Spillover infectionspill over infection control, spill over infection in the blood
Spillover infection, also known as pathogen spillover and spillover event, occurs when a reservoir population with a high pathogen prevalence comes into contact with a novel host population The infection is transmitted from the reservoir population and may or may not be transmitted within the host population
- 1 Spillover zoonoses
- 2 Intraspecies spillover
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Examples of viruses that have spilled over from animals to humans include the bat-borne viruses Ebola, Marburg, Hendra and Nipah virus Other spillover infections include types of malaria, Q fever, hantavirus, E coli 0157, and Legionnaires' disease Some commentators suspect that bats infected ancient peoples with measles and mumps, and that these pathogen systems coevolved with humans
Commercially bred bumblebees used to pollinate greenhouses can be reservoirs for several pollinator parasites including the protozoans Crithidia bombi, and Apicystis bombi, the Microsporidians Nosema bombi and Nosema ceranae, plus viruses such as Deformed wing virus and the tracheal mites Locustacarus buchneri Commercial bees that escape the glasshouse environment may then infect wild bee populations Infection may be via direct interactions between managed and wild bees or via shared flower use and contamination One study found that half of all wild bees found near greenhouses were infected with C bombi Rates and incidence of infection decline dramatically the further away from the greenhouses the wild bees are located Instances of spillover between bumblebees are well documented across the world but particularly in Japan, North America and the United Kingdom
- 1993 Four Corners hantavirus outbreak
- List of Legionellosis outbreaks
- Cross-species transmission
- ^ Power, AG; Mitchell, CE Nov 2004 "Pathogen spillover in disease epidemics" Am Nat 164 Suppl 5: S79–89
- ^ David Quammen Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic WW Norton, 2012
- ^ a b Graystock, P; Yates, K; Evison, SEF; Darvill, B; Goulson, D; Hughes, WOH 2013 "The Trojan hives: pollinator pathogens, imported and distributed in bumblebee colonies" Journal of Applied Ecology 50 5: 1207–15 doi:101111/1365-266412134
- ^ a b Sachman-Ruiz, Bernardo; Narváez-Padilla, Verónica; Reynaud, Enrique 2015-03-10 "Commercial Bombus impatiens as reservoirs of emerging infectious diseases in central México" Biological Invasions 17 7: 2043–53 doi:101007/s10530-015-0859-6 ISSN 1387-3547
- ^ Durrer, Stephan; Schmid-Hempel, Paul 1994-12-22 "Shared Use of Flowers Leads to Horizontal Pathogen Transmission" Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 258 1353: 299–302 doi:101098/rspb19940176 ISSN 0962-8452
- ^ Graystock, Peter; Goulson, Dave; Hughes, William O H 2015-08-22 "Parasites in bloom: flowers aid dispersal and transmission of pollinator parasites within and between bee species" Proc R Soc B 282 1813: 20151371 doi:101098/rspb20151371 ISSN 0962-8452 PMC 4632632 PMID 26246556
- ^ Otterstatter, MC; Thomson, JD 2008 "Does Pathogen Spillover from Commercially Reared Bumble Bees Threaten Wild Pollinators" PLOS ONE 3 7: e2771 doi:101371/journalpone0002771 PMC 2464710 PMID 18648661
- ^ Graystock, Peter; Goulson, Dave; Hughes, William OH 2014 "The relationship between managed bees and the prevalence of parasites in bumblebees" PeerJ 2: e522 doi:107717/peerj522 PMC 4137657 PMID 25165632
- ^ Graystock, Peter; Blane, Edward J; McFrederick, Quinn S; Goulson, Dave; Hughes, William O H 2016 "Do managed bees drive parasite spread and emergence in wild bees" International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 5: 64–75 doi:101016/jijppaw201510001
- ^ Imported bumblebees pose risk to UK's wild and honeybee population Damian Carrington theguardiancom, Thursday 18 July 2013
- Infection Information Resource
- European Center for Disease Prevention and Control
- US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
- Infectious Disease Society of America IDSA
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