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Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty

stop huntingdon animal cruelty, stop huntingdon animal cruelty (shac)
Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty SHAC was an international animal rights campaign to close down Huntingdon Life Sciences HLS, Europe's largest contract animal-testing laboratory SHAC ended its campaign in August 2014 HLS tests medical and non-medical substances on around 75,000 animals every year, from rats to primates1234 It has been the subject of several major leaks or undercover investigations by activists and reporters since 19895

SHAC was started in November 1999 by three British animal rights activists—Greg Avery, Heather James, and Natasha Dellemagne—after video footage supposed to have been shot covertly inside HLS in 1997 by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals PETA showed HLS staff shaking, punching, and shouting at beagles in their care6 The footage was broadcast by Channel 4 in the UK, the employees were dismissed and prosecuted, and HLS's licence to perform animal experiments was revoked for six months PETA stopped its protests against the company after HLS threatened it with legal action, and SHAC took over as a leaderless resistance7

The campaign used tactics ranging from non-violent protest to the alleged firebombing of houses owned by executives associated with HLS's clients and investors The Southern Poverty Law Center SPLC, which monitors US domestic extremism, has described SHAC's modus operandi as "frankly terroristic tactics similar to those of anti-abortion extremists," and in 2005 an official with the FBI's counter-terrorism division referred to SHAC's activities in the United States as domestic terrorist threats89

In 2009 and 2010, 13 members of SHAC, including Avery, James, and Dellemagne, were jailed for between 15 months and eleven years on charges of conspiracy to blackmail or harm HLS and its suppliers1011

On 12 August 2014, SHAC officially announced it was closing its campaign12


  • 1 Background
  • 2 Structure
    • 21 SHAC UK
    • 22 SHAC USA
    • 23 Methods
      • 231 Secondary and tertiary targeting
      • 232 Shareholders
    • 24 Ties to the ALF
  • 3 Convictions and legislation
    • 31 2006: SHAC 7 US
    • 32 2007: Operation Achilles UK
    • 33 2008 onwards
  • 4 References
  • 5 Further reading


HLS tests household cleaners, pesticides, weedkillers, cosmetics, food additives, chemicals for use in industry, and drugs for use against Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and cancer1 It uses around 75,000 animals every year, including rats, rabbits, pigs, dogs, and primates marmosets, macaques, and wild-caught baboons13

The company has been the subject of several undercover investigations since 1989 Sarah Kite of the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection BUAV secured a job and filmed inside HLS in 1989 Zoe Broughton did the same for Channel Four in 1996, as Michelle Rokke claimed to have done for PETA in 1997 Lucy Johnston for The Daily Express gained access in 2000 A diary kept by Kite, who worked undercover there for eight months, alleged that HLS workers routinely mishandled the animals, shouting at them, throwing them into their cages, and mocking them for having fits in response to toxicity tests In 1997, Zoe Broughton came out with footage showing puppies being hit and shaken A year later, Michelle Rokke allegedly obtained footage of the vivisection of a monkey in HLS in New Jersey, in which a technician expresses concern that the animal is inadequately anaesthetized5 Between 2006 and 2008, an Animal Defenders International employee filmed undercover inside HLS after securing a position inside its primate toxicology unit in Cambridgeshire14

According to Mark Matfield of the Research Defence Society, a pro-animal testing lobby group in the UK, HLS lost a great deal of business after these investigations, primarily among the pharmaceutical industry "There was an ingrained feeling among scientists and business people that this company had transgressed in a very serious way," he said15



SHAC was founded in November 1999 by Greg Avery; his second wife, Natasha Avery née Dellemagne; and his first wife, Heather Nicholson née James Avery and Nicholson had been involved in previous high-profile campaigns against facilities in the UK that bred animals for laboratories In 1997, after a ten-month campaign, they caused the closure of Consort Kennels, which bred beagles for animal research Later that year, they started Save the Hill Grove Cats against Hill Grove farm in Oxfordshire, which bred cats for laboratories The farm closed after two years16

SHAC maintains a decentralized approach with no official central leadership, allowing activists throughout the UK and North America to act autonomously, though The Guardian described Avery in 2008 as the de facto leader17 After Avery was jailed, another activist, Thomas Harris, ran the group in the UK until he was imprisoned in 201011 Before their convictions, Nicholson, Avery, and Dellemagne would publish reports on the SHAC website and by mail, and provide press information and interviews; in April 2004 they were reported to be living together rent-free in a cottage provided by a supporter, Virginia Jane Steele18 SHAC also obtains income from fundraising stalls According to The Times, one stall in London's Oxford Street could generate £500 in a single day, and in total around £1 million in donations had been raised by 200819

According to prosecutors in a 2008 court case, the senior members of SHAC co-ordinated the campaign from a cottage in Little Moorcote, near Hook, Hampshire20 They would meet every three months to receive updates from colleagues in the United States and Europe21 According to The Times, Gavin Medd-Hall, a former computer technician, would lead research into potential targets The police found spreadsheets at the cottage documenting the location of targets and details about their children and security arrangements19 Sarah Whitehead, an experienced campaigner known in the group as "Mumsy", would lead younger members and carry up to five attacks in a night, according to the judge11


SHAC USA was founded in 2004 by Kevin Jonas, sometimes spelled Kjonaas by the media, a political science graduate of the University of Minnesota, after he had spent two years working in the UK with Greg Avery Prosecutors in the US said that a house in Somerset, New Jersey — a few miles from a HLS laboratory — was the headquarters of SHAC USA; Jonas lived there with Lauren Gazzola, SHAC USA's campaign co-ordinator, and Jacob Conroy22 According to Jonas, the "SHAC campaign" came to mean any action aimed at contributing to the demise of HLS, whether legal or not, while SHAC itself referred only to the incorporated group that ran a news and information service Jonas writes that these distinctions were made in various legal proceedings16 He told the Southern Poverty Law Center in 2002: "There's a very famous quote by John F Kennedy 'If you make peaceful revolution impossible, you make violent revolution inevitable'"23 After he was imprisoned in 2006 for inciting harassment against HLS, Pamelyn Ferdin, a former child actor, became president of SHAC USA22


Secondary and tertiary targetingedit

SHAC's modus operandi is known as secondary and tertiary targeting Activists engage in direct action—ranging from lawful protests to intimidation, harassment, and violent attacks—not only against HLS, its employees, and its employees' families, but also against secondary and tertiary targets such as HLS's business partners, and their business partners, insurers, caterers, cleaners, children's nursery schools, and office suppliers24 A New York yacht club, for example, was covered in red paint because members of the club worked for Carr Securities, which traded in HLS shares25 The campaign drove down HLS's profits, suppressed its share price, and made it difficult to find business and financial partners26

The Daily Mail cites as examples of SHAC activism sending letters to the neighbours of a man who did business with HLS, warning parents to keep their children away from him, falsely claiming that he had raped the letter writer when she was a child A woman in her 60s, who worked for a company targeted by SHAC, had every window in her house smashed during the night and found an effigy hanging outside her home, which read "RIP Mary, Animal Abusing Bitch"27

The SHAC website said it published names and addresses only so that people could protest within the law,28 but testimony to the British House of Commons in 2003 included excerpts from a document reported to have come from SHAC, which advised activists on tactics for protests outside targets' homes These included throwing rape alarms in roof guttering at night, setting off fireworks, and ordering taxis and pizzas29

In 2001, HLS managing director in the UK, Brian Cass, was beaten outside his home by three masked men — animal rights activist David Blenkinsop was sentenced to three years in prison for the attack — and HLS marketing director Andrew Gay was attacked on his doorstep with a chemical spray to his eyes that left him temporarily blinded30


In 2000, SHAC obtained a list of HLS shareholders, including the names of usually anonymous beneficial owners — those holding shares through third parties — and the pension funds of the British Labour Party, Rover cars, and the London Borough of Camden The list was passed to The Sunday Telegraph, which published it on 3 December 2000, and several beneficial owners disposed of their shares; the Labour Party sold its 75,000 shares in January 2001 Two weeks after the Telegraph story, an equity stake of 32 million shares was placed on the London Stock Exchange for one penny each31

On 21 December 2000, HLS was dropped from the New York Stock Exchange because its market capitalization had fallen below NYSE limits, and on 29 March 2001, HLS lost both of its market makers and its place on the London Stock Exchange Shortly after this, HLS moved its headquarters to the United States, incorporating as Life Sciences Research LSR, and secured a $15m loan from investment bank Stephens, Inc, its largest shareholder In September 2005, after the firebombing of the homes of a Canadian brokerage employee and a British pharmaceutical executive, the New York Stock Exchange asked LSR to delay moving its listing from the OTC Bulletin Board to the main exchange32 LSR has since transferred its listing to the NYSE Arca electronic exchange HLS is no longer a publicly traded company after being bought by CEO Andrew Baker33

In June 2005, Vancouver-based brokerage Canaccord Capital announced that it had dropped a client, Phytopharm PLC, in response to the May 2005 Animal Liberation Front ALF firebombing of a car belonging to Canaccord executive Michael Kendall The ALF stated on its website that activists placed an incendiary device under the car, which was in Kendall's garage at home when it caught fire during the night Kendall and his family went into hiding Phytopharm was targeted, as were those doing business with it, because it had business links with HLS34

In May 2006, an anonymous group said it would be writing to every one of GlaxoSmithKline's 170,000 small investors warning them to sell their shares The letters began arriving at investors' home addresses on 7 May 2006, asking that shares be sold within 14 days, and that the group be informed of the sale by e-mail via a Hotmail address35 The number of letters sent was smaller than claimed; the BBC said at least 50 shareholders received the warning36 Writing in The Sunday Telegraph the following week, British Prime Minister Tony Blair expressed support for animal experimentation in the face of an "appalling campaign of intimidation"citation needed

Ties to the ALFedit

The SHAC website features ALF news Kevin Jonas — who took charge of SHAC UK while the Averys and James were jailed for six months in 2002 — declared his support for the ALF, and Robin Webb, spokesman for the ALF in the UK, attended and addressed SHAC conferences in the United States7

A posting on the website Bite Back on 7 September 2005 claimed the ALF had carried out an attack on the home of Paul Blackburn, corporate controller of GlaxoSmithKline GSK, in Buckinghamshire, because GSK is a customer of HLS The activists admitted to detonating a device containing two litres of fuel and four pounds of explosives on the doorstep of Blackburn's home37 In 2006 the ALF warned that it was targeting HLS suppliers, and that year firebombed a car belonging to the finance director of Canaccord Capital, a brokerage firm Members of SHAC said the company had acted as brokers for Phytopharm, which had used HLS for contract testing38

In December 2006, Donald Currie was jailed for 12 years in connection with fire bombing offenses against HLS customers; police described him as an "active bomber for the Animal Liberation Front"39

A British police operation found that the core group of SHAC activists would compile private encrypted reports detailing the legal protests and an illegal blackmail campaign—the former attributed to SHAC, the latter claimed by the ALF or Animal Rights Militia19 In 2008 and 2010 when 13 SHAC members, including the Averys and Nicholson, were convicted of conspiracy to blackmail, police said their actions were on behalf of the ALF; senior members of SHAC were regarded by police as key figures within the ALF, according to The Guardian The members had sent incriminating emails describing their involvement in direct action, including one email sent to Bite Back in 2007 providing the details of an ALF attack the previous evening40 SHAC spokespersons have denied any link between their campaign and the ALF

The FBI linked SHAC with attacks claimed by the militant animal rights group, the Animal Liberation Brigade They issued an arrest warrant for Daniel Andreas San Diego, who they described as being "involved with the Stop Huntington Animal Cruelty campaign", in connection with bomb attacks against two of HLS's clients in California41 A wiretap of Kevin Jonas' telephone revealed San Diego had called him on the day of one of the bombings22 San Diego was added to the FBI Most Wanted Terrorists List in 2009 and remains at large42

Convictions and legislationedit

Several companies targeted by SHAC in the UK obtained injunctions These include HLS itself, Chiron UK, Phytopharm, Daiichi UK, Asahi Glass, Eisai, Yamanouchi Pharma, Sankyo Pharma, and BOC The injunctions compelled SHAC to print the injunction on their website, so that SHAC's action targets were juxtaposed with a legal notification that there was a 50-yard exclusion zone around the homes of employees and places of business Protest outside HLS itself was allowed to occur one day a week with a police presence HLS tried but failed in June 2004 to obtain a permanent injunction against SHAC SHAC's argument against the enforceability of such injunctions was that, despite having hundreds of supporters, a website, mailing address, telephone information hotline, mailing list, and bank account, it does not exist as a corporate or charitable body, and therefore cannot prevent its supporters from taking action against HLS43

SHAC's campaign prompted the introduction of sections 145–149 of the British Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005, which created new offences intended to protect animal-testing facilities, including prohibiting acts or threats intended to cause someone to terminate or not enter into a contract with such a facility44 The first person to be convicted under the Act was Joseph Harris, a doctor of molecular biology, who attacked property owned by companies supplying materials to HLS; he received a three-year sentence45 In February 2007, a number of SHAC supporters were charged with illegal street collecting without a licence46 According to the Metropolitan Police, two stalls in London's Oxford Street collected over £80,000 a year In March 2007, three activists were jailed under the Act for intimidating HLS suppliers; one supplier dropped its contract with HLS after being invaded by demonstrators wearing skull masks47

2006: SHAC 7 USedit

Logo of the SHAC 7 Support Group

In March 2006, a federal jury in Trenton, New Jersey, found six members of SHAC guilty of using their website to incite attacks on those who did business with HLS48 Originally, seven individuals the SHAC 7 were charged: Kevin Jonas former president of Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty USA, Lauren Gazzola, Jacob Conroy, Joshua Harper, Andrew Stepanian, Darius Fullmer, and John McGee McGee was later dropped from the case22 They were charged with conspiracy to violate the Animal Enterprise Protection Act, in the first application of the 1992 statute Jonas, Gazzola, Conroy, and Harper were charged with conspiracy to harass using a telecommunications device sending black faxes, while Jonas, Gazzola, Conroy, and SHAC USA were charged with stalking via the internet The defense of the SHAC 7 rested largely on the 1969 case Brandenburg v Ohio, in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that political speech is legal unless it can be shown that a defendant has told specific individuals to commit specific, imminent acts of violence49 They were sentenced on 3 March 2006, four of them to between three and six years, and ordered to pay joint restitution of $1,000,00100citation needed

In 2011, NPR reported that Andrew Stepanian of the SHAC 7 -- since released—had been imprisoned in the highly restrictive Communication Management Unit of the US federal prison system50

2007: Operation Achilles UKedit

On 1 May 2007, a series of raids—Operation Achilles—took place against SHAC in Europe, involving 700 police officers in England, Amsterdam, and Belgium10 Thirty-two people were arrested, including Greg and Natasha Avery, and Heather Nicholson, who were charged with blackmail, along with nine others51 The Averys pleaded guilty in July 2008, along with a co-accused Dan Amos In October 2008 Trevor Holmes, Gerrah Selby, Daniel Wadham, Gavin Medd-Hall, and Heather Nicholson, who denied the charges, were sent to court52 Prosecutors told jurors that a 2007 meeting between the defendants had been bugged by police, and revealed that SHAC supported illegal acts that were traced to attacks on people across Great Britain The prosecution also alleged there was evidence of direct email links between SHAC, the Animal Liberation Front, and Animal Rights Militia53 Holmes was acquitted but the other four were convicted

In January 2009, Nicholson was sentenced to 11 years imprisonment, Greg and Natasha to nine years, Medd-Hall to eight years, Wadham to five years, and Selby and Amos to four years54 Injunctions called Anti-Social Behaviour Orders were served on all seven, restricting their contact with companies targeted in the campaign55 In 2009 The Sunday Times reported that Adrian Radford, a former soldier and gay rights activist, had befriended Natasha Avery and had been informing the police about the activity of senior SHAC members between 2004 and 200756 Der Spiegel wrote that as a result of the police operation the number of attacks on HLS and associated businesses declined drastically,10 although the day after the convictions new posts on SHAC's website indicated that the campaign would continue57

2008 onwardsedit

In 2008, activists from various groups, including SHAC, targeted Highgate Rabbit Farm in Market Rasen, Lincolnshire, which sold rabbits and ferrets to HLS and other laboratories; the Close Highgate Farm campaign included an ALF raid in which 129 rabbits were removed and £100,000-worth of property damaged58 In 2009, a new group, Militant Forces Against Huntingdon Life Sciences, emerged in Germany and Switzerland, targeting Bayer staff, a Novartis director, the CEO of Pfizer, and Highgate farm, among others59

In 2010, five more members of SHAC pleaded guilty to criminal charges Sarah Whitehead, Nicole Vosper and Thomas Harris plead guilty to conspiracy to blackmail; Jason Mullan and Nicola Tapping plead guilty to breaching section 145 of SOCPA They were all jailed for between six years and fifteen months The Times reported that their activities included "posting hoax bombs to homes and offices, making threats of violence, daubing abusive graffiti on property and sending used tampons in the post"11 Harris' sentence was extended after he, Maria Neal and Christopher Potter also pleaded guilty to additional charges relating to attacks on branches of Barclays, including painting "ALF" on the buildings At the time Barclays Asset Management was linked to HLS60


  1. ^ a b "A controversial laboratory", BBC News, 18 January 2001
  2. ^ "New bill clamps down on animal activist activity", Drug Researcher, 17 November 2006
  3. ^ "From push to shove" Southern Poverty Law Center, Fall 2002
  4. ^ Townsend, Mark "Exposed: secrets of the animal organ lab", The Observer, 20 April 2003
  5. ^ a b "The First Investigation"; "It's a Dog's Life" Zoe Broughton for Channel Four in 1996; "HLS busted again" Michelle Rokke for PETA in 1997; and Johnstone, Lucy and Calvert, Jonathan "Terrible despair of animals cut up in name of research" Lucy Johnston for The Daily Express in 2000
    • Also see Mann, Keith From Dusk 'til Dawn: An insider's view of the growth of the Animal Liberation Movement Puppy Pincher Press, 2007, pp 198–199
    • "Undercover video footage of HLS employees apparently dissecting a live monkey", filmed at the HLS Princeton Research Center, New Jersey, accessed 20 June 2009
  6. ^ Alleyne, Richard "Terror tactics that brought a company to its knees", The Daily Telegraph, 19 January 2001
    • Also see "It's a Dog's Life", Countryside Undercover, Channel Four Television, 1997
  7. ^ a b Doward, Jamie and Townsend, Mark "Beauty and the beasts", The Observer, 1 August 2004
  8. ^ "From push to shove", Southern Poverty Law Group Intelligence Report, Fall 2002
  9. ^ Lewis, John E "Statement of John Lewis", US Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, 26 October 2005, accessed 17 January 2011
  10. ^ a b c Evers, Marco "Resisting the Animal Avengers", Part 1, Part 2, Der Spiegel, 19 November 2007
  11. ^ a b c d Weaver, Matthew "Animal rights activists jailed for terrorising suppliers to Huntingdon Life Sciences", The Guardian, 25 October 2010
  12. ^ "SHAC ends" Shacnet Retrieved 12 August 2014 
  13. ^ "From push to shove" Southern Poverty Law Group Intelligence Report, Fall 2002
    • Townsend, Mark "Exposed: secrets of the animal organ lab", The Observer, 20 April 2003
  14. ^ "Huntingdon Life Sciences Investigation", Animal Defenders International, 15 July 2009, accessed 17 January 2011
    • "HLS Infiltrated by Undercover Investigation", indybayorg, accessed 17 January 2011
    • Also see "Save the Primates", Animal Defenders International, shown at the European Parliament in February 2009, courtesy of YouTube, accessed 17 January 2011
  15. ^ Rudacille, Deborah The Scalpel and the Butterfly: The Conflict between Animal Research and Animal Protection University of California Press, 2001, p 286
  16. ^ a b Jonas, Kevin "Bricks and Bullhorns" in Best, Steven and Nocella, Anthony J eds Terrorists or Freedom Fighters, Lantern Books, 2004; see p 271 for legal distinctions
  17. ^ "Campaigns, protests and prison terms: how activists formed militant cell", The Guardian, 24 December 2008
  18. ^ Doward, Jamie "Sex and violence allegations split animal rights campaign", The Observer, 11 April 2004
  19. ^ a b c Yeoman, Fran "The £1m hate campaign paid for by high street collections", The Times, 24 December 2008
  20. ^ "Animal rights activists' 'blackmail campaign spanned Europe and US'", The Times, 7 October 2008
  21. ^ "Police bugged animal rights group", BBC News, 7 October 2008
  22. ^ a b c d Cook, John "Thugs for Puppies", Salon, 7 February 2006
  23. ^ "From Push to Shove", Southern Policy Law Center, Fall 2002
  24. ^ "Childcare group warned of 'hell'", BBC News, 29 September 2005
    • Also see http://epwsenategov/hearing_statementscfmid=247787 US Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works
  25. ^ Lewis, John E "Statement of John Lewis", US Senate Committee on Environment & Public Works, 26 October 2005, accessed 17 January 2011
  26. ^ "Money talks", The Guardian, 1 June 2006
    • "Lab firm ditched by share brokers", BBC News, 28 March 2001
  27. ^ "The Animals of Hatred", The Daily Mail, 15 October 2003
  28. ^ SHAC Disclaimer
  29. ^ House of Commons Hansard Debates, 19 March 2003
  30. ^ "From push to shove", Southern Poverty Law Group Intelligence Report, Fall 2002
  31. ^ Huntingdon Life Sciences, financial report 2002
  32. ^ "Huntingdon delays listing after attacks", The Guardian, 8 September 2005
  33. ^ "LSR goes private in Lion Holdings takeover", Outsourcing, pharmacom, 1 December 2009
  34. ^ Won, Shirley, and Zehr, Leonard "When threats turn to firebombs, Canaccord cuts loose on client", The Globe and Mail, 24 June 2005
  35. ^ "Animal rights activists tell drug firm's small investors to sell up or else", The Guardian, 9 May 2006
  36. ^ Glaxo wins injunction over threat, 9 May 2006
  37. ^ Bomb attack on Glaxo executive, The Times, 28 September 2005
  38. ^ Laville, Sandra and Campbell, Duncan "Animal rights extremists in arson spree", The Guardian, 25 June 2006
  39. ^ Addley, Esther "Animal Liberation Front bomber faces jail after admitting arson bids", The Guardian, 18 August 2006
    • "Willing to maim in the name of animals", BBC News, 7 December 2006
  40. ^ Laville, Sandra "Animal rights extremists still targeting lab", The Guardian, 24 December 2008
    • Laville, Sandra "From a Hampshire cottage, animal extremists plotted campaign of violence", The Guardian, 23 December 2008
  41. ^ Doyle, Leonard Animal rights activist added to FBI's most wanted terrorist list, The Telegraph, 24 April 2009
  42. ^ "FBI's Most Wanted Terrorists List: Daniel Andreas San Diego" FBI 2009-04-21 Retrieved 2011-01-18 
  43. ^ "Huntingdon told to prove animal rights group exists", The Daily Telegraph, 24 June 2004
  44. ^ Tempest, Matthew "Crackdown on animal rights extremists", The Guardian, 31 January 2005ref>
    • "Serious Organised Crime and Police Bill", House of Commons, 2005
  45. ^ "Animal rights protester is jailed", BBC News, 20 September 2006
  46. ^ Smit, Martina "21 'illegally' collected for animal rights terror", thisislocallondoncouk, 22 February 2007
  47. ^ "Three 'violent' activists jailed", BBC News, 6 March 2007
  48. ^ Kocieniewski, David "Six Animal Rights Advocates Are Convicted of Terrorism", The New York Times, 3 March 2006
  49. ^ "America's #1 Threat", Mother Jones, January/February 2006
  50. ^ DATA & GRAPHICS: Population Of The Communications Management Units, Margot Williams and Alyson Hurt, NPR, 3 March 2011; retrieved 4 March 2011
  51. ^ "Animal rights activists involved in bid to shut lab among 30 arrested in raids", The Guardian, 2 May 2007
  52. ^ "Activists in live testing trial deny blackmail", The Financial Times, 6 October 2008
  53. ^ "Five deny animal rights blackmail ", BBC News, 6 October 2008
  54. ^ Yeoman, Fran Jail for animal rights extremists who waged six-year blackmail campaign, The Times, 21 January 2009
  55. ^ Bowcott, Owen "Court jails Huntingdon animal test lab blackmailers", The Guardian, 21 January 2009
  56. ^ Grimston, Jack "Animal terrorist group foiled by informant dressed as a beagle", The Sunday Times, 1 March 2009
  57. ^ "Animal activists still continuing campaign of threats and intimidation", The Daily Telegraph, 24 December 2008
  58. ^ Animal rights activists in court, Market Rasen, 24 October 2008
    • Rabbit farm raid accused 'impressionable', This Is Lincolnshire, 1 May 2009
    • "Rabbit breeder 'felt sick' at campaign", Lincolnshire Echo, 30 April 2009
  59. ^ "Vous avez deux choix Monsieur Vasella", 20 minutes online, Switzerland, 24 August 2009
    • Rogers, David "Militant animal rights groups says behind Tyrol arson", Austrian Times, 6 August 2009
    • Boyle, Catherine "Extremists' attacks on Novartis chief intensify", The Times, 7 August 2009
  60. ^ Bloxham, Andy and Bingham, John Animal rights extremists sentenced for attacks on Barclays due to links to testing laboratory, The Daily Telegraph, 14 January 2011

Further readingedit

External links
  • SHAC website
  • Huntingdon Life Sciences website
  • Indymedia UK SHAC topic page
  • The Shac 7
  • The footage shot undercover inside HLS by PETA; see the same footage on YouTube
  • "Inside HLS", describes five undercover investigations into HLS between 1989 and 2001
  • Diaries of Despair, Uncaged Campaigns, accessed 17 January 2011
  • "Hit 'Em Head On", SHAC, 9-minute video on YouTube, 2006
  • "Time for Action 3", SHAC, 4-minute video on YouTube, 2005
Books and articles
  • Bhattacharya, Shaoni Scientists demand law against animal rights extremism, New Scientist, 22 April 2004
  • British Home Office "Animal Welfare—Human Rights: protecting people from animal rights extremists", July 2004
  • Cox, Simon and Vadon, Richard "How animal rights took on the world", BBC Radio 4, retrieved 18 June 2006
  • CrimethInc Ex-Workers Collective Fall 2006 "The SHAC Model: A Critical Assessment" Rolling Thunder 6: 11–28 
  • Gibson, Ian Statement by Dr Ian Gibson Norwich, North Hansard, 19 March 2003
  • Robbins, John "Red in Tooth and Law", The Lawyer, 16 August 2004

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