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symbiosis, symbiosis pune
Symbiosis from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living"2 is a close and often long-term interaction between two different biological species In 1877, Albert Bernhard Frank used the word symbiosis which previously had been used to depict people living together in community to describe the mutualistic relationship in lichens3 In 1879, the German mycologist Heinrich Anton de Bary defined it as "the living together of unlike organisms"45

The definition of symbiosis has varied among scientists Some advocated that the term "symbiosis" should only refer to persistent mutualisms, while others thought it should apply to any type of persistent biological interaction in other words mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic6 After 130 years of debate,7 current biology and ecology textbooks now use the latter "de Bary" definition or an even broader definition where symbiosis means all species interactions, and the restrictive definition where symbiosis means mutualism only is no longer used8

Some symbiotic relationships are obligatory, which means that one or both of the symbionts entirely depend on each other for survival For example, in lichens, which consist of fungal and photosynthetic symbionts, the fungal partners cannot live on their own491011 The algal or cyanobacterial symbionts in lichens, such as Trentepohlia, can generally live independently, and their symbiosis is, therefore, facultative optional

Symbiotic relationships include those associations in which one organism lives on another ectosymbiosis, such as mistletoe, or where one partner lives inside the other endosymbiosis, such as lactobacilli and other bacteria in humans or Symbiodinium in corals1213 Symbiosis is also classified by physical attachment of the organisms; symbiosis in which the organisms have bodily union is called conjunctive symbiosis, and symbiosis in which they are not in union is called disjunctive symbiosis14

Very often, symbiosis is considered a type of mutualism


  • 1 Physical interaction
  • 2 Mutualism
    • 21 Mutualism and endosymbiosis
  • 3 Commensalism
  • 4 Parasitism
  • 5 Amensalism
  • 6 Synnecrosis
  • 7 Symbiosis and evolution
    • 71 Vascular plants
    • 72 Symbiogenesis
    • 73 Co-evolution
  • 8 List of symbioses
  • 9 See also
  • 10 References
  • 11 Bibliography
  • 12 External links

Physical interactionedit

Main article: Physical interaction See also: Root microbiome Alder tree root nodule

Endosymbiosis is any symbiotic relationship in which one symbiont lives within the tissues of the other, either within the cells or extracellularly1315 Examples include diverse microbiomes, rhizobia, nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live in root nodules on legume roots; actinomycete nitrogen-fixing bacteria called Frankia, which live in alder root nodules; single-celled algae inside reef-building corals; and bacterial endosymbionts that provide essential nutrients to about 10%–15% of insects

Ectosymbiosis, also referred to as exosymbiosis, is any symbiotic relationship in which the symbiont lives on the body surface of the host, including the inner surface of the digestive tract or the ducts of exocrine glands1316 Examples of this include ectoparasites such as lice, commensal ectosymbionts such as the barnacles that attach themselves to the jaw of baleen whales, and mutualist ectosymbionts such as cleaner fish


Main article: Mutualism biology Hermit crab, Calcinus laevimanus, with sea anemone

Mutualism or interspecies reciprocal altruism is a relationship between individuals of different species where both individuals benefit17 In general, only lifelong interactions involving close physical and biochemical contact can properly be considered symbiotic Mutualistic relationships may be either obligate for both species, obligate for one but facultative for the other, or facultative for both Many biologists restrict the definition of symbiosis to close mutualist relationships

Bryoliths document a mutualistic symbiosis between a hermit crab and encrusting bryozoans; Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania

A large percentage of herbivores have mutualistic gut flora that help them digest plant matter, which is more difficult to digest than animal prey12 This gut flora is made up of cellulose-digesting protozoans or bacteria living in the herbivores' intestines18 Coral reefs are the result of mutualisms between coral organisms and various types of algae that live inside them19 Most land plants and land ecosystems rely on mutualisms between the plants, which fix carbon from the air, and mycorrhyzal fungi, which help in extracting water and minerals from the ground20

An example of mutual symbiosis is the relationship between the ocellaris clownfish that dwell among the tentacles of Ritteri sea anemones The territorial fish protects the anemone from anemone-eating fish, and in turn the stinging tentacles of the anemone protect the clownfish from its predators A special mucus on the clownfish protects it from the stinging tentacles21

A further example is the goby fish, which sometimes lives together with a shrimp The shrimp digs and cleans up a burrow in the sand in which both the shrimp and the goby fish live The shrimp is almost blind, leaving it vulnerable to predators when outside its burrow In case of danger the goby fish touches the shrimp with its tail to warn it When that happens both the shrimp and goby fish quickly retreat into the burrow22 Different species of gobies Elacatinus spp also exhibit mutualistic behavior through cleaning up ectoparasites in other fish23

Another non-obligate symbiosis is known from encrusting bryozoans and hermit crabs that live in a close relationship The bryozoan colony Acanthodesia commensale develops a cirumrotatory growth and offers the crab Pseudopagurus granulimanus a helicospiral-tubular extension of its living chamber that initially was situated within a gastropod shell24

One of the most spectacular examples of obligate mutualism is between the siboglinid tube worms and symbiotic bacteria that live at hydrothermal vents and cold seeps The worm has no digestive tract and is wholly reliant on its internal symbionts for nutrition The bacteria oxidize either hydrogen sulfide or methane, which the host supplies to them These worms were discovered in the late 1980s at the hydrothermal vents near the Galapagos Islands and have since been found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in all of the world's oceans25

There are also many types of tropical and sub-tropical ants that have evolved very complex relationships with certain tree species26

Mutualism and endosymbiosisedit

During mutualistic symbioses, the host cell lacks some of the nutrients, which are provided by the endosymbiont As a result, the host favors endosymbiont's growth processes within itself by producing some specialized cells These cells affect the genetic composition of the host in order to regulate the increasing population of the endosymbionts and ensuring that these genetic changes are passed onto the offspring via vertical transmission heredity27

Adaptation of the endosymbiont to the host's lifestyle leads to many changes in the endosymbiont–the foremost being drastic reduction in its genome size This is due to many genes being lost during the process of metabolism, and DNA repair and recombination While important genes participating in the DNA to RNA transcription, protein translation and DNA/RNA replication are retained That is, a decrease in genome size is due to loss of protein coding genes and not due to lessening of inter-genic regions or open reading frame ORF size Thus, species that are naturally evolving and contain reduced sizes of genes can be accounted for an increased number of noticeable differences between them, thereby leading to changes in their evolutionary rates As the endosymbiotic bacteria related with these insects are passed on to the offspring strictly via vertical genetic transmission, intracellular bacteria goes through many hurdles during the process, resulting in the decrease in effective population sizes when compared to the free living bacteria This incapability of the endosymbiotic bacteria to reinstate its wild type phenotype via a recombination process is called as Muller's ratchet phenomenon Muller's ratchet phenomenon together with less effective population sizes has led to an accretion of deleterious mutations in the non-essential genes of the intracellular bacteria28 This could have been due to lack of selection mechanisms prevailing in the rich environment of the host2930


Phoretic mites on a fly Pseudolynchia canariensis Main article: Commensalism

Commensalism is a kind of inter-species relation, but it is not a type of symbiosis

Commensalism describes a relationship between two living organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped It is derived from the English word commensal, which is used of human social interaction The word derives from the medieval Latin word, formed from com- and mensa, meaning "sharing a table"1731

Commensal relationships may involve one organism using another for transportation phoresy or for housing inquilinism, or it may also involve one organism using something another created, after its death metabiosis Examples of metabiosis are hermit crabs using gastropod shells to protect their bodies and spiders building their webs on plants


Flea bites on a human is an example of parasitism Main article: Parasitism

Parasitism is a kind of inter-species relation, but it is not a type of symbiosis

A parasitic relationship is one in which one member of the association benefits while the other is harmed32 This is also known as antagonistic or antipathetic symbiosis14 Parasitic symbioses take many forms, from endoparasites that live within the host's body to ectoparasites that live on its surface In addition, parasites may be necrotrophic, which is to say they kill their host, or biotrophic, meaning they rely on their host's surviving Biotrophic parasitism is an extremely successful mode of life Depending on the definition used, as many as half of all animals have at least one parasitic phase in their life cycles, and it is also frequent in plants and fungi Moreover, almost all free-living animals are host to one or more parasite taxa An example of a biotrophic relationship would be a tick feeding on the blood of its host


Main article: Biological interaction § Amensalism

Amensalism is a kind of inter-species relation, but it is not a type of symbiosis

Amensalism is the type of relationship that exists where one species is inhibited or completely obliterated and one is unaffected by the other There are two types of amensalism, competition and antibiosis Competition is where a larger or stronger organisms deprives a smaller or weaker one from a resource Antibiosis occurs when one organism is damaged or killed by another through a chemical secretion An example of competition is a sapling growing under the shadow of a mature tree The mature tree can rob the sapling of necessary sunlight and, if the mature tree is very large, it can take up rainwater and deplete soil nutrients Throughout the process, the mature tree is unaffected by the sapling Indeed, if the sapling dies, the mature tree gains nutrients from the decaying sapling Note that these nutrients become available because of the sapling's decomposition, rather than from the living sapling, which would be a case of parasitismcitation needed An example of antibiosis is Juglans nigra black walnut, secreting juglone, a substance which destroys many herbaceous plants within its root zone33

Amensalism is an interaction where an organism inflicts harm to another organism without any costs or benefits received by the other34 A clear case of amensalism is where sheep or cattle trample grass Whilst the presence of the grass causes negligible detrimental effects to the animal's hoof, the grass suffers from being crushed Amensalism is often used to describe strongly asymmetrical competitive interactions, such as has been observed between the Spanish ibex and weevils of the genus Timarcha which feed upon the same type of shrub Whilst the presence of the weevil has almost no influence on food availability, the presence of ibex has an enormous detrimental effect on weevil numbers, as they consume significant quantities of plant matter and incidentally ingest the weevils upon it35


Synnecrosis is a kind of inter-species relation, but it is not a type of symbiosis

Synnecrosis is a rare type of symbiosis in which the interaction between species is detrimental to both organisms involved14 It is a short-lived condition, as the interaction eventually causes death Because of this, evolution selects against synnecrosis and it is uncommon in nature An example of this is the relationship between some species of bees and victims of the bee sting Species of bees who die after stinging their prey inflict pain on themselves albeit to protect the hive as well as on the victim This term is rarely used36

Symbiosis and evolutionedit

Leafhoppers protected by meat ants

While historically, symbiosis has received less attention than other interactions such as predation or competition,37 it is increasingly recognized as an important selective force behind evolution,1238 with many species having a long history of interdependent co-evolution39 In fact, the evolution of all eukaryotes plants, animals, fungi, and protists is believed under the endosymbiotic theory to have resulted from a symbiosis between various sorts of bacteria124041 This theory is supported by certain organelles dividing independently of the cell, and the observation that some organelles seem to have their own nucleic acid42

Vascular plantsedit

About 80% of vascular plants worldwide form symbiotic relationships with fungi, for example, in arbuscular mycorrhizas43


Main article: Symbiogenesis

The biologist Lynn Margulis, famous for her work on endosymbiosis, contends that symbiosis is a major driving force behind evolution She considers Darwin's notion of evolution, driven by competition, to be incomplete and claims that evolution is strongly based on co-operation, interaction, and mutual dependence among organisms According to Margulis and Dorion Sagan, "Life did not take over the globe by combat, but by networking"44


Symbiosis played a major role in the co-evolution of flowering plants and the animals that pollinate them Many plants that are pollinated by insects, bats, or birds have highly specialized flowers modified to promote pollination by a specific pollinator that is also correspondingly adapted The first flowering plants in the fossil record had relatively simple flowers Adaptive speciation quickly gave rise to many diverse groups of plants, and, at the same time, corresponding speciation occurred in certain insect groups Some groups of plants developed nectar and large sticky pollen, while insects evolved more specialized morphologies to access and collect these rich food sources In some taxa of plants and insects the relationship has become dependent,45 where the plant species can only be pollinated by one species of insect46

List of symbiosesedit

Some of the following symbioses have been discussed on this page, details on the others may be found on the linked pages

  • Thalassiosira pseudonana diatom and Ruegeria pomeroyi alphaproteobacterium
  • Ocellaris clownfish and Ritteri sea anemones
  • Goby fish and shrimp
  • Bryozoans and hermit crabs

See alsoedit

  • Anagenesis
  • Aposymbiotic
  • Aquaponics
  • Cheating biology
  • Cleaning symbiosis
  • Human Microbiome Project
  • Interspecies friendship
  • List of symbiotic organisms
  • List of symbiotic relationships
  • Microbial consortium
  • Multigenomic organism
  • Symbiosis chemical


  1. ^ Miller, Allie "Intricate Relationship Allows the Other to Flourish: the Sea Anemone and the Clownfish" AskNature The Biomimicry Institute Retrieved 15 February 2015 
  2. ^ συμβίωσις, σύν, βίωσις Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  3. ^ "symbiosis" Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed Oxford University Press September 2005  Subscription or UK public library membership required
  4. ^ a b Wilkinson 2001
  5. ^ Douglas 1994, p 1
  6. ^ Douglas 2010, pp 5–12
  7. ^ Martin, Bradford D; Schwab, Ernest 2012, "Symbiosis: 'Living together' in chaos", Studies in the History of Biology, 4 4: 7–25 
  8. ^ Martin, Bradford D; Schwab, Ernest 2013, "Current usage of symbiosis and associated terminology", International Journal of Biology, 5 1: 32–45, doi:105539/ijbv5n1p32 
  9. ^ Isaac 1992, p 266
  10. ^ Saffo 1993
  11. ^ Douglas 2010, p 4
  12. ^ a b c d Moran 2006
  13. ^ a b c Paracer & Ahmadjian 2000, p 12
  14. ^ a b c "symbiosis" Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary Philadelphia: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2007 Credo Reference Web 17 September 2012
  15. ^ Sapp 1994, p 142
  16. ^ Nardon & Charles 2002
  17. ^ a b Paracer & Ahmadjian 2000, p 6
  18. ^ "symbiosis" The Columbia Encyclopedia New York: Columbia University Press, 2008 Credo Reference Web 17 September 2012
  19. ^ Toller, Rowan & Knowlton 2001
  20. ^ Harrison 2005
  21. ^ Lee 2003
  22. ^ Facey, Helfman & Collette 1997
  23. ^ MC Soares; IM Côté; SC Cardoso & RBshary August 2008 "The cleaning goby mutualism: a system without punishment, partner switching or tactile stimulation" Journal of zoology 276 3: 306–312 doi:101111/j1469-7998200800489x 
  24. ^ Klicpera, A; PD Taylor; H Westphal 1 Dec 2013 "Bryoliths constructed by bryozoans in symbiotic associations with hermit crabs in a tropical heterozoan carbonate system, Golfe d'Arguin, Mauritania" Mar Biodivers Springer Berlin Heidelberg 43 4: 429–444 doi:101007/s12526-013-0173-4 ISSN 1867-1616 
  25. ^ Cordes 2005
  26. ^ Piper, Ross 2007, Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals, Greenwood Press
  27. ^ Latorre, A; Durban, A; Moya, A; Pereto, J 2011 The role of symbiosis in eukaryotic evolution Origins and evolution of life - An astrobiological perspective pp 326–339 
  28. ^ Moran, N A 1996 "Accelerated evolution and Muller's ratchet in endosymbiotic bacteria" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93: 2873–2878 doi:101073/pnas9372873 PMC 39726 PMID 8610134 
  29. ^ Andersson, Siv GE; Kurland, Charles G 1998 "Reductive evolution of resident genomes" Trends in Microbiology 6 7: 263–8 doi:101016/S0966-842X9801312-2 PMID 9717214 
  30. ^ Wernegreen, JJ 2002 "Genome evolution in bacterial endosymbionts of insects" Nature reviews, Genetics 3 11: 850–861 doi:101038/nrg931 PMID 12415315 
  31. ^ Nair 2005
  32. ^ Paracer & Ahmadjian 2000, p 7
  33. ^ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica nd Amensalism biology Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://wwwbritannicacom/EBchecked/topic/19211/amensalism
  34. ^ Willey, Joanne M; Sherwood, Linda M; Woolverton, Cristopher J 2013 Prescott's Microbiology 9th ed pp 713–38 ISBN 978-0-07-751066-4 
  35. ^ Gómez, José M; González-Megías, Adela 2002 "Asymmetrical interactions between ungulates and phytophagous insects: Being different matters" Ecology 83 1: 203–11 doi:101890/0012-965820020830203:AIBUAP20CO;2 
  36. ^ Lidicker, William Z August 1979 "A Clarification of Interactions in Ecological Systems" BioScience 29 8: 475–7 doi:102307/1307540 JSTOR 1307540 
  37. ^ Townsend, Begon & Harper 1996
  38. ^ Wernegreen 2004
  39. ^ Paracer & Ahmadjian 2000, pp 3–4
  40. ^ Brinkman 2002
  41. ^ Golding & Gupta 1995
  42. ^ "Symbiosis" Bloomsbury Guide to Human Thought London: Bloomsbury Publishing Ltd, 1993 Credo Reference Web 17 September 2012
  43. ^ Schüßler, A; et al 2001, "A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution", Mycol Res, 105 12: 1416, doi:101017/S0953756201005196 
  44. ^ Sagan & Margulis 1986
  45. ^ Harrison 2002
  46. ^ Danforth & Ascher 1997


  • Burgess, Jeremy 1994, Forum: What's in it for me, New Scientist 
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External linksedit

  • TED-Education video - Symbiosis: a surprising tale of species cooperation
  • Media related to Symbiosis at Wikimedia Commons
  • The dictionary definition of symbiosis at Wiktionary

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