attlee in London in 194854

Incorporation into the People's Republic of Chinaedit

Main article: Incorporation of Tibet into the People's Republic of China

In 1949, seeing that the Communists were gaining control of China, the Kashag government expelled all Chinese officials from Tibet despite protests from both the Kuomintang and the Communists55 The Chinese Communist government led by Mao Zedong which came to power in October lost little time in asserting a new Chinese presence in Tibet In June 1950 the British government stated in the House of Commons that His Majesty's Government "have always been prepared to recognise Chinese suzerainty over Tibet, but only on the understanding that Tibet is regarded as autonomous"56 In October 1950, the People's Liberation Army entered the Tibetan area of Chamdo, defeating sporadic resistance from the Tibetan army In 1951, representatives of the Tibetan authorities, headed by Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme, with the Dalai Lama's authorization,57 participated in negotiations in Beijing with the Chinese government It resulted in the Seventeen Point Agreement which affirmed China's sovereignty over Tibet The agreement was ratified in Lhasa a few months later58 China called the whole process as the "peaceful liberation of Tibet"59

Tibetan society during the eraedit

Traditional Tibetan society consists of feudal class structure, serfdom and slavery, which was one of the reason the Chinese Communist Party claims that they had to "liberate" Tibet and reform its government60

Professor of Buddhist and Tibetan studies Donald SLopez stated that at the time:

These institutional groups retained great power down to 195962

The thirteenth Dalai Lama had reformed the pre-existing serf system in the first decade of the 20th century, and by 1950, slavery itself had probably ceased to exist in central Tibet, though perhaps persisting in certain border areas63 Slavery did exist, for example, in places like the Chumbi Valley, though British observers like Charles Bell called it 'mild'64 and beggars ragyabas were endemic The pre-Chinese social system however was rather complex

Estates shiga, roughly similar to the English manorial system, were granted by the state and were hereditary, though revocable As agricultural properties they consisted of two kinds: land held by the nobility or monastic institutions demesne land, and village land tenement or villein land held by the central government, though governed by district administrators Demesne land consisted on average of one half to three quarters of an estate Villein land belonged to the estates, but tenants normally exercised hereditary usufruct rights in exchange for fulfilling their corvée obligations Tibetans outside the nobility and the monastic system were classified as serfs, but two types existed and functionally were comparable to tenant farmers Agricultural serfs, or "small smoke" düchung were bound to work on estates as a corvée obligation ula but they had title to their own plots, owned private goods, were free to move about outside the periods required for their tribute labour, and free of tax obligations They could accrue wealth and on occasion became lenders to the estates themselves, and could sue the estate owners: village serfs tralpawere bound to their villages but only for tax and corvée purposes, such as road transport duties ula, and were only obliged to pay taxes Half of the village serfs were man-lease serfs mi-bog, meaning that they had purchased their freedom Estate owners exercised broad rights over attached serfs, and flight or a monastic life was the only venue of relief Yet no mechanism existed to restore escaped serfs to their estates, and no means to enforce bondage existed, though the estate lord held the right to pursue and forcibly return them to the land

Any serf who had absented himself from his estate for three years was automatically granted either commoner chi mi status or reclassified as a serf of the central government Estate lords could transfer their subjects to other lords or rich peasants for labour, though this practice was uncommon in Tibet Though rigid structurally, the system exhibited considerable flexibility at ground level, with peasants free of constraints from the lord of the manor in order once they had fulfilled their corvée obligations Historically, discontent or abuse of the system, according to Warren W Smith, appears to have been rare6566 Tibet was far from a meritocracy, but the Dalai Lamas were recruited from the sons of peasant families, as the sons of nomads could rise to master the monastic system and become scholars and abbots67

Foreign relationsedit

The division of China into military cliques kept China divided, and the 13th Dalai Lama ruled but his reign was marked with border conflicts with Han Chinese and Muslim warlords, which the Tibetans lost most of the time At that time, the government of Tibet controlled all of Ü-Tsang Dbus-gtsang and western Kham Khams, roughly coincident with the borders of the Tibet Autonomous Region today Eastern Kham, separated by the Yangtze River, was under the control of Chinese warlord Liu Wenhui The situation in Amdo Qinghai was more complicated, with the Xining area controlled after 1928 by the Hui warlord Ma Bufang of the family of Muslim warlords known as the Ma clique, who constantly strove to exert control over the rest of Amdo Qinghai Southern Kham along with other parts of Yunnan belonged to the Yunnan clique from 1915 till 1927, then to Governor and warlord Long Lung Yun until near the end of the Chinese Civil War, when Du Yuming removed him under the order of Chiang Kai-shek Within territory under Chinese control, war was being waged against Tibetan rebels in Qinghai during the Kuomintang Pacification of Qinghai

In 1918, Lhasa regained control of Chamdo and western Kham A truce set the border at the Yangtze River At this time, the government of Tibet controlled all of Ü-Tsang and Kham west of the Yangtze River, roughly the same borders as the Tibet Autonomous Region has today Eastern Kham was governed by local Tibetan princes of varying allegiances Qinghai province was controlled by ethnic Hui and pro-Kuomintang warlord Ma Bufang In 1932 Tibet invaded Qinghai, attempting to capture southern parts of Qinghai province, following contention in Yushu, Qinghai over a monastery in 1932 Ma Bufang's Qinghai army defeated the Tibetan armies

During the 1920s and 1930s, China was divided by civil war and occupied with the anti-Japanese war, but never renounced its claim to sovereignty over Tibet, and made occasional attempts to assert it

In 1932, the Muslim Qinghai and Han-Chinese Sichuan armies of the National Revolutionary Army led by Ma Bufang and Liu Wenhui defeated the Tibetan army in the Sino-Tibetan War when the 13th Dalai Lama tried to seize territory in Qinghai and Xikang They warned the Tibetans not to dare cross the Jinsha river again68 A truce was signed, ending the fighting6970 The Dalai Lama had cabled the British in India for help when his armies were defeated, and started demoting his Generals who had surrendered71

In 1936, after Sheng Shicai expelled 30,000 Kazakhs from Xinjiang to Qinghai, Hui led by General Ma Bufang massacred their fellow Muslim Kazakhs, until there were 135 of them left727374

From Northern Xinjiang over 7,000 Kazakhs fled to the Tibetan-Qinghai plateau region via Gansu and were wreaking massive havoc so Ma Bufang solved the problem by relegating the Kazakhs into designated pastureland in Qinghai, but Hui, Tibetans, and Kazakhs in the region continued to clash against each other75

Tibetans attacked and fought against the Kazakhs as they entered Tibet via Gansu and Qinghai

In northern Tibet Kazakhs clashed with Tibetan soldiers and then the Kazakhs were sent to Ladakh76

Tibetan troops robbed and killed Kazakhs 400 miles east of Lhasa at Chamdo when the Kazakhs were entering Tibet7778

In 1934, 1935, 1936-1938 from Qumil Eliqsan led the Kerey Kazakhs to migrate to Gansu and the amount was estimated at 18,000, and they entered Gansu and Qinghai79

The Uyghur Yulbars Khan was attacked by Tibetan troops as he fled Xinjiang to reach Calcutta

The anti-communist American CIA agent Douglas Mackiernan was killed by Tibetan troops

See alsoedit

  • Tibet portal
  • China portal
  • Tibet under Qing rule
  • Ganden Phodrang
  • Kashag
  • History of Tibet 1950–present
  • Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission
  • Four Rugby Boys



  1. ^ James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z, Greenwood, 2002, page 1892
  2. ^ Nakamura, Haije 1964 "Absolute Adherence to the Lamaist Social Order" Ways of Thinking of Eastern Peoples: India, China, Tibet, Japan University of Hawaii Press p 327 
  3. ^ Encyclopedia of China: History and Culture
  4. ^ Strong Borders, Secure Nation: Cooperation and Conflict in China
  5. ^ Jin ri you zheng, 第 469~480 号
  6. ^ Bian jiang wen hua lun ji: Papers on China's border region cultures
  7. ^ Ram Rahul, Central Asia: an outline history, New Delhi, Concept Publishing Company, 1997, p 42 : "From then 1720 until the fall of the Manchu dynasty in 1912, the Manchu Ch'ing government stationed an Amban, a Manchu mandarin, and a military escort in Tibet"
  8. ^ Barry Sautman, Tibet’s Putative Statehood and International Law, in Chinese Journal of International Law, Vol 9, Issue 1, 2010, p 127-142: "Through its Lifan Yuan Office of Border Affairs , the Chinese government handled Tibet's foreign and many of its domestic affairs During the Qing, Tibet hosted imperial troops and border patrols, and the imperial court appointed Tibetan officials The Lifan Yuan ratified the Dalai and Panchen Lamas, created joint rule by aristocrats and high lamas and elevated the Dalai Lama above the nobles From 1728, the amban handled Tibet's foreign and military affairs From 1793, the amban had the right to identify the Dalai Lama and Panchen Lama Monastic finances were under imperial control Central-western Tibet was thus an administered territory of China under the Qing In 1724, eastern Tibet was incorporated into existing Chinese provinces"
  9. ^ The Missing Girls and Women of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: A Sociological
  10. ^ Ethnic China: Identity, Assimilation, and Resistance
  11. ^ 西藏硏究論文集, 第 2 号-西藏研究委員會
  12. ^ Lamas, Shamans and Ancestors: Village Religion in Sikkim
  13. ^ The Historical Status of China's Tibet
  14. ^ Section, United Nations Department of Field Support, Cartographic 1 May 2010 "English: Map was used to show the progress of the UN's decolonization efforts" – via Wikimedia Commons 
  15. ^ Goldstein 1997, p 31
  16. ^ Goldstein 1997, p 28
  17. ^ "Tibet Justice Center - Legal Materials on Tibet - Tibet - Proclamation Issued by His Holiness the Dalai Lama XIII 1913 106" 
  18. ^ a b c Shakya 1999, pg 5
  19. ^ a b Udo B Barkmann, Geschichte der Mongolei, Bonn 1999, p380ff
  20. ^ Grunfeld 1996, pg 65
  21. ^ Bell 1924, pp 150-151
  22. ^ Quoted by Sir Charles Bell, "Tibet and Her Neighbours", Pacific AffairsDec 1937, pp 435–6, a high Tibetan official pointed our years later that there was "no need for a treaty; we would always help each other if we could"
  23. ^ "Договор 1913 г между Монголией и Тибетом: новые данные" 
  24. ^ "Tibet Justice Center - Legal Materials on Tibet - Treaties and Conventions Relating to Tibet - Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet, Simla 1914 400" 
  25. ^ Article 2 of the Simla Convention
  26. ^ Appendix of the Simla Convention
  27. ^ Goldstein 1989, p 75
  28. ^ Goldstein, 1989, p80
  29. ^ "Tibet Justice Center - Legal Materials on Tibet - Treaties and Conventions Relating to Tibet - Convention Between Great Britain and Russia 1907391" 
  30. ^ Lin, Hsiao-Ting, "Boundary, sovereignty, and imagination: Reconsidering the frontier disputes between British India and Republican China, 1914-47", The Journal of Imperial & Commonwealth History, September 2004, 32, 3
  31. ^ Free Tibet Campaign, "Tibet Facts No17: British Relations with Tibet"
  32. ^ Lamb 1966, p 580
  33. ^ Lamb, 1966, p 529
  34. ^ "Republic of China 1912-1949" China's Tibet: Facts & Figures 2002 Retrieved 2006-04-17 
  35. ^ Chambers's Encyclopaedia, Volume XIII, Pergamaon Press, 1967, p 638
  36. ^ Reports by FW Williamson, British political officer in Sikkim, India Office Record, L/PS/12/4175, dated 20 January 1935
  37. ^ Kuzmin, SL Hidden Tibet: History of Independence and Occupation Dharamsala, LTWA, 2011, pp 95-100, 108
  38. ^ Goldstein, 1989, p 241
  39. ^ a b c Tibet during the Republic of China 1912-1949
  40. ^ a b Shakya 1999, p 6
  41. ^ a b Shakya 1999, pp 6-7
  42. ^ Bell 1946, pp 398-399
  43. ^ Richardson 1984, p152
  44. ^ Bell 1946, p 400
  45. ^ Testimony by Kent M Wiedemann, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs before Subcommitte on East Asian and Pacific Affairs, Senate Foreign Relations Committee online version, 1995
  46. ^ Smith, Daniel, "Self-Determination in Tibet: The Politics of Remedies"
  47. ^ Lin, Hsiao-ting "War or Stratagem Reassessing China's Military Advance towards Tibet, 1942–1943" Retrieved 2010-06-28 
  48. ^ "chiang ma bufang qinghai troops sino tibetan border site:journalscambridgeorg - Google Search"  External link in |title= help
  49. ^ David P Barrett; Lawrence N Shyu 2001 China in the anti-Japanese War, 1937-1945: politics, culture and society Peter Lang p 98 ISBN 0-8204-4556-8 Retrieved 2010-06-28 
  50. ^ "India Should Revisit its Tibet Policy" Institute for Defense Studies and Analysis Archived from the original on April 21, 2008 Retrieved 2009-01-05 
  51. ^ "CTA's Response to Chinese Government Allegations: Part Four" Website of Central Tibetan Administration Retrieved 2009-01-05 
  52. ^ Migot, André 1955 Tibetan Marches, pp 91–92 E P Dutton & Company, Inc, New York
  53. ^ Goldstein, 1989, p578, p592, p604
  54. ^ Farrington, Anthony, "Britain, China, and Tibet, 1904-1950"
  55. ^ Shakya 1999, pp 7-8
  56. ^ "TIBET AUTONOMY Hansard, 21 June 1950" 
  57. ^ Goldstein 2007, p96
  58. ^ Goldstein 1989, pp 812-813
  59. ^ "Peaceful Liberation of Tibet" chinaorgcn 
  60. ^ John Powers, History As Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles Versus The People's Republic Of China, Oxford University Press, 2004 pp19-20
  61. ^ Donald S Lopez Jr, Prisoners of Shangri-La: University of Chicago Press, 1998 1999pp6-10, p9
  62. ^ Pradyumna P Karan, The Changing Face of Tibet: The Impact of Chinese Communist Ideology on the Landscape, University Press of Kentucky, 1976,p64
  63. ^ Warren W Smith, JrChina's Tibet: Autonomy Or Assimilation, Rowman & Littlefield, 2009 p14
  64. ^ Alex McKay, ed The History of Tibet, Vol 1, Routledge 2003 p14-
  65. ^ Warren W Smith, Jr China's Tibet: Autonomy Or Assimilation, pp14-15
  66. ^ Melvin Goldstein, A History of Modern Tibet, Volume 2: The Calm Before the Storm, University of California Press, 2009 pp9-13
  67. ^ Donald S Lopez Jr, Prisoners of Shangri-La, p 9
  68. ^ Xiaoyuan Liu 2004 Frontier passages: ethnopolitics and the rise of Chinese communism, 1921-1945 Stanford University Press p 89 ISBN 0-8047-4960-4 Retrieved 2010-06-28 
  69. ^ Oriental Society of Australia 2000 The Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia, Volumes 31-34 Oriental Society of Australia pp 35, 37 Retrieved 2010-06-28 
  70. ^ Michael Gervers, Wayne Schlepp, Joint Centre for Asia Pacific Studies 1998 Historical themes and current change in Central and Inner Asia: papers presented at the Central and Inner Asian Seminar, University of Toronto, April 25–26, 1997, Volume 1997 Joint Centre for Asia Pacific Studies pp 73, 74, 76 ISBN 1-895296-34-X Retrieved 2010-06-28 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  71. ^ K Dhondup 1986 The water-bird and other years: a history of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama and after Rangwang Publishers p 60 Retrieved 2010-06-28 
  72. ^ American Academy of Political and Social Science 1951 The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 277 American Academy of Political and Social Science p 152 Retrieved 28 June 2010 
  73. ^ American Academy of Political and Social Science 1951 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volumes 276–278 American Academy of Political and Social Science p 152 Retrieved 28 June 2010 
  74. ^ American Academy of Political and Social Science 1951 The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 277 American Academy of Political and Social Science p 152 Retrieved 2012-09-29 A group of Kazakhs, originally numbering over 20000 people when expelled from Sinkiang by Sheng Shih-ts'ai in 1936, was reduced, after repeated massacres by their Chinese coreligionists under Ma Pu-fang, to a scattered 135 people 
  75. ^ Lin 2011, pp 112–
  76. ^ Lin 2011, pp 231–
  77. ^ Blackwood's Magazine William Blackwood 1948 p 407 
  78. ^ http://wwwacademiaedu/4534001/STUDIES_IN_THE_POLITICS_HISTORY_AND_CULTURE_OF_TURKIC_PEOPLES page 192
  79. ^ Linda Benson 1988 The Kazaks of China: Essays on an Ethnic Minority Ubsaliensis S Academiae p 195 ISBN 978-91-554-2255-4 


  • Bell, Charles Alfred Tibet: Past & present 1924 Oxford University Press ; Humphrey Milford
  • Bell, Sir Charles Portrait of the Dalai Lama 1946 Wm Collins, London, 1st edition 1987 Wisdom Publications, London ISBN 086171055X
  • Berkin, Martyn The Great Tibetan Stonewall of China 1924 Barry Rose Law Publishes Ltd ISBN 1-902681-11-8
  • Chapman, F Spencer Lhasa the Holy City 1977 Books for Libraries ISBN 0-8369-6712-7; first published 1940 by Readers Union Ltd, London
  • Goldstein, Melvyn C A History of Modern Tibet, 1913-1951: The Demise of the Lamaist State 1989 University of California Press ISBN 978-0-520-06140-8
  • Goldstein, Melvyn C The Snow Lion and the Dragon: China, Tibet, and the Dalai Lama 1997 University of California Press ISBN 0-520-21951-1
  • Goldstein, Melvyn C A History of Modern Tibet, Volume 2: The Calm Before the Storm: 1951-1955 2007 University of California Press ISBN 978-0-520-24941-7
  • Grunfeld, A Tom The Making of Modern Tibet 1996 East Gate Book ISBN 978-1-56324-713-2
  • Lamb, Alastair The McMahon Line: A Study in the Relations between India, China and Tibet, 1904 to 1914 1966 Routledge & Kegan Paul 2 volumes
  • Lin, Hsaio-ting 1 January 2011 Tibet and Nationalist China's Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928-49 UBC Press ISBN 978-0-7748-5988-2 
  • Richardson, Hugh E 1984 Tibet & Its History 1st edition 1962 2nd edition, Revised and Updated Shambhala Publications, Boston ISBN 978-087773-292-1 pbk
  • Shakya, Tsering The Dragon In The Land Of Snows 1999 Columbia University Press ISBN 0-231-11814-7

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