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Thrombophlebitis

thrombophlebitis, thrombophlebitis treatment
Thrombophlebitis is phlebitis or vein inflammation related to a thrombus, which is a blood clot1 When it occurs repeatedly in different locations, it is known as thrombophlebitis migrans, migrating thrombophlebitis indicated by the Trousseau sign of malignancy2

Contents

  • 1 Signs and symptoms
  • 2 Causes
    • 21 Complications
  • 3 Diagnosis
  • 4 Prevention
  • 5 Treatment
    • 51 Epidemiology
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 Further reading

Signs and symptomsedit

The following symptoms or signs are often associated with thrombophlebitis, although thrombophlebitis is not restricted to the veins of the legs34

  • Pain area affected
  • Skin redness/inflammation
  • Edema ankle and foot
  • Cord-like veins
  • Tenderness leg

Causesedit

Deep vein thrombosis of the right leg

Thrombophlebitis causes include disorders related to increased tendency for blood clotting and reduced speed of blood in the veins such as prolonged immobility; prolonged traveling sitting may promote a blood clot leading to thrombophlebitis but this occurs relatively less High estrogen states such as pregnancy, estrogen replacement therapy, or oral contraceptives are associated with an increased risk of thrombophlebitis345 Specific disorders associated with thrombophlebitis include superficial thrombophlebitis which affects veins near the skin surface, deep venous thrombosis which affects deeper veins, and pulmonary embolism6 Those with familial clotting disorders such as protein S deficiency, protein C deficiency, or factor V Leiden are also at increased risk of thrombophlebitis Thrombophlebitis can be found in people with vasculitis including Behçet's disease Thrombophlebitis migrans can be a sign of malignancies such as pancreatic carcinomamedical citation needed

Complicationsedit

In terms of complications, one of the most serious occurs when the superficial blood clot is associated with a deeper venous thrombosis; this can then dislodge, traveling through the heart and occluding the dense capillary network of the lungs This is a pulmonary embolism which can be life-threatening to the affected individual7

Diagnosisedit

The diagnosis for thrombophlebitis is primarily based on the appearance of the affected area Frequent checks of the pulse, blood pressure, and temperature may be required If the cause is not readily identifiable, tests may be performed to determine the cause, including the following:34

  • Doppler ultrasound
  • Extremity arteriography
  • Blood coagulation studies Blood clotting tests

Preventionedit

Prevention consists of walking, drinking fluids and if currently hospitalized, changing of IV lines3 Walking is especially suggested after a long period seated, particularly when one travels8

Treatmentedit

Ibuprofen NSAID

In terms of treatment for this condition the individual may be advised to do the following: raise the affected area to decrease swelling, and relieve pressure off of the affected area so it will encounter less pain In certain circumstances drainage of the clot might be an option In general, treatment may include the following:347

  • Low molecular weight heparin
  • Warfarin
  • Surgery
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications NSAIDS Ibuprofen
  • Support stockings

Epidemiologyedit

Thrombophlebitis occurs almost equally between women and men, though males do have a slightly higher possibility The average age of developing thrombophlebitis, based on analyzed incidents, is 54 for men and 58 for women7

See alsoedit

  • Phlebothrombosis
  • Mondor's disease

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Torpy JM, Burke AE, Glass RM July 2006 "JAMA patient page Thrombophlebitis" JAMA 296 4: 468 PMID 16868304 doi:101001/jama2964468 
  2. ^ Varki, Ajit 15 September 2007 "Trousseau's syndrome: multiple definitions and multiple mechanisms" Blood 110 6: 1723–1729 ISSN 0006-4971 PMC 1976377  PMID 17496204 doi:101182/blood-2006-10-053736 Retrieved 23 October 2016 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Thrombophlebitis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia" medlineplusgov Retrieved 23 September 2016 
  4. ^ a b c d "Thrombophlebitis Clinical Presentation: History, Physical Examination, Causes" emedicinemedscapecom Retrieved 23 October 2016 
  5. ^ Philbrick, John T; Shumate, Rebecca; Siadaty, Mir S; Becker, Daniel M 23 October 2016 "Air Travel and Venous Thromboembolism: A Systematic Review" Journal of General Internal Medicine 22 1: 107–114 ISSN 0884-8734 PMC 1824715  PMID 17351849 doi:101007/s11606-006-0016-0 
  6. ^ "Superficial Thrombophlebitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology" eMedicine Medscape 12 July 2016 Retrieved 23 October 2016 
  7. ^ a b c Raval, P 1 January 2014 "Thrombophlebitis☆" Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences Elsevier doi:101016/B978-0-12-801238-305368-X Retrieved 23 October 2016  – via ScienceDirect Subscription may be required or content may be available in libraries
  8. ^ Tamparo, Carol D 2016 Diseases of the Human Body FA Davis p 292 ISBN 9780803657915 Retrieved 23 October 2016 

Further readingedit

  • Sadick, Neil S; Khilnani, Neil; Morrison, Nick 2012 Practical Approach to the Management and Treatment of Venous Disorders Springer Science & Business Media ISBN 9781447128915 Retrieved 23 October 2016 
  • Mulholland, Michael W; Lillemoe, Keith D; Doherty, Gerard M; Maier, Ronald V; Simeone, Diane M; Upchurch, Gilbert R 2012 Greenfield's Surgery: Scientific Principles & Practice Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ISBN 9781451152920 Retrieved 23 October 2016 

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