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Stanford University

stanford university, stanford university athletics
Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private research university in Stanford, California, adjacent to Palo Alto and between San Jose and San Francisco Its 8,180-acre 128 sq mi; 331 km2 campus is one of the largest in the United States Stanford also has land and facilities elsewhere

The university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr, who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year Stanford was a former Governor of California and US Senator; he made his fortune as a railroad tycoon The school admitted its first students 124 years ago on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution

Stanford University struggled financially after Leland Stanford's death in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would later be known as Silicon Valley The rise of Silicon Valley helped Stanford become one of the world's most prestigious universities The university is also one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year

There are three academic schools that have both undergraduate and graduate students and another four professional schools Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference It has gained 109 NCAA team championships, the second-most for a university, 476 individual championships, the most in Division I, and has won the NACDA Directors' Cup, recognizing the university with the best overall athletic team achievement, for 22 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995

Stanford faculty and alumni have founded a large number of companies that produce more than $27 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world It is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires, 17 astronauts, and 20 Turing Award laureates It is also one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress Sixty Nobel laureates and seven Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, alumni, faculty or staff


  • 1 History
  • 2 Land
    • 21 Central campus
    • 22 Non-central campus
    • 23 Faculty residences
    • 24 Other uses
    • 25 Landmarks
  • 3 Administration and organization
    • 31 Endowment and fundraising
  • 4 Academics
    • 41 Teaching and learning
    • 42 Research centers and institutes
    • 43 Libraries and digital resources
    • 44 Arts
    • 45 Reputation and rankings
  • 5 Discoveries and innovation
  • 6 Student life
    • 61 Student body
    • 62 Dormitories and student housing
    • 63 Athletics
    • 64 Traditions
    • 65 Religious life
    • 66 Greek life
    • 67 Student groups
    • 68 Safety
  • 7 People
    • 71 Award laureates and scholars
  • 8 See also
  • 9 Notes
  • 10 References
  • 11 Further reading
  • 12 External links


Main article: History of Stanford University

Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child The institution opened in 1891 on Stanford's previous Palo Alto farm Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I The Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory originally named the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, which was established in 1962, performs research in particle physics


An aerial photograph of the center of the Stanford University campus in 2008

Most of Stanford University is on an 8,180-acre 128 sq mi; 331 km2 campus on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley Silicon Valley approximately 37 miles 60 km southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles 30 km northwest of San Jose; this is the founding grant In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped Besides the central campus described below, the university also operates at several more remote locations, some elsewhere on the main campus, some further afield see below

Stanford's main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land such as the Stanford Shopping Center and the Stanford Research Park is within the city limits of Palo Alto The campus also includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County including the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park Stanford Hills neighborhood, Woodside, and Portola Valley

Central campus

The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, and Sand Hill Road The United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP codes: 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for PO box mail It lies within area code 650

View of the main quadrangle of Stanford University with Memorial Church in the center background from across the grass covered Oval

Non-central campus

Stanford currently operates or intends to operate in various locations outside of its central campus

On the founding grant:

  • Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre 490 ha natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research
  • SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy It contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles 32 km on 426 acres 172 ha of land
  • Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university also has its own golf course and a seasonal lake Lake Lagunita, actually an irrigation reservoir, both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander As of 2012 Lake Lagunita was often dry and the university had no plans to artificially fill it

Off the founding grant:

  • Hopkins Marine Station, in Pacific Grove, California, is a marine biology research center owned by the university since 1892
  • Study abroad locations: unlike typical study abroad programs, Stanford itself operates in several locations around the world; thus, each location has Stanford faculty-in-residence and staff in addition to students, creating a "mini-Stanford"
  • China: Stanford Center at Peking University, housed in the Lee Jung Sen Building, is a small center for researchers and students in collaboration with Peking University

Locations in development:

  • Redwood City: in 2005, the university purchased a small, 35-acre 14 ha campus in Midpoint Technology Park intended for staff offices; development was delayed by The Great Recession In 2015 the university announced a development plan
Lake Lagunita in early spring; the Dish, a large radio telescope and local landmark, is visible in the Stanford-owned foothills behind the lake and is the high point of a popular campus jogging and walking trail

Faculty residences

Many Stanford faculty members live in the "Faculty Ghetto", within walking or biking distance of campus The Faculty Ghetto is composed of land owned entirely by Stanford Similar to a condominium, the houses can be bought and sold but the land under the houses is rented on a 99-year lease Houses in the "Ghetto" appreciate and depreciate, but not as rapidly as overall Silicon Valley values However, it remains an expensive area in which to own property, and the average price of single-family homes on campus is actually higher than in Palo Alto

Other uses

Some of the land is managed to provide revenue for the university such as the Stanford Shopping Center and the Stanford Research Park Stanford land is also leased for a token rent by the Palo Alto Unified School District for several schools including Palo Alto High School and Gunn High School El Camino Park, the oldest Palo Alto city park established 1914, is also on Stanford land


Contemporary campus landmarks include the Main Quad and Memorial Church, the Cantor Center for Visual Arts and art gallery, the Stanford Mausoleum and the Angel of Grief, Hoover Tower, the Rodin sculpture garden, the Papua New Guinea Sculpture Garden, the Arizona Cactus Garden, the Stanford University Arboretum, Green Library and the Dish Frank Lloyd Wright's 1937 Hanna–Honeycomb House and the 1919 Lou Henry Hoover House are both listed on the National Historic Register Previous landmarks included Meyer Library, which had been built in 1966; as of October 2014, the university has demolished it rather than invest money to bring it up to then-current codes and converted the space into a park

Administration and organization

Stanford University is a tax-exempt corporate trust governed by a privately appointed Board of Trustees with a maximum membership of 38 Trustees serve five-year terms not more than two consecutive terms and meet five times annually A new trustee is chosen by the current trustees by ballot The Stanford trustees also oversee the Stanford Research Park, the Stanford Shopping Center, the Cantor Center for Visual Arts, Stanford University Medical Center, and many associated medical facilities including the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital

The Board appoints a President to serve as the chief executive officer of the university and prescribe the duties of professors and course of study, manage financial and business affairs, and appoint nine vice presidents The Provost is the chief academic and budget officer, to whom the deans of each of the seven schools report John Etchemendy was named the 12th Provost in September 2000

As of 2013 the university was organized into seven academic schools The schools of Humanities and Sciences 27 departments, Engineering 9 departments, and Earth, Energy & Environmental Sciences 4 departments have both graduate and undergraduate programs while the Schools of Law, Medicine, Education and Business have graduate programs only The powers and authority of the faculty are vested in the Academic Council, which is made up of tenure and non-tenure line faculty, research faculty, senior fellows in some policy centers and institutes, the president of the university, and some other academic administrators, but most matters are handled by the Faculty Senate, made up of 55 elected representatives of the faculty

The Associated Students of Stanford University ASSU is the student government for Stanford University and all registered students are members Its elected leadership consists of the Undergraduate Senate elected by the undergraduate students, the Graduate Student Council elected by the graduate students, and the President and Vice President elected as a ticket by the entire student body

Stanford is the beneficiary of a special clause in the California Constitution, which explicitly exempts Stanford property from taxation so long as the property is used for educational purposes

Endowment and fundraising

The university's endowment, managed by the Stanford Management Company, was valued at $222 billion in August 2015, 36% over the previous year The endowment fell 25% in 2009 as a result of the late-2000s recession, but posted gains of 144% in 2010 and 224% in 2011, when it was valued at $165 billion

Stanford has been the top fundraising university in the United States for several years It raised $911 million in 2006, $832 million in 2007, $785 million in 2008, $640 million in 2009, $599 million in 2010, $709 million in 2011, and $1035 billion in 2012, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year In 2013 and 2014 it raised $932 million and $928 million Payouts from the Stanford endowment covered approximately 23% of University expenses in the 2014 fiscal year, compared to Princeton at 55% and Harvard at 35%

In 2006, President John L Hennessy launched a five-year campaign called the Stanford Challenge, which reached its $43 billion fundraising goal in 2009, two years ahead of time, but continued fundraising for the duration of the campaign It concluded on December 31, 2011, having raised a total of $623 billion and breaking the previous campaign fundraising record of $388 billion held by Yale Specifically, the campaign raised $2537 million for undergraduate financial aid, as well as $233 billion for its initiative in "Seeking Solutions" to global problems, $161 billion for "Educating Leaders" by improving K-12 education, and $211 billion for "Foundation of Excellence" aimed at providing academic support for Stanford students and faculty Funds supported 366 new fellowships for graduate students, 139 new endowed chairs for faculty, and 38 new or renovated buildings The new funding also enabled the construction of a facility for stem cell research; a new campus for the business school; an expansion of the law school; a new Engineering Quad; a new art and art history building; an on-campus concert hall; a new art museum; and a planned expansion of the medical school, among other things


Teaching and learning

Walkway in the Main Quad

Stanford follows a quarter system with Autumn quarter usually starting in late September and Spring Quarter ending in early June The full-time, four-year undergraduate program has an arts and sciences focus with high graduate student coexistence Stanford is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges

Full-time undergraduate tuition was $42,690 for 2013–2014 Stanford's admission process is need-blind for US citizens and permanent residents; while it is not need-blind for international students, 64% are on need-based aid, with an average aid package of $31,411 In 2012–13, the university awarded $126 million in need-based financial aid to 3,485 students, with an average aid package of $40,460 Eighty percent of students receive some form of financial aid Stanford has a no-loan policy For undergraduates admitted in 2015, Stanford waives tuition, room, and board for most families with incomes below $65,000, and most families with incomes below $125,000 are not required to pay tuition; those with incomes up to $150,000 may have tuition significantly reduced 17% of students receive Pell Grants, a common measure of low-income students at a college

Research centers and institutes

Hoover Tower, inspired by the cathedral tower at Salamanca in Spain From the Hoover Tower one can see all of the Stanford campus Pictured is the Main Quad and Serra Street

As of 2016 the Office of the Vice Provost and Dean of Research oversaw eighteen independent laboratories, centers, and institutes

Other Stanford-affiliated institutions include the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory originally the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the Stanford Research Institute an independent institution which originated at the university, the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace a major public policy think tank that attracts visiting scholars from around the world, and the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design a multidisciplinary design school in cooperation with the Hasso Plattner Institute of University of Potsdam that integrates product design, engineering, and business management education

Stanford is home to the Martin Luther King Jr Research and Education Institute which grew out of and still contains the Martin Luther King Jr Papers Project, a collaboration with the King Center to publish the King papers held by the King Center It also runs the John S Knight Fellowship for Professional Journalists and the Center for Ocean Solutions, which brings together marine science and policy to address challenges facing the ocean

Libraries and digital resources

Green Library Main article: Stanford University Libraries

As of 2014 Stanford University Libraries SUL held a collection of more than 93 million volumes, nearly 300,000 rare or special books, 15 million e-books, 25 million audiovisual materials, 77,000 serials, nearly 6 million microform holdings, and thousands of other digital resources

The main library in the SU library system is Green Library, which also contains various meeting and conference rooms, study spaces, and reading rooms Lathrop Library previously Meyer Library, demolished in 2015, holds various student-accessible media resources and houses one of the largest East Asia collections with 540,000 volumes


Bronze statues by Auguste Rodin are scattered through the campus, including these Burghers of Calais

Stanford University is home to the Cantor Center for Visual Arts museum with 24 galleries, sculpture gardens, terraces, and a courtyard first established in 1891 by Jane and Leland Stanford as a memorial to their only child The Center's collection of works by Rodin is among the largest in the world The Thomas Welton Stanford Gallery, built in 1917, serves as a teaching resource for the Department of Art & Art History as well as an exhibition venue There are outdoor art installations throughout the campus, primarily sculptures, but some murals as well The Papua New Guinea Sculpture Garden near Roble Hall features includes wood carvings and "totem poles"

The Stanford music department sponsors many ensembles including five choirs, the Stanford Symphony Orchestra, Stanford Taiko, and the Stanford Wind Ensemble Extracurricular activities include theater groups such as Ram's Head Theatrical Society, the Stanford Improvisors, the Stanford Shakespeare Society, and the Stanford Savoyards, a group dedicated to performing the works of Gilbert and Sullivan There are award-winning a cappella music groups including the Mendicants, Counterpoint, the Stanford Fleet Street Singers, Harmonics, Mixed Company, Testimony, Talisman, Everyday People, and Raagapella

The creative writing program brings young writers to campus via the Stegner Fellowships and other graduate scholarship programs Knight Journalism Fellows are invited to spend a year at the campus taking seminars and courses of their choice The Stanford Spoken Word Collective, an extracurricular writing and performance group, also serves as the school's poetry slam team

Stanford also hosts various publishing courses for professionals The Stanford Professional Publishing Course, which was offered on campus since the late 1970s, brought together international publishing professionals to discuss changing business models in magazine and book publishing It ended in 2009, although the tradition has continued at Yale with the Yale Publishing Course that began in 2010 Videos from the Stanford Professional Publishing Courses were available on their website as of 2014

Reputation and rankings

Forbes 1
US News & World Report 4
Washington Monthly 1
QS 2
Times 3
US News & World Report 3

Notably, Stanford occupies the number one position in numerous domestic college ranking measures, leading Slate to dub Stanford in 2014 as "the Harvard of the 21st century," and The New York Times in the same year to conclude that "Stanford University has become America’s 'it' school, by measures that Harvard once dominated" From polls done by The Princeton Review in 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016, the most commonly named "dream college" for students was Stanford; separately, parents, too, most frequently named Stanford as their "dream college" A 2003 Gallup poll had Stanford tied for second as the most prestigious university in the eyes of the general public

Gate to the Main Quad

The Times Higher Education THE World Reputation Rankings placed it third in 2016, while the Academic Ranking of World Universities ARWU ranked Stanford second most of the time from 2003 to 2016

Acceptance Rate 1
Admissions Yield Yield 1
MONEY's Best Colleges Best Value 1
Council for Aid to Education Annual Fundraising 1
Princeton Review Dream College Students' Dream College 1
Princeton Review Dream College Parents' Dream College 1
Parchment Admitted Student Preference 1
Business Insider Professionals' Assessment 1
Daily Beast Multiple Factors 1
Niche Multiple Factors 1
University Entrepreneurship Venture Capital Investment in Alumni Startups 1
NACDA Directors' Cup Annual NCAA Athletic Achievement 1

Discoveries and innovation

See also: Carnegie Mellon discoveries and innovation, Illinois discoveries and innovation, MIT discoveries and innovation, and Cal Berkeley discoveries and innovation

Stanford is one of the most successful universities in creating companies and licensing its inventions to existing companies; it is often held up as a model for technology transfer

Stanford's Office of Technology Licensing is responsible for commercializing developments and has been run by Katherine Ku since 1991 She over from Niels Reimers who had been with the office for 23 years

Stanford faculty and alumni have founded many companies including Hewlett-Packard, Nike, Instagram, Snapchat, and Yahoo!, and companies founded by Stanford alumni generate more than $27 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the 10th-largest economy in the world

Developments include:

  • biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA - Arthur Kornberg synthesized DNA material and won the Nobel Prize in 1959 for his work at Stanford
  • First Transgenic organism - Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer were the first scientists to transplant genes from one living organism to another, a fundamental discovery for genetic engineering Thousands of products have been developed on the basis of their work, including human growth hormone and hepatitis B vaccine
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance - Felix Bloch developed new ways and methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements, which are the underlying principles of the MRI
  • klystron tube - invented by the brothers Russell and Sigurd Varian at Stanford Their prototype was completed and demonstrated successfully on August 30, 1937 Upon publication in 1939, news of the klystron immediately influenced the work of US and UK researchers working on radar equipment
  • laser - Arthur Leonard Schawlow shared the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physics with Nicolaas Bloembergen and Kai Siegbahn for his work on lasers
  • RISC - ARPA funded VLSI project of microprocessor design Stanford and Cal Berkeley are most associated with the popularization of this concept Stanford's design would go on to be commercialized as the successful MIPS architecture, while Berkeley RISC gave its name to the entire concept, commercialized as the SPARC Another success from this era were IBM's efforts that eventually led to the Power Architecture As these projects matured, a wide variety of similar designs flourished in the late 1980s and especially the early 1990s, representing a major force in the Unix workstation market as well as embedded processors in laser printers, routers and similar products
  • Frequency modulation synthesis - John Chowning discovered the FM synthesis algorithm in 1967
Google! homepage in 1998
  • Google - Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford They were working on the Stanford Digital Library Project SDLP The SDLP's goal was “to develop the enabling technologies for a single, integrated and universal digital library" and it was funded through the National Science Foundation, among other federal agencies
  • SUN workstation - Andy Bechtolsheim designed the SUN workstation for the Stanford University Network communications project as a personal CAD workstation Which led to Sun Microsystems
  • ARPANET - Stanford Research Institute, formerly part of Stanford but on a separate campus, was the site of one of the four original ARPANET nodes

Student life

Student body

Demographics of students 2011/2012 and comparison to California and United States Census 2011 estimates
Undergraduate Adjusted Percentage Graduate California United States
Black or African American 732% 507 822% 3% 279 66% 131%
Asian 1815% 1257 1964% 13% 1182 136% 50%
White 3645% 2525 3945% 36% 3163 397% 634%
Hispanic/Latino 1660% 1150 1797% 5% 475 381% 167%
American Indian or Alaska Native 091% 63 098% 1% 68 17% 12%
Native Hawaiian or other US Pacific Islander 046% 32 046% n/a 05% 02%
Two or more races 1158% 802 1253% n/a 36% 23%
Race/ethnicity unknown 094% 65 102% 1% 61 n/a n/a
International student 759% 526 33% 33% 2893 n/a n/a
  1. ^ adjusted for US citizens and permanent residents only since racial breakdown in the Stanford data is not given for students here on temporary visas The census data for California and the United States as a whole does include people who are here on temporary visas or who are undocumented
  2. ^ a b c d Does not include Hispanic Americans
  3. ^ a b c The data for graduate students merges Asian with Pacific Islander Also no separate category for multiple races

Stanford enrolled 7,061 undergraduate and 11,075 graduate students as of October 2013, and women comprised 47% of undergraduates and 41% of professional and graduate students In the same academic year, the freshman retention rate was 99%

Stanford awarded 1,715 undergraduate degrees, 2,278 Master's degrees, 764 doctoral degrees, and 366 professional degrees in the 2011–2012 school year The four-year graduation rate in the class of 2011 was 76%, and the six-year rate was 96% The relatively low four-year graduation rate is a function of the university's coterminal degree or "coterm" program, which allows students to earn a master's degree as an extension of their undergraduate program

As of 2010, fifteen percent of undergraduates were first-generation students

Dormitories and student housing

Main article: Stanford University student housing

As of 2013, 89% of undergraduate students lived in on-campus university housing First-year undergraduates are required to live on campus, and all undergraduates are guaranteed housing for all four undergraduate years Undergraduates live in 80 different houses, including dormitories, co-ops, row houses, and fraternities and sororities At Manzanita Park, 118 mobile homes were installed as "temporary" housing from 1969 to 1991, but as of 2015 was the site of newer dorms Castano, Kimball, Lantana, and the Humanities House, completed in 2015 Most student residences are just outside the campus core, within ten minutes on foot or bike of most classrooms and libraries Some are reserved for freshman, sophomores, or upperclass students and some are open to all four classes Most residences are co-ed; seven are all-male fraternities, three are all-female sororities, and there is also one all-female non-sorority house, Roth House In most residences, men and women live on the same floor, but a few dorms are configured for men and women to live on separate floors single-gender floors, including all Wilbur dorms except for Arroyo and Okada

Many students use bicycles to get around the large campus

Several residences are considered theme houses The Academic, Language and Culture Houses include EAST Education And Society Themed House, Hammarskjöld International Themed House, Haus Mitteleuropa Central European Themed House, La Casa Italiana Italian Language and Culture, La Maison Française French Language and Culture House, Slavianskii Dom Slavic/East European Themed House, Storey Human Biology Themed House, and Yost Spanish Language and Culture Cross-Cultural Themed Houses include Casa Zapata Chicano/Latino Theme in Stern Hall, Muwekma-tah-ruk American Indian/Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Themed House, Okada Asian-American Themed House in Wilbur Hall, and Ujamaa Black/African-American Themed House in Lagunita Court Focus Houses include Freshman-Sophomore College Academic Focus, Branner Hall Community Service, Kimball Arts & Performing Arts, Crothers Global Citizenship, and Toyon Sophomore Priority Theme houses predating the current "theme" classification system are Columbae Social Change Through Nonviolence, since 1970, and Synergy Exploring Alternatives, since 1972

Co-ops are another housing option These houses feature cooperative living, where residents and eating associates each contribute work to keep the house running, such as cooking meals or cleaning shared spaces These houses have unique themes around which their community is centered Many co-ops are hubs of music, art and philosophy The co-ops on campus are 576 Alvarado Row formerly Chi Theta Chi, Columbae, Enchanted Broccoli Forest EBF, Hammarskjöld, Kairos, Terra the unofficial LGBT house, and Synergy

As of 2015 around 55 percent of the graduate student population lived on campus First-year graduate students are guaranteed on-campus housing Stanford also subsidizes off-campus apartments in nearby Palo Alto, Menlo Park, and Mountain View for graduate students who are guaranteed on-campus housing but are unable to live on campus due to a lack of space


Main article: Stanford Cardinal The new Stanford Stadium, site of home football games The Leland Stanford Junior University Marching Band rallies football fans with arrangements of "All Right Now" and other contemporary music

As of 2016 Stanford had 16 male varsity sports and 20 female varsity sports, 19 club sports and about 27 intramural sports In 1930, following a unanimous vote by the Executive Committee for the Associated Students, the athletic department adopted the mascot "Indian" The Indian symbol and name were later dropped by President Richard Lyman in 1972, after objections from Native American students and a vote by the student senate The sports teams are now officially referred to as the "Stanford Cardinal", referring to the deep red color, not the cardinal bird Stanford is a member of the Pac-12 Conference in most sports, the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in several other sports, and the America East Conference in field hockey with the participation in the inter-collegiate NCAA's Division I FBS

Its traditional sports rival is Berkeley, the neighbor to the north in the East Bay The winner of the annual "Big Game" between the Cal and Cardinal football teams gains custody of the Stanford Axe

Stanford has had at least one NCAA team champion every year since the 1976–77 school year and has earned 109 NCAA national team titles since its establishment, second most behind the UCLA Bruins, and 467 individual National championships, the most by any university Stanford has won the award for the top-ranked collegiate athletic program — the NACDA Directors' Cup, formerly known as the Sears Cup – annually for the past twenty years Stanford athletes have won medals in every Olympic Games since 1912, winning 270 Olympic medals total, 139 of them gold In the 2008 Summer Olympics, Stanford won more Olympic medals than any other university in the United States Stanford athletes won 16 medals at the 2012 Summer Games—12 gold, 2 silver and 2 bronze


Vintage Stanford University postcard
  • The unofficial motto of Stanford University, selected by President Jordan, is "Die Luft der Freiheit weht" Translated from the German language, this quotation from Ulrich von Hutten means, "The wind of freedom blows" The motto was controversial during World War I, when anything in German was suspect; at that time the university disavowed that this motto was official
  • "Hail, Stanford, Hail" is the Stanford Hymn sometimes sung at ceremonies or adapted by the various University singing groups It was written in 1892 by mechanical engineering professor Albert W Smith and his wife, Mary Roberts Smith in 1896 she earned the first Stanford doctorate in Economics and later became associate professor of Sociology, but was not officially adopted until after a performance on campus in March 1902 by the Mormon Tabernacle Choir
  • Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman: Stanford does not award honorary degrees, but in 1953 the degree of Uncommon Man/Uncommon Woman was created to recognize individuals who give rare and extraordinary service to the University Technically, this degree is awarded by the Stanford Associates, a voluntary group that is part of the university's alumni association As Stanford's highest honor, it is not conferred at prescribed intervals, but only when appropriate to recognize extraordinary service Recipients include Herbert Hoover, Bill Hewlett, Dave Packard, Lucile Packard, and John Gardner
  • Big Game events: The events in the week leading up to the Big Game vs UC Berkeley, including Gaieties a musical written, composed, produced, and performed by the students of Ram's Head Theatrical Society,
  • Viennese Ball: a formal ball with waltzes that was initially started in the 1970s by students returning from the now-closed Stanford in Vienna overseas program It is now open to all students
  • Mausoleum Party: An annual Halloween Party at the Stanford Mausoleum, the final resting place of Leland Stanford Jr and his parents A 20-year tradition, the Mausoleum party was on hiatus from 2002 to 2005 due to a lack of funding, but was revived in 2006 In 2008, it was hosted in Old Union rather than at the actual Mausoleum, because rain prohibited generators from being rented In 2009, after fundraising efforts by the Junior Class Presidents and the ASSU Executive, the event was able to return to the Mausoleum despite facing budget cuts earlier in the year
  • Former campus traditions include the Big Game bonfire on Lake Lagunita a seasonal lake usually dry in the fall, which was formally ended in 1997 because of the presence of endangered salamanders in the lake bed

Religious life

Students and staff at Stanford are of many different religions The Stanford Office for Religious Life's mission is "to guide, nurture and enhance spiritual, religious and ethical life within the Stanford University community" by promoting enriching dialogue, meaningful ritual, and enduring friendships among people of all religious backgrounds It is headed by a dean with the assistance of a senior associate dean and an associate dean Stanford Memorial Church, in the center of campus, has a Sunday University Public Worship service UPW usually in the "Protestant Ecumenical Christian" tradition where the Memorial Church Choir sings and a sermon is preached usually by one of the Stanford deans for Religious Life UPW sometimes has multifaith services In addition the church is used by the Catholic community and by some of the other Christian denominations at Stanford Weddings happen most Saturdays and the university has for over 20 years allowed blessings of same-gender relationships and now legal weddings

In addition to the church, the Office for Religious Life has a Center for Inter-Religious Community, Learning and Experiences CIRCLE on the third floor of Old Union It offers a common room, an interfaith sanctuary, a seminar room, a student lounge area and a reading room, as well as offices housing a number of Stanford Associated Religions SAR member groups and the Senior Associate Dean and Associate Dean for Religious Life Most though not all religious student groups belong to SAR The SAR directory includes organizations that serve atheist, Baha'i, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Islam, Jewish, and Sikh groups, though these groups vary year by year

The Windhover Contemplation Center was dedicated in October 2014, and was intended to provide spiritual sanctuary for students and staff in the midst of their course and work schedules; the center displays the "Windhover" paintings by Nathan Olivera, the late Stanford professor and artist

Some religions have a larger and more formal presence on campus in addition to the student groups; these include the Catholic Community at Stanford and Hillel at Stanford

Greek life

Fraternities and sororities have been active on the Stanford campus since 1891, when the university first opened In 1944, University President Donald Tresidder banned all Stanford sororities due to extreme competition However, following Title IX, the Board of Trustees lifted the 33-year ban on sororities in 1977 Students are not permitted to join a fraternity or sorority until Spring quarter of their freshman year

As of 2016 Stanford had 31 Greek organizations, including 14 sororities and 16 fraternities Nine of the Greek organizations are housed eight in University owned houses and one, Sigma Chi, in their own house Six chapters were members of the African American Fraternal and Sororal Association, 11 chapters were members of the Interfraternity Council, 7 chapters belonged to the Intersorority Council, and 6 chapters belonged to the Multicultural Greek Council

  • Stanford is home to three unhoused historically NPHC National Pan-Hellenic Council or "Divine Nine" sororities Alpha Kappa Alpha, Delta Sigma Theta, and Sigma Gamma Rho and three unhoused NPHC fraternities Alpha Phi Alpha, Kappa Alpha Psi, and Phi Beta Sigma These fraternities and sororities operate under the AAFSA African American Fraternal Sororal Association at Stanford
  • Seven historically NPC National Panhellenic Conference sororities, four of which are unhoused Alpha Phi, Alpha Epsilon Phi, Chi Omega, and Kappa Kappa Gamma and three of which are housed Delta Delta Delta, Kappa Alpha Theta, and Pi Beta Phi call Stanford home These sororities operate under the Stanford Inter-sorority Council ISC
  • Eleven historically NIC National Interfraternity Conference fraternities are also represented at Stanford, including five unhoused fraternities Alpha Epsilon Pi, Delta Kappa Epsilon, Delta Tau Delta, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, and Sigma Phi Epsilon, and six housed fraternities Kappa Alpha Order, Kappa Sigma, Phi Kappa Psi, Sigma Chi, Sigma Nu, and Theta Delta Chi These fraternities operate under the Stanford Inter-fraternity Council IFC
  • There are also four unhoused MGC Multicultural Greek Council sororities on campus Alpha Kappa Delta Phi, Lambda Theta Nu, Sigma Psi Zeta, and Sigma Theta Psi, as well as two unhoused MGC fraternities Gamma Zeta Alpha and Lambda Phi Epsilon Lambda Phi Epsilon is recognized by the National Interfraternity Conference NIC

Student groups

As of 2014 Stanford had 650 student organizations Groups are often, though not always, partially funded by the University via allocations directed by the student government organization, the ASSU These funds include "special fees", which are decided by a Spring Quarter vote by the student body Groups span from Athletic/Recreational see section on Athletics, Careers/Pre-professional, Community Service, Ethnic/Cultural, Fraternities/Sororities, Health/Counseling, Media/Publications, Music/Dance/Creative Arts see section on Arts, Political/Social Awareness to Religious/Philosophical

The Stanford Daily is the daily newspaper and has been published since the University was founded in 1892 The Stanford Review is a conservative student newspaper founded in 1987 The student-run radio station, KZSU Stanford 901 FM, features freeform music programming, sports commentary, and news segments; it started in 1947 as an AM radio station

Students run SUpostcom, an online marketplace for Stanford students and alumni, in partnership with Stanford Student Enterprises SSE and the Stanford Pre-Business Association The latter is intended to build connections among industry, alumni, and student communities Stanford Marketing is a student group that provides students hands on training through research and strategy consulting projects with Fortune 500 clients, as well as workshops led by people from industry and professors in the Stanford Graduate School of Business Stanford Finance provides mentoring and internships for students who want to enter a career in finance The Business Association of Stanford Entrepreneurial Students BASES, is one of the largest professional organizations in Silicon Valley, with over 5,000 members Its goal is to support the next generation of entrepreneurs Stanford Women In Business SWIB is an on-campus business organization consisting of over a board of 40 and 100 active members Each year, SWIB organizes over 25 events and workshops, hosts a winter and spring conference, and provides mentorship and spring quarter internships StartX is a non-profit startup accelerator for student and faculty-led startups that over 12% of the study body has applied to It is staffed primarily by students

Other groups include:

  • The Stanford Axe Committee is the official guardian of the Stanford Axe and the rest of the time assists the Stanford Band as a supplementary spirit group It has existed since 1982
  • The Stanford solar car project, in which students build a solar-powered car every 2 years and race it in either the North American Solar Challenge or the World Solar Challenge
  • The Pilipino American Student Union PASU, a culture-oriented community service and social activism group Also integral to PASU is a traditional performing arts arm called Kayumanggi
  • The Stanford Improvisors SIMPS for short teach and perform improvisational theatre on campus and in the surrounding community In 2014 the group finished second in the Golden Gate Regional College Improv tournament and they've since been invited twice to perform at the annual San Francisco Improv Festival


Stanford's Department of Public Safety is responsible for law enforcement and safety on the main campus Its deputy sheriffs are peace officers by arrangement with the Santa Clara County Sheriff's Office The department is also responsible for publishing an annual crime report covering the previous three years as required by the Clery Act Fire protection has been provided by contract with the Palo Alto Fire Department since 1976

Murder is rare on the campus though a few of the cases have been notorious including Theodore Streleski's murder of his professor in 1978 and the unsolved 1974 murder of Arlis Perry in Stanford Memorial Church

In Stanford University's 2015 Campus Climate Survey, 47 percent of female undergraduates reported experiencing sexual assault as defined by the university and 329 percent reported experiencing sexual misconduct According to the survey, 85% of perpetrators of misconduct were Stanford students and 80% were men Perpetrators of sexual misconduct were frequently aided by alcohol or drugs, according to the survey: "Nearly three-fourths of the students whose responses were categorized as sexual assault indicated that the act was accomplished by a person or person taking advantage of them when they were drunk or high, according to the survey Close to 70 percent of students who reported an experience of sexual misconduct involving nonconsensual penetration and/or oral sex indicated the same" Associated Students of Stanford University and student and alumni activists with the anti-rape group Stand with Leah criticized the survey methodology for downgrading incidents involving alcohol if students did not check two separate boxes indicating they were both intoxicated and incapacity while sexually assaulted Reporting on the Brock Turner rape case, a reporter from The Washington Post analyzed campus rape reports submitted by universities to the US Department of Education, and found that Stanford was one of the top ten universities in campus rapes in 2014, with 26 reported that year, but when analyzed by rapes per 1000 students, Stanford was not among the top ten

Main article: People v Turner

Early in the morning of January 18, 2015, a woman visiting campus to attend a party at the Kappa Alpha fraternity was raped by Brock Turner, a freshman who had a swimming scholarship The rape was interrupted by two Swedish graduate students Stanford immediately referred the case to prosecutors and offered the woman counseling, and within two weeks had barred Turner from campus after conducting an investigation Turner was convicted on three felony charges in March 2016 and in June 2016 he received a jail sentence of six months and was declared a sex offender, requiring him to register as such for the rest of his life; prosecutors had sought a six-year prison sentence out of the maximum 14 years that was possible The case and the relatively lenient sentence drew nationwide attention The judge in the case, a Stanford graduate, faced a recall effort in the aftermath

See also: Joe Lonsdale § Personal

In February 2015, Elise Clougherty filed a sexual assault and harassment lawsuit against venture capitalist Joe Lonsdale Lonsdale and Clougherty entered into a relationship in the spring of 2012 when she was a junior and he was her mentor in a Stanford entrepreneurship course By the spring of 2013 Clougherty had broken off the relationship and filed charges at Stanford that Lonsdale had broken the Stanford policy against consensual relationships between students and faculty and that he had sexually assaulted and harassed her, which resulted in Lonsdale being banned from Stanford for 10 years Lonsdale challenged Stanford's finding that he had had sexually assaulted and harassed her and Stanford rescinded that finding and the campus ban in the fall of 2015 Clougherty withdrew her suit that fall as well


Main article: List of Stanford University people

As of late 2014, Stanford had 2,118 tenure-line faculty, senior fellows, center fellows, and medical center faculty

Award laureates and scholars

Stanford's current community of scholars includes:

  • 21 Nobel Prize laureates official count; 58 affiliates in total;
  • 155 members of the National Academy of Sciences;
  • 105 members of National Academy of Engineering;
  • 66 members of Institute of Medicine;
  • 277 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences;
  • 20 recipients of the National Medal of Science;
  • 2 recipients of the National Medal of Technology;
  • 3 recipients of the National Humanities Medal;
  • 50 members of American Philosophical Society;
  • 56 fellows of the American Physics Society since 1995;
  • 5 Pulitzer Prize winners;
  • 27 MacArthur Fellows;
  • 5 Wolf Foundation Prize winners;
  • 2 ACL Lifetime Achievement Award winners;
  • 14 AAAI fellows;
  • 3 Presidential Medal of Freedom winners

Stanford's faculty and former faculty includes 31 Nobel laureates, as well as 19 recipients 22 if visiting professors and consulting professors included of the Turing Award, the so-called "Nobel Prize in computer science", comprising one third of the awards given in its 44-year history The university has 27 ACM fellows It is also affiliated with 4 Gödel Prize winners, 4 Knuth Prize recipients, 10 IJCAI Computers and Thought Award winners, and about 15 Grace Murray Hopper Award winners for their work in the foundations of computer science Stanford alumni have started many companies and, according to Forbes, has produced the second highest number of billionaires of all universities

Eight Stanford alumni have won the Nobel Prize As of 2014, 114 Stanford students have been named Rhodes Scholars

See also

    • San Francisco Bay Area portal
    • University portal
  • List of colleges and universities in California


  1. ^ It is often stated that Stanford has the largest contiguous campus in the world or the United States but that depends on definitions Berry College with over 26,000 acres 406 sq mi; 1052 km2, Paul Smith's College with 14,200 acres 222 sq mi; 575 km2, and the United States Air Force Academy with 18,500 acres 7,500 ha are larger but are not usually classified as universities Duke University at 8,610 acres 135 sq mi; 348 km2 does have more land, but it is not contiguous However the University of the South has over 13,000 acres 203 sq mi; 526 km2
  2. ^ Stanford has the top or very high position in numerous rankings and measures in the United States, and is considered one of the most prestigious and rigorous institutions in the world
  3. ^ Undergraduate school alumni who received the Turing Award:
    1. Vint Cerf: BS Math Stanford 1965; MS CS UCLA 1970; PhD CS UCLA 1972
    2. Allen Newell: BS Physics Stanford 1949; PhD Carnegie Institute of Technology 1957
    Graduate school alumni who received the Turing Award:
    1. Martin Hellman: BE New York University 1966, MS Stanford University 1967, PhD Stanford University 1969, all in electrical engineering Professor at Stanford 1971–1996
    2. John Hopcroft: BS Seattle University; MS EE Stanford 1962, Phd EE Stanford 1964
    3. Barbara Liskov: BSc Berkeley 1961; PhD Stanford
    4. Raj Reddy: BS from Guindy College of Engineering Madras, India 1958; M Tech, University of New South Wales 1960; PhD Stanford 1966
    5. Ronald Rivest: BA Yale 1969; PhD Stanford 1974
    6. Robert Tarjan: BS Caltech 1969; MS Stanford 1971, PhD 1972
    Non-alumni former and current faculty, staff, and researchers who received the Turing Award:
    1. Whitfield Diffie: BS mathematics Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1965 Visiting scholar at Stanford 2009–2010 and an affiliate from 2010–2012; currently a consulting professor at CISAC The Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University
    2. Doug Engelbart: BS EE Oregon State University 1948; MS EE Berkeley 1953; PhD Berkeley 1955 Researcher/Director at Stanford Research Institute SRI 1957–1977; Director Bootstrap Project at Stanford University 1989–1990
    3. Edward Feigenbaum: BS Carnegie Institute of Technology 1956, PhD Carnegie Institute of Technology 1960 Associate Professor at Stanford 1965–1968; Professor at Stanford 1969–2000; Professor Emeritus at Stanford 2000-present
    4. Robert W Floyd: BA 1953, BSc Physics, both from University of Chicago Professor at Stanford 1968–1994
    5. Sir Antony Hoare: Undergraduate at Oxford University Visiting Professor at Stanford 1973
    6. Alan Kay: BA/BS from University of Colorado at Boulder, PhD 1969 from University of Utah Researcher at Stanford 1969–1971
    7. John McCarthy: BS Math, Caltech; PhD Princeton Assistant Professor at Stanford 1953–1955; Professor at Stanford 1962–2011
    8. Robin Milner: BSc 1956 from Cambridge University Researcher at Stanford University 1971–1972
    9. Amir Pnueli: BSc Math from Technion 1962, PhD Weizmann Institute of Science 1967 Instructor at Stanford 1967; Visitor at Stanford 1970
    10. Dana Scott: BA Berkeley 1954, PhD Princeton 1958 Associate Professor at Stanford 1963–1967
    11. Niklaus Wirth: BS Swiss Federal Institute of Technology 1959, MSC Universite Laval, Canada, 1960; PhD Berkeley 1963 Assistant Professor at Stanford University 1963–1967
    12. Andrew Yao: BS physics National University of Taiwan 1967; AM Physics Haravard 1969; PhD Physics, Harvard 1972; PhD CS University of Illinois Urbana-Champagin 1975 Assistant Professor at Stanford University 1976–1981; Professor at Stanford University 1982–1986
  4. ^ The rules governing the board have changed over time The original 24 trustees were appointed for life in 1885 by the Stanfords as were some of the subsequent replacements In 1899 Jane Stanford changed the maximum number of trustees from 24 to 15 and set the term of office to 10 years On June 1, 1903 she resigned her powers as Founder and the board took on its full powers In the 1950s the board decided that 15 members was not sufficient to do all the work needed and in March 1954 petitioned the courts to raise the maximum number to 23 of whom 20 would be regular trustees serving 10 year terms and 3 would be alumni trustees serving 5 year terms In 1970 another petition was successfully made to have the number raised to a maximum of 35 with a minimum of 25, that all trustees would be just trustees and that the university president would be a trustee ex officio The last original trustee, Timothy Hopkins, died in 1936; the last life trustee, Joseph D Grant appointed in 1891 died in 1942


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  189. ^ Xu, Victor May 8, 2014 "Windhover contemplative center to finish by early summer" The Stanford Daily The Stanford Daily Retrieved September 30, 2014 
  190. ^ "Catholic Community at Stanford: About us" Retrieved December 11, 2014  The Catholic Community is a personal parish in the Diocese of San Jose and staffed by the Dominicans and lay leaders
  191. ^ "Hillel at Stanford: About" Retrieved October 5, 2013 
  192. ^ "Kappa Kappa Gamma" Chapterskappakappagammaorg April 26, 1944 Retrieved July 9, 2010 
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  194. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions" Stanford Residential Education Stanford University Retrieved 17 June 2016 
  195. ^ Soong-Shiong, Nika 23 August 2013 "Life at Summer Chi" Stanford Daily Retrieved 17 June 2016 
  196. ^ "FSL Organizations" Stanford University Retrieved June 16, 2016 
  197. ^ "Lambda Phi Epsilon National Fraternity" Lambdaphiepsiloncom Archived from the original on February 11, 2009 Retrieved July 9, 2010 
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  199. ^ "About the Daily" Stanford Daily Retrieved 12 June 2016 
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  201. ^ "About KZSU" Stanford University Retrieved October 19, 2013 
  202. ^ "SPBA" Retrieved 2014-02-16 
  203. ^ "Stanford Marketing" Retrieved 2015-02-07 
  204. ^ "Become An Associate" Retrieved 2015-02-10 
  205. ^ "StartX" stanfordedu 
  206. ^ "Stanford Axe Committee: About us" Retrieved October 5, 2013 
  207. ^ "PASU" Retrieved November 2, 2010 
  208. ^ "The Stanford Improvisors" 
  209. ^ "Tall, Grande, Venti Takes Top Bay College Title to Rep SF in Nationals!" 
  210. ^ "San Francisco Improv Festival" 
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  212. ^ "Safety & Security Results: Crime Statistics" Stanford University Department of Public Safety Retrieved 11 June 2016 
  213. ^ Sheyner, Gennady 22 October 2015 "Palo Alto, Stanford clash over fire services" Palo Alto Online Retrieved 11 June 2016 
  214. ^ Xu, Victor 10 October 2014 "A history of murder at Stanford" Stanford Daily Retrieved 12 June 2016 
  215. ^ a b c d Kadvany, Elena 2015-10-01 "One-third of Stanford women experience sexual misconduct, survey finds" Palo Alto Onilne Retrieved 2016-06-15 
  216. ^ Nick Anderson for the Washington Post June 7, 2016 These colleges have the most reports of rape
  217. ^ a b Liam Stack for The New York Times June 6, 2016 Light Sentence for Brock Turner in Stanford Rape Case Draws Outrage
  218. ^ Ashley Fantz for CNN June 7, 2016 Outrage over 6-month sentence for Brock Turner in Stanford rape case
  219. ^ Jacqueline Lee for Mercury News June 2, 2016 Stanford sex assault: Brock Turner gets 6 months in jail
  220. ^ Fehely, Devin June 6, 2016 "Stanford Sex Assault Victim's Story Draws Worldwide Reaction" CBS SF Bay Area Retrieved 10 June 2016 
  221. ^ Katie Benner for Bloomberg News Feb 2, 2015 Benner on Tech: Parsing a Sexual Assault Suit
  222. ^ a b c Emily Bazelon for the New York Times February 11, 2015 The Stanford Undergraduate and the Mentor
  223. ^ Emily Bazelon for The New York Times Nov 4, 2015 The Lessons of Stanford’s Sex-Assault-Case Reversal
  224. ^ "Woman drops sex assault case against US venture capitalist" 
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  227. ^ Elected AAAI Fellows, retrieved February 9, 2011 
  228. ^ Levy, Dawn July 22, 2003 "Edward Teller wins Presidential Medal of Freedom" p http://news-servicestanfordedu/pr/03/teller723html Retrieved November 17, 2008 Teller, 95, is the third Stanford scholar to be awarded a Presidential Medal of Freedom The others are Nobel Prize-winning economist Milton Friedman 1988 and former Secretary of State George Shultz 1989 
  229. ^ Thibault, Marie August 5, 2009 "Billionaire University" Forbes Retrieved April 15, 2011 
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  234. ^ Sullivan, Kathleen J November 23, 2014 "Two Stanford seniors awarded 2015 Rhodes Scholarships" Stanford Report Stanford University Retrieved July 13, 2015 

Further reading

  • Lee Altenberg, Beyond Capitalism: Leland Stanford's Forgotten Vision Stanford Historical Society, 1990
  • Ronald N Bracewell, Trees of Stanford and Environs Stanford Historical Society, 2005
  • Ken Fenyo, The Stanford Daily 100 Years of Headlines 2003-10-01 ISBN 0-9743654-0-8
  • Jean Fetter, Questions and Admissions: Reflections on 100,000 Admissions Decisions at Stanford 1997-07-01 ISBN 0-8047-3158-6
  • Ricard Joncas, David Neumann, and Paul V Turner Stanford University The Campus Guide Princeton Architectural Press, 2006 Available online
  • Stuart W Leslie, The Cold War and American Science: The Military-Industrial-Academic Complex at MIT and Stanford, Columbia University Press 1994
  • Rebecca S Lowen, R S Lowen, Creating the Cold War University: The Transformation of Stanford, University of California Press 1997

External links

  • Official website
  • Stanford Athletics website
  • Texts on Wikisource:
    • "Leland Stanford Jr University" Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed 1911 
    • "Leland Stanford Junior University" Encyclopedia Americana 1920 
    • "Leland Stanford, Junior, University" Collier's New Encyclopedia 1921 

Coordinates: 37°26′N 122°10′W / 3743°N 12217°W / 3743; -12217

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