Wed . 19 Jun 2019

T cell deficiency

t-cell deficiency disease, t-cell deficiency
T cell deficiency is a deficiency of T cells, caused by decreased function of individual T cells, it causes an immunodeficiency of cell-mediated immunity T cells normal function is to help with the human body's immunity, they are one of the two primary types of lymphocytesthe other being B cells

Contents

  • 1 Symptoms and signs
  • 2 Mechanism
    • 21 Pathogens of concern
  • 3 Diagnosis
    • 31 Types
      • 311 Primary or secondary
        • 3111 Complete or partial deficiency
  • 4 Treatment
    • 41 Epidemiology
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 Further reading
  • 8 External links

Symptoms and signs

Presentations differ among causes, but T cell insufficiency generally manifests as unusually severe common viral infections respiratory syncytial virus, rotavirus, diarrhea, and eczematous or erythrodermatous rashes Failure to thrive and cachexia are later signs of a T-cell deficiency

Mechanism

In terms of the normal mechanism of T cell we find that it is a type of white blood cell that has an important role in immunity, and is made from thymocytes One sees in the partial disorder of T cells that happen due to cell signaling defects, are usually caused by hypomorphic gene defects Generally, microdeletion of 22Q112 is the most often seen

Pathogens of concern

Further information: Intracellular pathogen

The main pathogens of concern in T cell deficiencies are intracellular pathogens, including Herpes simplex virus, Mycobacterium and Listeria Also, intracellular fungal infections are also more common and severe in T cell deficiencies Other intracellular pathogens of major concern in T cell deficiency are:

  • Mycobacterium avium intracellulare
  • Salmonella species
  • Rhodococcus equi
  • Pneumocystis jirovecii
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Cryptosporidium parvum
  • Leishmania species
  • Herpesviridae herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus and varicella zoster
  • Cryptococcus neoformans
  • Histoplasma capsulatum

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of T cell deficiency can be ascertained in those individuals with this condition via the following:

  • Delayed hypersensitivity skin test
  • T cell count
  • Detection via cultureinfection

Types

Primary or secondary

  • Primary or hereditary immunodeficiencies of T cells include some that cause complete insufficiency of T cells, such as severe combined immunodeficiency SCID, Omenn syndrome, and Cartilage–hair hypoplasia
Lymphoma
  • Secondary causes are more common than primary ones Secondary or acquired causes are mainly:
  • AIDS
  • Cancer chemotherapy
  • Lymphoma
  • Glucocorticoid therapy
Complete or partial deficiency
  • Complete insufficiency of T cell function can result from hereditary conditions also called primary conditions such as severe combined immunodeficiency SCID, Omenn syndrome, and cartilage–hair hypoplasia
  • Partial insufficiencies of T cell function include acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS, and hereditary conditions such as DiGeorge syndrome DGS, chromosomal breakage syndromes CBSs, and B-cell and T-cell combined disorders such as ataxia-telangiectasia AT and Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome WAS

Treatment

Transfused bone marrow in preparation for transplant

In terms of the management of T cell deficiency for those individuals with this condition the following can be applied:

  • Killed vaccines should be usednot live vaccines in T cell deficiency
  • Bone marrow transplant
  • Immunoglobulin replacement
  • Antiviral therapy
  • Supplemental nutrition

Epidemiology

In the US this defect occurs in about 1 in 70,000, with the majority of cases presenting in early life Furthermore, SCID has an incidence of approximately 1 in 66,000 in California

See also

  • B cell deficiency

References

  1. ^ a b c "Immunodeficiency Primary and Secondary Information" patientinfo Retrieved 2017-05-18 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Medscape > T-cell Disorders Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Harumi Jyonouchi, MD Updated: May 16, 2011
  3. ^ a b Fried, Ari J; Bonilla, Francisco A 2017-05-19 "Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management of Primary Antibody Deficiencies and Infections" Clinical Microbiology Reviews 22 3: 396–414 doi:101128/CMR00001-09 ISSN 0893-8512 PMC 2708392  PMID 19597006 
  4. ^ a b "T-cell count: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia" medlineplusgov Retrieved 2017-05-18 
  5. ^ Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, Raff M, Roberts k, Walter P 2002 Molecular Biology of the Cell Garland Science: New York, NY pg 1367
  6. ^ Cole, Theresa S; Cant, Andrew J 2010 "Clinical experience in T cell deficient patients" Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology 6: 9 doi:101186/1710-1492-6-9 ISSN 1710-1492 PMC 2877019  PMID 20465788 
  7. ^ Prasad, Paritosh 2013 Pocket Pediatrics: The Massachusetts General Hospital for Children Handbook of Pediatrics Lippincott Williams & Wilkins p Google books gives no page ISBN 9781469830094 Retrieved 19 May 2017 
  8. ^ a b Page 435 in: Jones, Jane; Bannister, Barbara A; Gillespie, Stephen H 2006 Infection: Microbiology and Management Wiley-Blackwell ISBN 1-4051-2665-5 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Page 432, Chapter 22, Table 221 in: Jones, Jane; Bannister, Barbara A; Gillespie, Stephen H 2006 Infection: Microbiology and Management Wiley-Blackwell ISBN 1-4051-2665-5 
  10. ^ http://emedicinemedscapecom/article/885493-overview#a5

Further reading

  • Verbsky, James W; Chatila, Talal A 2017-05-12 "T Regulatory Cells in Primary Immune Deficiencies" Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 11 6: 539–544 doi:101097/ACI0b013e32834cb8fa ISSN 1528-4050 PMC 3718260  PMID 21986549 

External links

Classification V · T · D
  • ICD-10: D848,
  • ICD-9-CM: 2793


  • Pubmed

t-cell deficiency, t-cell deficiency disease, t-cell deficiency diseases, t-cell deficiency disorders, t-cell deficiency icd 10, t-cell deficiency in children, t-cell deficiency in infants, t-cell deficiency symptoms, t-cell deficiency test


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T cell deficiency


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    T cell deficiency beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


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