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South Asian Canadians in the Greater Toronto Area

south asian canadians in the greater toronto area map, south asian canadians in the greater toronto area population
As of 2006 there were 684,000 South Asian Canadians in the Greater Toronto Area, making them the largest visible minority group there As of 2011 Toronto is the destination of over half of the immigrants coming from India to Canada, and India is the single largest source of immigrants in the Greater Toronto Area1

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Geography
  • 3 Demographics
    • 31 Income
    • 32 Bangladeshis and Bengalis
    • 33 Indo-Caribbean people and Indo-Guyanese
    • 34 Maharashtrians
    • 35 Sri Lankans
  • 4 Language
  • 5 Media
  • 6 Institutions
  • 7 Commerce
  • 8 Religion
  • 9 Education
  • 10 Legacy
  • 11 Notable residents
  • 12 See also
  • 13 References
  • 14 Notes
  • 15 Further reading
  • 16 External links

Historyedit

Indo-Canadians began to move to Toronto in the 1960s2

Air India Flight 182 was bombed in 1985 The majority of the passengers resided in the Toronto area In 2007 a memorial for Air India 182 opened in Toronto3

From 1986 to 1995, over 140,000 persons of South Asian origin moved to the Toronto area An additional 266,000 arrived from 1996 to 20061

By 2007 area South Asians had established philanthropic efforts4

Air India Flight 182 memorial in Toronto

Geographyedit

As of 2011 the main areas of Indo-Canadian settlement are Scarborough1 and Etobicoke in Toronto and the suburbs of Brampton, Markham, and Mississauga1 Brampton has the nickname "Brown Town" due to its large South Asian community5

The first persons of South Asian origin settling in Toronto did so in Downtown As the community matured, South Asians began moving to suburban and exurban areas1

Demographicsedit

As of the Statistics Canada 2001 Census there were 504,005 South Asians in the Toronto region Of them, 345,855 were classified as East Indian, 45,240 were Sri Lankan, 33,145 were Tamil, 32,305 were South Asian nie, 20,480 were Punjabi, 6,435 were Bangladeshi, 3,795 were Bengali, 2,725 were Goan, 1,970 were Sinhalese, 1,830 were Gujarati, 385 were Nepali, and 270 were Kashmiri6

As of circa 1990 there were higher proportions of Gujaratis and Punjabis, while numbers of Maharashtrians were fewer7

Incomeedit

Indo-Canadians in the Greater Toronto Area have an average household income of $86,425, which is higher than the Canadian average of $81,709 but lower than the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area's average of $95,32689

Indha Rajagopal, the author of "The Glass Ceiling in the Vertical Mosaic: Indian Immigrants to Canada," analyzed the 1986 Census of Canada She concluded that in Toronto Indo-Canadians had salaries lower than other people in Toronto, including native-born persons and people who immigrated Rajagopal stated that credentials obtained from institutions abroad were possibly not being recognized in Canada, so even though Ontario Indo-Canadians had higher likelihoods of completing university studies than the general population, the Indo-Canadians were unable to get higher income levels10

Bangladeshis and Bengalisedit

Aminur Rahim, author of an article about the Bengalis of Ontario, wrote that around 1973 a distinct Bangladeshi community was established in Toronto11

Indo-Caribbean people and Indo-Guyaneseedit

Indo-Guyanese began moving to Toronto around 1967 due to a relaxation in Canadian immigration restrictions and simultaneously due to increased discrimination in Guyana12 In 1990 Bruce Ally, the author of an article about Indo-Guyanese in Toronto, wrote that they were "relative newcomers"13

When Indo-Guyanese first arrived, many of them did not find advantageous work, despite having high levels of education and skills, due to a lack of credentials, a need for adaptation to Canadian society, and racism from existing Canadians Many of them lived in cramped dwellings and this forced elders into retirement houses; in Guyana the housing spaces are larger and accommodate entire extended families12 In addition many Indo-Guyanese who first settled Toronto lived in neighborhoods far away from worship centres, and those centres were often not majority Indo-Guyanese and did sermons in languages not understood by Indo-Guyanese14 As of 1990 many Indo-Guyanese were underpaid in relation to their qualifications and skills, and compared with their political situation in their homeland they had not achieved as much political power by 199013 Indo-Guyanese students attended university at rates higher than the Canadian average due to pressure from parents and a cultural commitment to education, although the people had reduced enthusiasm for achieving this education15

Maharashtriansedit

As of that year most Maharahstrians worked as professionals, although there were others doing other occupations16 Those who worked as professionals generally belonged to higher castes, such as Brahmins, Marathas, and Kayasthas17

Sri Lankansedit

A wave of Sri Lankans arrived in Toronto from 1970 to 19752

Languageedit

Punjabi was historically the most common Indian language among South Asians in Toronto As immigration from other South Asian countries increased coupled with an increase of immigration from other regions within India, the percentage of Punjabi speakers out of the total South Asian population declined1 Today, Hindi/Urdu, Punjabi and Tamil are the three most spoken languages in Toronto's South Asian community, while Gujarati and Bengali are the fastest-growingcitation needed

Mediaedit

Channel Punjabi programs are broadcast in the Toronto area

In 1980 there Toronto area had several Indo-Pakistani language periodicals, including two in Gujarati and one each in Hindi and Urdu At that time the Toronto area had no Punjabi periodicals18

Institutionsedit

The Toronto Marathi Bhashik Mandal "Marathi Speakers' Association",17 Toronto's main Maharashtrian organization, was established in 1970 Ram Mulgund, an actuary in a Canadian insurance company who served as the president of Brihan Maharashtra Mandal BMM, stated that the high level of education of Maharashtrian women meant that they were the primary persons operating the Marathi Bhashik Mandal16

Commerceedit

In 2012 Dakshana Bascaramurty of The Globe and Mail wrote that the popularity of ethnic shopping centres declined and that many Indo-Canadians are preferring to go to mainstream retailers Because the prices of saris and salwar kameezes are higher in Toronto than in India and South Asia, many prefer to travel to South Asia to buy the clothing items19

In 2011 there were two GTA theatres, including Albion Cinema, dedicated to showing Indian films S G O Jafry established Canada's first Indian cinema in 1969 after having shown Indian films at North Toronto high schools beginning in 1969 The Toronto area at one time had eight Indian cinemas but the rise of home video caused many to go out of business20

Religionedit

Religious groups in Toronto which have Indo-Canadians include Hindus, Muslims, Zoroastrian Parsis, Christians, Sikhs, Jains, and Buddhists2 In 2006 the Toronto region had 191,305 Hindus and 90,590 Sikhs6

Sufi Islamic sects from South Asia practised in Toronto include Chishti, Naqshbandi, and Qadri orders and Inayat Khan's Sufi Order of the West The Sufi Circle of Toronto, originally the Society for the Understanding of the Finite and Infinite SUFI, was founded by Dr Mirza Qadeer Baiq, a shaikh from Ajmer, India who served as a professor in the University of Toronto Islamic Studies Department The Sufi Circle was founded as a part of the Chishti order21

The 1981 Census of Canada stated that there were 11,620 Sikhs in the Toronto area Philip Marchand, the author of a July 1982 Toronto Life article about Sikhs in Toronto, stated that the population was in a range of 25,000-50,00022

Educationedit

As of 1990 the North York Heritage Language program supports education programs of various languages of India, including Gujarati, Punjabi, and Marathi As of 1990 the Marathi program in Toronto was facing a decline in enrollment since the Marathi community was less concentrated and smaller than communities of other Indian languages17

The Toronto Marathi Bhashik Mandal established a Marathi language school for children in 1974, with 15 volunteer teachers, after conducting surveys in the Toronto area It operated on Sundays with each class lasting two to three hours It used Balabharati, Marathi texts from India, as instructional materials due to a lack of English-medium teaching materials At the time the school had classes of five students each A Canadian federal grant supported this program from 1978 to 198917

Legacyedit

There is a large statue of Mohandas Gandhi in Shanti Uddyan on Yonge Street2

Notable residentsedit

  • Vasu Chanchlani
  • Aditya Jha
  • Deepa Mehta23
  • Lata Pada

See alsoedit

  • Asian Indians in the New York City metropolitan region
  • History of the Pakistani Americans in Houston
  • History of the Indian Americans in Metro Detroit
  • Indian community of London
  • Pakistani community of London
  • Indians in South Africa

Referencesedit

  • Ally, Bruce "Indo-Caribbean Life in Guyana and Toronto: A Comparative Survey" In: Israel, Milton and Narendra K Wagle South Asians in Ontario Multicultural History Society of Ontario Toronto, Ontario 1990 Start p 16
  • Rahim, Aminur "After the Last Journey: Some Reflections on Bangladeshi Community Life in Ontario" In: Israel, Milton and Narendra K Wagle South Asians in Ontario Multicultural History Society of Ontario Toronto, Ontario 1990 Start p 8
  • Wagle, Narendra K History Professor and Director of the University of Toronto Centre of South Asian Studies "On Being Maharashtrian in Toronto" In: South Asians in Ontario Multicultural History Society of Ontario Toronto, Ontario 1990 Start p 22

Notesedit

  1. ^ a b c d e f Gee, Marcus "South Asian immigrants are transforming Toronto" The Globe and Mail Sunday July 3, 2011 Updated Monday July 4, 2011 Retrieved on October 28, 2014
  2. ^ a b c d Ruprecht, Tony Toronto's Many Faces Dundurn, November 8, 2010 ISBN 1554888859, 9781554888856 p 200
  3. ^ "Toronto reveals Air India memorial" Archive Canwest News Service June 23, 2007 Retrieved on October 28, 2014
  4. ^ Reinhart, Anthony "Toronto South Asian leads swing toward donor diversity" The Globe and Mail Monday June 25, 2007 Friday March 13, 2009 Retrieved on October 29, 2014
  5. ^ "1" The Globe and Mail June 3, 2016 Retrieved on May 25, 2017
  6. ^ a b "Annexes" Archived 2014-10-21 at WebCite Report of Meetings with Representatives of the Indo‑Canadian Community Government of Canada Retrieved on October 21, 2014
  7. ^ Wagle, p 22 Archive-23 Archive
  8. ^ http://wwwsuperdemographicscom/marketEthnicsphpreport_name=sa&type=demo
  9. ^ https://www12statcangcca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/prof/details/pagecfmLang=E&Geo1=CMA&Code1=535&Data=Count&SearchText=toronto&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&A1=Income%20of%20households&B1=All&Custom=&TABID=1
  10. ^ Li, Peter S "The Market Value and Social Value of Race" Chapter 1 In: Kwok, Siu-ming and Maria A Wallis editors Daily Struggles: The Deepening Racialization and Feminization of Poverty in Canada Canadian Scholars’ Press, 2008 ISBN 1551303396, 9781551303390 Start: 21 CITED: p 29
  11. ^ Rahim, p 8 Archive-9 Archive
  12. ^ a b Ally, p 17 Archive
  13. ^ a b Ally, p 20 Archive
  14. ^ Ally, p 18permanent dead link Archive
  15. ^ Ally, p 19permanent dead link Archive
  16. ^ a b Wagle, p 23 Archive
  17. ^ a b c d Wagle, p 24 Archive
  18. ^ Johnston, Hugh 1988 “The Development of Punjabi Community in Vancouver since 1961” In Canadian Ethnic Studies, Vol 20:2 p 16-17
  19. ^ Bascaramurty, Daksha "The rise and fall of the ethnic mall" The Globe and Mail Friday June 15, 2012 Retrieved on October 29, 2014
  20. ^ Mustafa, Ali and Manmeet Ahuwalia "VIDEO: The rise of Indian cinema in Canada" Archived April 29, 2015, at the Wayback Machine CBC News June 21, 2011 Retrieved on April 13, 2015
  21. ^ Hermansen, Marcia "South Asian Sufism in America" Chapter 15 CITED: Google Books PT202 page unspecified under section "South Asian Sufism in Canada"
  22. ^ Johnston, Hugh 1988 “The Development of Punjabi Community in Vancouver since 1961” In Canadian Ethnic Studies, Vol 20:2 p 16
  23. ^ Waugh, Thomas Romance of Transgression in Canada: Queering Sexualities, Nations, Cinemas McGill-Queen's Press MQUP, July 18, 2006 ISBN 0773585281, 9780773585287 p 468

Further readingedit

  • Agrawal, Sandeep and Alexander Lovell Indian Immigrants in Canada: The Shades of Economic Integration

External linksedit

  • The Weekly Voice
  • Indo-Canada Chamber of Commerce ICCC; Chambre de Commerce Indo-Canada Archive
  • Miss Canada-India

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