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Thiruvarur

thiruvarur pin code, thiruvarur temple
Thiruvarur Tamil pronunciation: θɪrʊvɑːruːr also spelt as Tiruvarura is a town and municipality in Tiruvarur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu It is the administrative headquarters of Tiruvarur district and Tiruvarur taluk The town was one of the five traditional capitals of the Chola empire, with one of the emperors of the dynasty, Kulothunga Chola I, having it as his capital The town is believed to be of significant antiquity and has been ruled, at different times, by the Medieval Cholas, Later Cholas, Later Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Marathas and the British The town is known for the Thyagaraja temple, and the annual chariot festival held in the month of April The temple chariot of the Thyagaraja temple, weighing 300 tonnes 660,000 lb and measuring 90 feet 27 m tall is the largest temple chariot in Tamil Nadu Thiruvarur is the birthplace of Tyagaraja, Muthuswami Dikshitar and Syama Sastri, popularly known as the Trinity of Carnatic music of the 18th century CE

Thiruvarur was a part of Thanjavur district till 1991 and Nagapattinam district until 1997; it became the headquarters of Tiruvarur district when it was carved out of Nagapattinam district in 1997 The Odambokki river passes through the centre of the town2 Thiruvarur covers an area of 1047 km2 404 sq mi and had a population of 58,301 as of 20113 It is administered by a first grade municipality The town is a part of the Cauvery delta region and agriculture is the major occupation Roadways are the major means of transportation with a total of 9406 km 5845 mi of district roads including three national highways passing through the town

Contents

  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 History
  • 3 Geography
  • 4 Demographics
  • 5 Economy
  • 6 Transport
  • 7 Education and utility services
  • 8 Municipal administration and politics
  • 9 Culture
    • 91 The Thyagaraja temple
    • 92 Music, dance and literature
    • 93 Chariot festival
  • 10 Notes
    • 101 Footnotes
    • 102 Citations
  • 11 References
  • 12 External links

Etymologyedit

The historic name of the town was Aaroor Arur and it finds mention in the 7th century saiva canonical work, Tevaram4 The term Thiru is added to all temple cities that are mostly revered by the verses of Tevaram, which is the case of Arur becoming Thiruvarur Another name of Thiruvarur is Kamalaalayasetra, meaning the "holy place that is an abode of lotuses"; the town is also referred so due to the presence of the Kamalaalayam tank and the temple deity, Kamalambigai5 During the British Raj, the town was termed Tiruvalur,6 Tiruvaloor,7 and Thiruvalur8 As per the district and municipality websites, the district has the spelling "Tiruvarur", while the town has it as "Thiruvarur"910

Historyedit

Thyagaraja Temple – an important landmark of the town and one of the largest temples in Tamil Nadu11

As per folk legend, Thiruvarur is mentioned as the capital town of a legendary Chola king, Manu Needhi Cholan, who killed his own son to provide justice to a cow1213

Thiruvarur was one of the five traditional capitals of the Chola empire14 and the history of town revolves around the Thygarajaswamy temple15 Thiruvarur is mentioned in the saiva canonical work, Tevaram by Thirugnana Sambanthar, Tirunavukkarasar and Sundarar, the foremost Saivite saints of 7th–8th century CE and classified as Padal petra stalam16 Tirunavukkarasar mentions several traditions of the temple like Marghazhi Aathirai Vizha, Panguni Uttirai Perunaal and Veedhivitakanin Veedhi Panni The granite structure of the temple was first constructed by Aditya Chola I 871–907 CE in the 9th century CE and revamped during the reign of Rajaraja Chola I 985–1014 CE14 The temple was upgraded and rebuilt with stone by Rajendra Chola I 1012–44 CE The temple has inscriptions from both the emperors, later Cholas and Pandyas17 The temple is believed to be an inspiration for Rajaraja Chola to build the Brihadeeswarar Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site16

Inscriptions from the temple indicate Thiruvarur as the capital of Kulothunga Chola I 1070–1120 CE, during which the town emerged a centre of saivism18 After the fall of Cholas during the reign of Rajendra Chola II in the 13th century CE, the town was caught under a power struggle between Pandyas and Hoysalas15 The royal patronage continued and the town flourished as a cultural centre during the rule of the Nayaks, Vijayanagar kings and Marathas19 During the period of Marathas, the town became a temporary home to the Nataraja of Chidambaram temple15 The town was briefly captured by French troops led by Lally 1702–66 CE in 1759 CE20 The Thyagarajar temple was ransacked in a failed attempt to discover hidden treasure20 During the attempt, six brahmins of the temple, suspected to be spies of the British, were killed in an encounter20 The province and Tanjore were annexed by British after the failed attempt of the French to attack the King of Tanjore20 After independence, Thiruvaur continued to be a part of the Thanjavur district and Nagapattinam district till 1991 and 1997 respectively10 Thiruvarur was made the headquarters of Tiruvarur district when it was carved out of Nagapattinam district in 199710

Geographyedit

Thiruvarur is located at 9°17′N 79°18′E / 928°N 793°E / 928; 79317 The town is bounded by Sukumar river in the north, Valaiyar river in the south while the Odambokki river flows through the centre2 The town has an average elevation of 3 metres 98 ft from the sea level21 The municipality covers an area of 1047 km2 404 sq mi3 Thiruvarur is situated at a distance of 300 km from Chennai, 24 km 15 mi from Nagapattinam, 40 km 25 mi from Karaikal, 40 km 25 mi from Mayiladuthurai and 56 km 35 mi from Thanjavur3 The town along with the district receives an annual rainfall of 1,260 millimetres 50 in22 The town experiences tropical climate during summer; from March to May The proximity to sea results in high humidity throughout the year and peaks 70% from August to May22 The town has a plain terrain of alluvial soil consisting of sand, silt and clay23 Vennar and Vettar, the tributaries of river Cauvery are the major water bodies around the town24 Surface water canals contribute 89% to irrigation, while the rest 11% is accounted by dug wells and tube wells24 Paddy is the major crop while the others being black gram, green gram, ground nut and gingely25

Climate data for Thiruvarur, India
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C °F 284
831
294
849
313
883
333
919
361
97
368
982
359
966
351
952
339
93
317
891
297
855
286
835
325
905
Average low °C °F 225
725
233
739
247
765
269
804
275
815
271
808
264
795
260
788
256
781
251
772
241
754
230
734
252
774
Average precipitation mm inches 299
1177
164
0646
201
0791
231
0909
419
165
493
1941
631
2484
797
3138
965
3799
2492
9811
4195
16516
2853
11232
1,4039
55272
Source: 26

Demographicsedit

Year Pop ±%
1971 35,858 —    
1981 43,654 +217%
1991 49,194 +127%
2001 56,341 +145%
2011 58,301 +35%
Sources:
  • 1971 – 2011:27
Religious census
Religion Percent%
Hindu    8438%
Muslim    1413%
Christian    139%
Sikh    002%
Buddhist    001%
Jain    002%
Other    005%
No religion    001%

During 1901, the population of the town stood at 15,43617 According to 2011 census, Thiruvarur had a population of 58,301 with a sex-ratio of 1,053 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 92928 A total of 5,779 were under the age of six, constituting 2,888 males and 2,891 females Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 32% and 66% of the population respectively The average literacy of the town was 82%, compared to the national average of 7299%28 The town had a total of 14997 households There were a total of 18,953 workers, comprising 672 cultivators, 960 main agricultural labourers, 318 in house hold industries, 15,596 other workers, 1,407 marginal workers, 47 marginal cultivators, 261 marginal agricultural labourers, 52 marginal workers in household industries and 1,047 other marginal workers27

As per the religious census of 2011, Thiruvarur had 8438% Hindus, 1413% Muslims, 139% Christians, 002% Sikhs, 001% Buddhists, 002% Jains, 005% following other religions and 001% following no religion or did not indicate any religious preference29

The population growth rate was higher during the decade of 1981–90 due to increased provision of social, economic and recreational facilities that caused the rural population to migrate to urban areas30 The overall growth rate had declined over the last two decades due to poor returns in agriculture and increased migration of agricultural labourers to other urban centres30 The population density of the town is high in the centre and low in the peripheral regions30

The town has 55% employed people; 127% are involved in primary occupations like agriculture, 28% in secondary occupations related to industries and 85% in teritiary occupations such as agricultural trading and tourism31 About 33% population of the town is involved in agriculture and most of them are involved in trading activities31 As per a survey conducted in 1997 by the Tamil Nadu Urban and Town Planning Department, 30 slums were identified in the town constituting 41% of the total population of the town30

Economyedit

Thiruvarur lies in the Kaveri River basin and the main occupation of the inhabitants of the town and surrounding regions is agriculture32 More than 70% of the workforce is involved in agriculture; 14% being cultivators and rest are agricultural labourers9 Paddy is cultivated in three seasons namely Kuruvai June–August, Samba August–January and Thaladi January–March32 The daily wages of the agricultural labourers is more than the rates fixed by the Tamil Nadu government, but due to the decline in number of days of work, the income levels are lower33 As of 1998, the male labourers were employed 150 days a year, while the female labourers for 120 days34 A government report in 2006 put these numbers at 120 and 100 days respectively34 Due to the discontinuity in the working days, the labourers migrate to other states like Gujarat and Kerala They also shift to other professions like construction industry in the urban centres and textile industry in the district34 There are no industrial estates in the town and the district – as of 2012, a government proposal is formulated to develop one at Vaippur village35 Modern agricultural tools like hullers have replaced labourers and reduce the profit margin of small trders and labourers36 There are no co-operative societies who acquire the farm products and the District Purchasing Centre, operated by the government of Tamil Nadu is the major procurer37

Being an agricultural town, the predominant industries are agriculture based like modern rice milling, palm oil refinery, poultry, live stock and coir based38 Tamil Nadu Civil Supplies Corporation operating a modern rice mill and South India Edible Oil involved in refining oil are the large scale industries in the town38 There are small service enterprises involved in automobile servicing, hotels, hospitals, boat repairing and nylon fishnet repairing39 There is a weekly market at Thanjai Salai and a daily market maintained by the municipality, where vegetables and fish are sold40

Nationalized banks such as State Bank of India, Indian Bank, Central Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, Indian Overseas Bank and private banks like ICICI Bank, City Union Bank have their branches in Thiruvarur41 Kumbakonam Co-operative Bank, Tiruvarur Co-operative Bank and Primary Agriculture Bank are the cooperative banks that have their branches in the town41 All these banks have their Automated teller machines located in various parts of the town41

Transportedit

Thiruvarur municipality accommodates 9406 km of roads: 549 km of BT roads, 1091 km of metal roads, 948 km of cement roads and 1875 km of highways42 Thiruvarur is connected by three national highways, NH 45A to Viluppuram, NH 67 to Coimbatore3 Thiruvarur is connected with Chennai, Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli, Karaikal and other major towns of Tamil Nadu through the state highways SH 23 from Mayiladuthurai to Thiruthuraipoondi, SH 67 from Thanjavur to Kodikkarai, SH 65 from Thiruvarur to Kumbakonam, SH 66 from Kumbakonam to Adiramapattinam, SH 67 from Nagore to Nachiyar Koil, SH 146 from Mannargudi to Sethubavachatram, SH 147 Kumbakonam to Karaikkal, SH 151 Kilvelur to Kachanam3 The Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation operates close to 175 daily services connecting various cities to Thiruvarur43 Most of the buses via Thiruvarur are operated by the corporation ply between Trichy and Velankanni43 The corporation operates a computerised reservation centre in the municipal bus stand of the town44 It also operates 25 town buses satisfying the local transport needs of Thiruvarur and the neighbouring villages43 The State Express Transport Corporation operates long distance buses connecting the town to Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram and Marthandam43

Thiruvarur railway junction is a four way junction connecting Thanjavur in the west, Mayiladuthurai in the north, Nagapattinam in the east and Thiruthuraipoondi in the south45 Gauge conversion between Mayiladuthurai and Thiruvarur was completed in August 2012 and the inaugural train ran from Bangalore to Nagore via Thiruvarur46 There are passenger trains to Trichy, Thanjavur, Mayiladuthurai, Karaikal, Mannargudi and Thiruthuraipoondi46 Gauge conversion between Thiruvarur and Karaikudi is in progress and there is only partial connectivity in the segment connecting Pattukottai, Thirthuraipoondi and Karaikudi There is a daily express train to Chennai via Mayiladuthurai and Ernakulam There are two trains from Mannargudi to Tirupathi and Velankanni to Goa, operated three times a week that pass through Thiruvarur46 The nearest airport to Thiruvarur is Tiruchirapalli Airport located 110 km 68 mi from the town47

Education and utility servicesedit

As of 2001, Thiruvarur has a lower literacy rate compared to other part of the state48 There are three government high schools out of a total of 15 schools in the town49 The Central University of Tamil Nadu, established by an act of parliament in 2009, provides collegiate education in the fields of arts and science50 There are five other arts and science colleges, one teacher training institute, three polytechnic colleges and two Industrial training institutes ITI in the town49

Electricity supply to Thiruvarur is regulated and distributed by the Thiruvarur circle of Tamil Nadu Electricity Board TNEB51 Water supply is provided by the Thiruvarur Municipality from Odambokki river; the distribution through water tanks located at Madapuram, Thendral Nagar, Kidarakondan, Kattapomman street, Mettupalayam, IP Koil street, Maruthapttinam and Weekly Shandy having a total capacity of 4,260 kl 1,130,000 US gal52 About 18 t 40,000 lb of solid waste is collected from the town everyday; 56% domestic wastes and 40% commercial wastes53 Thiruvarur municipality is implementing underground drainage and the current sewerage system for disposal of sullage is through septic tanks and public conveniences54 Roadside drains carry untreated sewage out of the town to let out raw into the sea or accumulates in low-lying area54

Thiruvarur comes under the Thiruvarur Telecom circle of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited BSNL, India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider Apart from telecom, BSNL also provides broadband internet service55 There are three government hospitals in the town; the largest of them is the District Headquarters Government Hospital56 There are 11 private hospitals and numerous medical shops catering to the healthcare need of the town56

Municipal administration and politicsedit

Municipality officials
Chairman V Ravichandran57
Commissioner Vacant58
Vice Chairman D Senthil59
Elected members
Member of Legislative Assembly M Karunanidhi60
Member of Parliament K Gopal61

Until 1860, Thiruvarur was the headquarters of a taluka of the same name17 It was declared a third grade municipality in 1914 during the rule of British10 It was promoted to a first grade municipality in 197848 The municipality has 30 wards and there is an elected councilor for each of those wards21 The municipality has seven revenue villages: Vilamal, Vijayaruram, Thiruvarur south, Thiruvarur North, Keelakavadhukudi, Ramage, Sundaravilakam and Kidaramkondan10 The functions of the municipality are devolved into six departments: general administration/personnel, engineering, revenue, health, town planning and information technology IT62 All these departments are under the control of a municipal commissioner who is the executive head62 The legislative powers are vested in a body of 30 members, one each from the 30 wards The legislative body is headed by an elected Chairperson assisted by a Deputy Chairperson63 Tiruvarur district was created in January 1997 and Tiruvarur town became the district headquarters10

Thiruvarur comes under the Thiruvarur assembly constituency and it elects a member to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly once every five years64 Till 2006, the constituency was reserved for SC Scheduled Caste candidates From the 1977 elections, the assembly seat was won by DMK for five times during 1977, 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2011 elections and Communist Party of India for four times during 1980, 1984, 1989 and 1991 elections65 The current MLA of the constituency is Muthuvel Karunanidhi, ex-chief minister and the leader of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam DMK60

Thiruvarur is a part of the Nagapattinam Lok Sabha constituency – it has the following six assembly constituencies – Thiruvarur, Nagapattinam, Thiruthuraipoondi, Vedaranyam, Kilvelur SC and Nannilam66 The current Member of Parliament from the constituency is DrKGopal from the AIADMK61 From 1957, the Nagapattinam parliament seat was held by the Indian National Congress for four times during 1957–1961,67 1962–67,68 1967–7169 and 1991–9670 CPI won the seat for 5 times during 1971–77,71 1977–80,72 1989–91,73 1996–9874 and 1998 elections75 DMK won 4 times during 1980–84,76 1999–2004,77 2004–0978 and 2009-2014 elections AIADMK won the seat two times during 1984–89 & 2014 - 79

Law and order in the town in maintained by the Thiruvarur sub division of the Tamil Nadu Police headed by a Deputy Superintendent80 There are three police stations in the town, one of them being an all-women police station81 There are special units like prohibition enforcement, district crime, social justice and human rights, district crime records and special branch that operate at the district level police division headed by a Superintendent of Police80

Cultureedit

The Thyagaraja templeedit

Thygaraja cult is associated with Somaskanda image depicting Shiva, Skanda and Parvathi

The ancient Thyagaraja Temple at Thiruvarur is dedicated to the Somaskanda aspect of Shiva Thygaraja is the iconic form of Somaskanda and is believed to have spread widely from the 10th century CE, the period coinciding the reign of Raja Raja Chola82 The temple complex spanning over an area of 20 acres 81,000 m2 has shrines dedicated to Vanmikanathar, Thyagaraja, Kamalaamba and numerous other deities13 Vanmikinathar is believed to have arisen from an anthill and from the trumpet flower, Bignonia Chelenoides1383 The Kamalalayam temple tank covers around 33 acres 130,000 m2, making it one of the largest in the country The temple chariot is the largest of its kind in Tamil Nadu11 Thyagaraja is believed to have performed 364 miracles in Thiruvarur similar to the 64 performed at Madurai Meenakshi Temple19 Pilgrims take a holy dip in the tank during Hindu auspicious occasions like equinox and eclipse84 The temple is also classified as Saptha Vidangam, meaning the seven temples having unique dance moves by Thyagaraja12 The Chola inscriptions refer Thyagaraja as Vidhividangar and the name "Thyagaraja" is believed to have emerged during the 15–16th century CE14

Year Pop
2001 260,750
2002 275,900
2003 301,100
2004 321,400
Sources:
  • 2001 – 04:85

Music, dance and literatureedit

Historically Thiruvarur has been a centre of eminent people in religion, arts and science Sundarar, an 8th-century Saivite saint, mentions "I am the slave of all those born in Thiruvarur" in his works in Tevaram15 Two of the 63 nayanmars of Saivite tradition namely, Kalarsinga Nayanar and Tandiyadigal Nayanar were born in Thiruvarur13 The Periyapuranam, a 12th-century Saiva canonical by Sekkizhar, dedicates a chapter to those born in Thiruvarur including these two saints15 The town was a traditional centre of music and dance – the inscriptions from Rajaraja Chola associates a large body of dancers associated with the temple15 Thiruvarur is home to Trinity of Carnatic music namely Thyagaraja 1767–1847 CE, Muthuswami Dikshitar 1775–1835 CE and Shyama Shastri 1762–1827 CE86 Muthuswami Dikshitar has sung eulogies of the temple deities of the Thyagarajaswami temple15 There was large influx of the acumen of South Indian culture to the town during the 17th century CE due to the political unrest in Thanjavur and increased patronage of the Maratha kings to Thiruvarur, resulting in developments in music and dance87 A unique musical instrument called Panchamuga Vadyam with each of its five ends ornamented differently is used in the temple A type of nadaswaram pipe instrument called Barinayanam is also a unique instrument found only in Thiruvarur

Chariot festivaledit

Thiruvarur temple chariot festival depicting the largest temple chariot in Tamil Nadu

Kulothunga Chola II 1133–50 CE enlarged the temple ritual to have fifty six festivals, some of which are followed in modern times8819 The annual chariot festival of the Thygarajaswamy temple is celebrated during April – May, correspondong to the Tamil month of Chitrai12 The chariot is the largest of its kind in Tamil Nadu weighing 300 tonne with a height of 90 feet12 The chariot comes around the four main streets surrounding the temple during the festival12 The event is attended by lakhs of people from all over Tamil Nadu12 The chariot festival is followed by the "Theppam", meaning float festival The Carnatic music festival celebrated every year also garners large audience85 The town has 10 parks, with the Somasundaram Park at Panagal Road and Municipal Park at Thendral Nagar being the most prominent of them85

Notesedit

Footnotesedit

  • ^ The official spelling, as per the municipality website is "Thiruvarur"

Citationsedit

  1. ^ "Census India 2011" Government of India Retrieved 5 March 2016 
  2. ^ a b Tamil Nadu Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited 2008, p 5
  3. ^ a b c d e Tamil Nadu Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited 2008, p 6
  4. ^ Muthalam Thirumurai Translation 2012
  5. ^ Dhere 2011, p 53
  6. ^ Hunter 1908, pp 225–229
  7. ^ Dodwell 1920, p 48
  8. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1833, p 146
  9. ^ a b MSME Development Institute 2012, p 1
  10. ^ a b c d e f About the town 2011
  11. ^ a b Tamil Nadu Tourism 2011
  12. ^ a b c d e f The Hindu & 16 July 2010
  13. ^ a b c d Ayyar 1991, pp 369–374
  14. ^ a b c Vasudevan 2003, pp 135–138
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Ghose 1998, p 59-60
  16. ^ a b Ghose 1998, p 58
  17. ^ a b c d W 2002, p 167
  18. ^ Ayyar 1991, p 215
  19. ^ a b c Ayyar 1991, p 375
  20. ^ a b c d Dodwell 1920, p 166
  21. ^ a b Citizen's charter of Thiruvarur Municipality 2011
  22. ^ a b V 2008, p 3
  23. ^ V 2008, p 4
  24. ^ a b V 2008, p 1
  25. ^ Agricultural contigency plan 2008, p 4
  26. ^ Climatology of Nagapattinam 2011
  27. ^ a b Thiruvarur population 2011
  28. ^ a b India population dashboard 2011
  29. ^ "Population By Religious Community - Tamil Nadu" XLS Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India 2011 Retrieved 13 September 2015 
  30. ^ a b c d Tamil Nadu Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited 2008, pp 7–10
  31. ^ a b Tamil Nadu Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited 2008, pp 11–13
  32. ^ a b Palanithurai & Ramesh 2008, p 102
  33. ^ Palanithurai & Ramesh 2008, pp 103=104
  34. ^ a b c Palanithurai & Ramesh 2008, p 105
  35. ^ MSME Development Institute 2012, p 6
  36. ^ Palanithurai & Ramesh 2008, p 124
  37. ^ Palanithurai & Ramesh 2008, p 125
  38. ^ a b Tiruvarur district industrial profile 2012
  39. ^ MSME Development Institute 2012, p 9
  40. ^ Tamil Nadu Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited 2008, p 30
  41. ^ a b c Thiruvarur town Banks 2011
  42. ^ Thiruvarur roads 2011
  43. ^ a b c d The Hindu & 13 July 2012
  44. ^ SETC Computer reservation centres 2004
  45. ^ The Hindu & 15 July 2010
  46. ^ a b c The Hindu & 2 July 2012
  47. ^ Thiruvarur transport 2011
  48. ^ a b Thiruvarur Municipality features 2011
  49. ^ a b Thiruvarur schools 2011
  50. ^ Central University of Tamil Nadu 2009
  51. ^ TNEB region details 2011
  52. ^ Thiruvarur water supply 2011
  53. ^ Waste management programme 2011
  54. ^ a b Thiruvarur sewarage 2011
  55. ^ BSNL 2011
  56. ^ a b Thiruvarur hospitals 2011
  57. ^ Thiruvarur Municipality Chairman 2011
  58. ^ Thiruvarur Municipality Commissioner 2011
  59. ^ Thiruvarur Municipality Vice Chairman 2011
  60. ^ a b MLA of Thiruvarur 2011
  61. ^ a b MP of Nagapattinam 2014
  62. ^ a b Commissionerate of Municipal Administration 2006
  63. ^ Economic and political weekly 1995
  64. ^ List of Assembly constituencies 2010
  65. ^ Partywise Comparison Since 1977 2011
  66. ^ The Hindu & 31 March 2009
  67. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1957 to the Second Lok Sabha
  68. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1962 to the Third Lok Sabha
  69. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1967 to the Fourth Lok Sabha
  70. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1991 to the Tenth Lok Sabha
  71. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1971 to the Fifth Lok Sabha
  72. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1977 to the Sixth Lok Sabha
  73. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1989 to the Ninth Lok Sabha
  74. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1996 to the Eleventh Lok Sabha
  75. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1998 to the Twelfth Lok Sabha
  76. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1980 to the Seventh Lok Sabha
  77. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1999 to the Thirteenth Lok Sabha
  78. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 2004 to the Fourteenth Lok Sabha
  79. ^ Key highlights of the general elections 1984 to the Eighth Lok Sabha
  80. ^ a b Thiruvarur district police 2011
  81. ^ Thiruvarur police 2011
  82. ^ Ghose 1998, p 24
  83. ^ Kersenboom-Story 1998, p 17
  84. ^ Ayyar 1991, p 7
  85. ^ a b c Tamil Nadu Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited 2008, pp 35–36
  86. ^ Kumar 2003, pp 216–219
  87. ^ Kersenboom-Story 1998, p 41
  88. ^ Ghose 1998, p 331

Referencesedit

  • Ayyar, P V Jagadisa 1991, South Indian shrines: illustrated, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, ISBN 81-206-0151-3 
  • Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1833, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 1, London: Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 
  • Dhere, Ramchandra Chintaman 2011 Rise of a Folk God:Vitthal of Pandharpur: Vitthal of Pandharpur Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-977759-4 
  • Dodwell, Henry 1920 Dupleix and Clive Forgotten Books ISBN 9781451011074 
  • Hunter, Sir William Wilson 1908, Imperial Gazetteer of India Vol XXII Singbhum to Trashi-Chod-Zong, Oxford: Clarendon Press 
  • Ghose, Rajeshwari 1998, The Tyāgarāja cult in Tamilnāḍu: a study in conflict and accommodation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, ISBN 81-208-1391-X 
  • Kersenboom-Story, Saskia C 1998 Nityasumaṅgalī: Devadasi Tradition in South India Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited ISBN 81-208-1527-0 
  • Kumar, Raj 2003 Essays on Indian Music Discovery Publishing House ISBN 81-7141-719-1 
  • Palanithurai, Ganapathy; Ramesh, R 2008 Globalization, Issues at the Grassroots Concept Publishing Company ISBN 978-81-80695-117 
  • W, Francis 2002 Gazetteer Of South India, Volume 1 Mittal Publications 
  • Vasudevan, Geetha 2003 The Royal Temple of Rajaraja: An Instrument of Imperial Cola Power Abhinav Publications ISBN 81-7017-383-3 
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  • "Over 190 ‘sensitive’ booths in Nagapattinam constituency" The Hindu 31 March 2009 Retrieved 26 June 2012 
  • "Tiruvarur to get new bus stand" The Hindu 13 July 2012 Retrieved 9 October 2012 
  • "Train trip down memory lane" The Hindu Chennai, India 15 July 2010 Retrieved 9 October 2012 
  • "Bangalore-Salem passenger commences maiden journey" The Hindu Tiruchirapalli, India 2 July 2012 Retrieved 9 October 2012 
  • "Census Info 2011 Final population totals – Thiruvarur" Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India 2013 Retrieved 26 January 2014 
  • "Census Info 2011 Final population totals" Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India 2013 Retrieved 26 January 2014 
  • "Climatology of Nagapattinam" Indian Meteorological Department 2011 Retrieved 2012-11-06 
  • "Thiruvarur at Tamil Nadu tourism website" 2011 Retrieved 11 November 2006 
  • "Muthalam Thirumurai Translation" Thevaaramorg 2012 Retrieved 6 September 2012 
  • "Central University of Tamil Nadu" Central University of Tamil Nadu 2009 Retrieved 9 October 2012 
  • "Partywise Comparison Since 1977" Election Commission of India Retrieved 16 April 2011 
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  • "Tiruvarur district police" PDF Tamil Nadu Police 2011 pp 1–7 Retrieved 26 June 2012 
  • "Thiruvarur police" Thiruvarur Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu 2011 Retrieved 26 June 2012 
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  • "Vice Chairman of Thiruvarur" Thiruvarur Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu 2011 Retrieved 26 June 2012 
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  • "List of Assembly Constituencies" Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu state government 2010 Retrieved 30 June 2012 
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  • "Thiruvarur schools" Thiruvarur Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu 2011 Retrieved 26 June 2012 
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  • "Waste management programme" Thiruvarur Municipality, Government of Tamil Nadu 2011 Retrieved 26 June 2012 
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  • "Tiruvarur district industrial profile" Department of Industry and Commerce, Government of Tamil Nadu 2012 Retrieved 8 June 2012 
  • Tamil Nadu Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited 2008 City corporate plan cum business plan for Thiruvarur municipality PDF Report Tamil Nadu Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited Retrieved 8 June 2012 
  • V, Dhinagaran 2008 District ground water brochure PDF Report Central ground water board Retrieved 8 June 2012 
  • Agricultural contigency plan PDF Report Tamil nadu Agricultural University 2008 pp 1–10 Retrieved 8 June 2012 
  • MSME Development Institute 2012 Brief Industrial profile of Tiruvarur district PDF Report MSME Development Institute, Ministry of MSME, Govt of India Retrieved 8 June 2012 

External linksedit

  • Thiruvarur municipality official website
  • Tiruvarur district official website

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