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Svetozar Boroević

svetozar boroević, svetozar boroevic von bojna
First World War

  • Eastern Front
  • Italian Campaign
Awards Military Merit Cross,
Cross of the Order Star of Romania,
Persian Order of the Sun and the Lion,
Order of the Iron Crown,
Knights' Cross of the Order of Leopold,
Military Order of Maria Theresa

Kuk Feldmarschall Svetozar Boroević or Borojević 13 December 1856 – 23 May 1920 was an Austro-Hungarian field marshal who was described as one of the finest defensive strategists of the First World War1 He was given Austrian nobility as Baron Boroëvić von Bojna, and later rising to the rank of Field Marshal before the end of the First World War in 1918

Contents

  • 1 Private life
    • 11 Origin
    • 12 Family
  • 2 Military career
    • 21 Early career
    • 22 World War I
  • 3 After the war
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
    • 51 Sources
  • 6 External links

Private lifeedit

Originedit

Boroević was born on 13 December 1856 in the village of Umetić, Croatian Military Frontier, Austrian Empire present-day Croatia2 His father Adam was a Grenzer border guard officer,3 his mother was Stana née pl = noble Kovarbašić von Zboriste2 He was baptized in the Orthodox Church, most likely in the parish church in Mečenčani, where his father served4

Boroević was of Serb descent567891011 Boroević himself stated once that he was a Croat and that Croatia was his homeland,4 while he is often simply called "Croatian"41213141516

Familyedit

He had a brother, Nikola, a colonel who also received Austrian noble status in 191717

In 1889, he married Leontina von Rosner, a daughter of a late Austrian colonel, Friedrich Ritter von Rosner The couple had one son, Friedrich Borojević von Bojna, named after his mother's father The son died in 1918

Military careeredit

Early careeredit

Boroević joined cadet school at the age of ten After finishing grade school he moved to Kamenica and later Graz where he studied in military academies He attended the Liebenau cadet school in 18753

He advanced quickly through the ranks corporal in 1872, lieutenant in 1875 and became a commander in the Croatian Home Guard, an equivalent to the Hungarian Honved and the Austrian Landwehr, defensive troops of parts of the Danube Monarchy, in times of peace not belonging to the Imperial & Royal Army Before the First World War, he commanded the 42nd division of the Croatian Home Guard18 In 1903 he was formally released from the Home Guard, already having been assigned to the Imperial & Royal Army in 1898 During war, the defensive troops were part of the Armed Forces commanded by the Supreme Army Command Armeeoberkommando and could be used at the front

He distinguished himself in the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1878 and was promoted to the rank of Oberleutnant in 1880 Between 1887 and 1891 he underwent additional military training and worked as an instructor after that, becoming a major in 1892 In 1897, he was promoted to the rank of Oberst colonel, and appointed chief of staff of the Seventh Corps of the Imperial & Royal Army in June 1898, where he remained until February 1904 In 1904, he was promoted Major General Generalmajor In 1905, he was created a Hungarian nobleman since Croatia was one of the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown with the attribute von Bojna by the Emperor & King In 1908, the monarch made him Field Marshal Lieutenant Feldmarschallleutnant He became the commander of the Sixth Corps of the I & R Army in April 1912 and in 1913 General of the Infantry

World War Iedit

Svetozar Boroević Well

When World War I started in 1914 he was in command of the Sixth Corps on the Eastern Front In early September 1914 he became commander of the Third Army, and in early October he liberated Fort Przemysl, providing a temporary relief in the Siege of Przemyśl His troops then pulled back to hold positions around Limanowa, at the Dukla mountain pass, and elsewhere on the Carpathians, stopping the Russians from breaking out on the Danube The Russian counter-offensive in February and March 1915 almost managed to push Boroević's Third Army back towards Hungary, but they managed to hold just enough for the German reinforcements to arrive and save the already endangered Budapest and the Pressburg bridgehead They then proceeded to join the general Austro-Hungarian—German offensive with the Austro-Hungarian Fourth Army under Joseph Ferdinand and the German Eleventh Army under Mackensen that pushed back the Russians and eventually retook Przemysl

Boroević did not remain on the Eastern Front long enough to see Przemysl liberated in June, because on May 25, 1915 he was sent to the new Italian front, taking part of the Third Army with him and leaving the rest to Army Group Mackensen There Boroević became the Commander of the Fifth Army, with which he organized a defense against the Italians and broke countless offensives Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, Chief of Staff Generalstabschef, Supreme Army Command Armeeoberkommando, recommended that they fall back and avoid trying to defend the better part of today's Slovenia, claiming it was indefensible Boroević persisted with thirty of his detachments, maintaining that the Slovenes would stand their ground when faced with the defense of their own country This appealed to Emperor Francis Joseph and he was given command on the Soča Isonzo front

Boroević's troops contained eleven Italian attacks and he was hailed as the Knight of Isonzo in Austria-Hungary, while his soldiers adored him and called him Naš Sveto! "Our Sveto!" For valor in combat he was promoted to the rank of Generaloberst on May 1, 1916 On August 23, 1917 he rose to the position of commander of the Southwestern Front, which was later renamed Army Group Boroević In January 1918, he opposed Hungarian proposals to split Austria-Hungary's Army into separate Austrian and Hungarian units19 He became Field Marshal on February 1, 1918, and was also awarded numerous medals, including the highest order for Austro-Hungarian soldiers, the Military Order of Maria Theresia

He led to defeat the southern prong of the last Austro-Hungarian offensive at the Battle of the Piave River20 The front was maintained until end of October 1918, when the Italian army launched the decisive offensive of Vittorio Veneto and non-Austrian troops left their positions following the secessions of their nations from the dual monarchy Czechs and Slovaks on October 28, South Slavs on October 29, Hungary on October 31 After that Boroević fell back to Velden, where he sent a telegram to the Emperor offering to march on Vienna to fight the anti-Habsburg revolution in the imperial capital It is not certain whether the Emperor has been given this message Boroević doubted it; the offer was refused on behalf of the Emperor After the Imperial & Royal Army had been demobilized by the Emperor on November 6, Boroević was retired, by the I & R War Ministry in liquidation, by December 1, 1918

After the waredit

Tomb of Boroević at the Zentralfriedhof in Vienna, Austria

After the demise and disintegration of Austria-Hungary, Boroević decided to become a citizen of the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes He was not welcome despite offering his services to the National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs21 So he stayed in Carinthia, now Austria's southernmost state; his personal belongings, which were on transport in Slovenia, the former Austrian crownland of Carniola, were confiscated there Boroević could not understand the mean treatment he had to experience, "the only field marshal the Southern Slavs had ever produced", as he wrote in his memoirs

Boroević died in a hospital at Klagenfurt, the capital city of Carinthia His body was transferred to Vienna where he was entombed at the Central Cemetery Grave # 62 in the New Arcades to the right of the Church of St Charles Borromeo The grave had been paid for by the former emperor Charles, who lived in Switzerland then He could not take part in the funeral, since he had been banished from Austria for his lifetime by the Habsburg Law since April 3, 1919

See alsoedit

  • Austria-Hungary portal
  • Croatia portal
  • Royal Croatian Home Guard

Referencesedit

  1. ^ http://wwwaustro-hungarian-armycouk/biog/boroevichtmbetter source needed
  2. ^ a b Mirnik 2009, p 1
  3. ^ a b Dupuy 1992, p 94: "the son of a Grenzer border guard officer; attended the Liebenau cadet school 1875,"
  4. ^ a b c Pojić 2006, p 4
  5. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica 1922, p 1116: " who appointed a Serb Orthodox frontiersman Granicar, General Boroević, to the chief command on the Isonzo front"
  6. ^ Matica Srpska 1975: "Био је зван на ручак приликом посете познатог аустријског војсковође, пореклом Србина, Светозара Боројевића"
  7. ^ Horvat 1989, p 344

    Svetozar Borojević de Bojna, Srbin s Banije selo Borojevići kraj Mečenčana, odnosno Kostajnice

  8. ^ Hrvatski biografski leksikon 2 1989 pp 168–169 described as "of Serb Grenzer family descent" ; Pojić 2006, p 3
  9. ^ Schindler 2001, p 46

    son of a Serbian Grenzer family from Croatia

  10. ^ Palmer 1970

    regiments on this front; and one of the most successful Habsburg commanders was in fact a Serb from the old 'Military Frontier' region, Marshal Svetozar Boroevic, whose family had fought for the emperors through many generations

  11. ^ Tucker 1996, p 135
  12. ^ Palmer 2000, p 185
  13. ^ Tucker 1996, p 762
  14. ^ Burg 2004, p 67
  15. ^ Neiberg 2004, p 47
  16. ^ Keegan & Wheatcroft 1976, p 48: "A Croat the Croats prided them selves on their particular loyalty to the emperor"
  17. ^ Mirnik 2009, p 62: "a car i kralj Karlo I austrijsko plemstvo njegovu bratu, pukovniku Nikoli dana 16III 3V 1917 god"
  18. ^ Schindler 2001, p 46
  19. ^ Tucker 2006, p 355
  20. ^ Raab, David "Battle of the Piave: Death of the Austro-Hungarian Army, 1918" 2004 pag 77
  21. ^ Hrvatski biografski leksikon, volume 2, 1989, pp 168-169

Sourcesedit

  • Burg, David F Burg 2004 Almanac of World War I University Press of Kentucky p 67 ISBN 978-0-8131-9087-7 
  • Dupuy, Trevor N 1992 Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography New York: HarperCollins Publishers ISBN 978-0-7858-0437-6 
  • Horvat, Josip 1989 Politička povijest Hrvatske, Volume 1 in Croatian August Cesarec 
  • Keegan, John; Wheatcroft, Andrew 1976 Who's who in military history: from 1453 to the present day Morrow p 48 ISBN 978-0-688-02956-2 
  • Mirnik, Ivan 13 October 2009 Feldmaršal Svetozar barun Boroević od Bojne na cmedaljama PDF in Croatian Arheološki muzej u Zagrebu 
  • Neiberg, Michael S 2004 Warfare & society in Europe: 1898 to the presentI Routledge p 47 ISBN 978-0-415-32718-3 
  • Palmer, Alan 2000 Victory 1918 Grove Press p 185 ISBN 978-0-8021-3787-6 
  • Palmer, Alan 1970 The lands between: a history of East-Central Europe since the Congress of Vienna Macmillan 
  • Pojić, Milan 2006 Ćosić, Stjepan, ed "Vojskovođa Svetozar Boroević 1856-1920" PDF in Croatian Zagreb: Croatian State Archives 
  • Schindler, John R 2001 Isonzo: The Forgotten Sacrifice of the Great War Greenwood Publishing Group ISBN 978-0-275-97204-2 
  • Tucker, Spencer C 2006 World War I: A Student Encyclopedia' ABC-CLIO ISBN 978-1-85109-879-8 
  • Tucker, Spencer C 1996 The European Powers in the First World War Taylor & Francis ISBN 978-0-8153-0399-2 
  • Šurmin, Đuro 1904 Hrvatski preporod: Od godine 1836-1843 in Croatian Tisak Dioničke Tiskare 
  • Hrvatski biografski leksikon Croatian biographical lexicon in Croatian 2 Miroslav Krleža Lexicographical Institute 1989 pp 168–169 ISBN 978-86-7053-015-7 
  •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed 1922 "Boroevic von Bojna, Svetozar" Encyclopædia Britannica 32 12th ed London & New York 

External linksedit

  • Austro-Hungarian Field Marshals 1848-1918 -Svetozar Boroević von Bojna

svetozar boroevic von bojna, svetozar boroević


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