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Theodor Nöldeke

theodor nöldeke the history of quran pdf, theodor nöldeke
Geschichte Qorâns,

Das Leben Mohammeds

Theodor Nöldeke 2 March 1836 – 25 December 1930 was a German orientalist, who was born in Harburg and studied in Göttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin

Contents

  • 1 Biography
  • 2 Nöldeke Chronology
    • 21 Organization of the Suras
      • 211 First Meccan Period
      • 212 Second Meccan Period
      • 213 Third Meccan Period
      • 214 Medinan Period
  • 3 Selected bibliography
  • 4 References
  • 5 Sources
  • 6 External links

Biographyedit

In 1859 his history of the Qur'an won for him the prize of the French Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, and in the following year he rewrote it in German Geschichte des Qorâns and published it with additions at Göttingen In 1861 he began to lecture at the university of this town, where three years later he was appointed extraordinary professor In 1868 he became ordinary professor at Kiel, and in 1872 was appointed to the chair of Oriental Languages at Strassburg, which he resigned in 1906

Nöldeke’s range of studies were wide and varied, but the main focus of his work has followed the two lines indicated by his prize essay, Semitic languages, and the history and civilization of Islam While a great deal of his work eg his Grammatik der neusyrischen Sprache, 1868, his Mandäische Grammatik, 1874, and his translations from the Arabic of Tabari, 1881–1882 is meant for specialists, many of his books are of interest to the general reader

Some of Nöldeke's studies are included in The Origins of The Koran: Classic Essays on Islam’s Holy Book edited by Ibn Warraq

Several of his essays first appeared in the Encyclopædia Britannica, and his article on the Qur'an, with some others, was republished in a volume called Oriental Sketches The articles dealing with Persia were republished in a German volume, Aufsätze zur persischen Geschichte Leipzig, 1887

Nöldeke died in Karlsruhe Charles Cutler Torrey and Friedrich Zacharias Schwally were his students

Nöldeke Chronologyedit

The Nöldeke Chronology is a modern application of Qur'anic organization Presented by Theodor Nöldeke in the middle of the nineteenth century, this perspective considers the sequence of revelation with the development of content and the origination of new linguistic styles Using this approach, the suras can be more closely ordered to match their true historical occurrence For example, Sura 21: “The Prophets,” although it is featured as the 21st chapter of a total 114 in the text of the Qur'an, is number 65 according to the Nöldeke Chronology From here, Nöldeke then divided the suras into two periods: The Meccan, broken into three phases, and the Medinan

According to the Nöldeke Chronology, the 114 Suras of the Qur'an are divided into four groupings:

  • 48 Suras under the First Meccan Period
  • 21 Suras under the Second Meccan Period
  • 21 Suras under the Third Meccan Period
  • 24 Suras under the Medinan Period

The Egyptian Edition, which was crafted 1924, is an adaptation of Nöldeke's work

The Nöldeke Chronology institutes a sort of "canonical order" that comes to systematize the sequence of revelation in a more coherent and comprehensive arrangement, thus aiding in the scholarly theological, literary, and historical interpretation of the Qur'an1 Although it does not have universal acceptance, the Nöldeke Chronology is used as a general guide within current scholarship2

Organization of the Surasedit

First Meccan Periodedit

96, 74, 111, 106, 108, 104, 107, 102, 105, 92,

90, 94, 93, 97, 86, 91, 80, 68, 87, 95,

103, 85, 73, 101, 99, 82, 81, 53, 84, 100,

79, 77, 78, 88, 89, 75, 83, 69, 51, 52,

56, 70, 55, 112, 109, 113, 114, 1

Second Meccan Periodedit

54, 37, 71, 76, 44, 50, 20, 26, 15, 19,

38, 36, 43, 72, 67, 23, 21, 25, 17, 27, 18

Third Meccan Periodedit

32, 41, 45, 16, 30, 11, 14, 12, 40, 28,

39, 29, 31, 42, 10, 34, 35, 7, 46, 6, 13

Medinan Periodedit

2, 98, 64, 62, 8, 47, 3, 61, 57, 4, 65, 59, 33,

63, 24, 58, 22, 48, 66, 60, 110, 49, 9, 5

Selected bibliographyedit

  • Geschichte des Qorâns 1860
  • Das Leben Mohammeds 1863
  • Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Poesie der alten Araber 1864
  • Die alttestamentliche Literatur 1868
  • Untersuchungen zur Kritik des Alten Testaments 1869
  • Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden Aus der arabischen Chronik des Tabari übersetzt 1879
  • Reste Arabischen Heidentums 1887
  • Zur Grammatik des klassischen Arabisch 1896
  • Fünf Mo'allaqat, übersetzt und erklärt 1899–1901
  • Articles in the Encyclopaedia Biblica 1903
  • Beiträge zur semitischen Sprachwissenschaft 1904
  • Compendious Syriac Grammar 1880, 1888, 1904 translation

He contributed frequently to the Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft, the Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen and the Expositor

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Ernst 2011, p 43
  2. ^ Böwering 2008, p 73

Sourcesedit

  • Böwering, Gerhard 2008 "Recent research on the construction of the Qur'ān" In Reynolds, Gabriel Said The Qur’ān in Its Historical Context Routledge pp 70–87 ISBN 9780203939604 
  • Ernst, Carl W 2011 How to Read the Qur'an: A New Guide, with Select Translations Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press ISBN 9780807869079 
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed 1911 "Nöldeke, Theodor" Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed Cambridge University Press 

External linksedit

  • Marco Frenschkowski 1993 "Nöldeke, Theodor" In Bautz, Traugott Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon BBKL in German 6 Herzberg: Bautz cols 979–983 ISBN 3-88309-044-1 
  • History of Sasanian's State

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