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South Asian Canadians in Greater Vancouver


As of 2014, there are 250,000 ethnic Indo-Canadians in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada1 The Newton area of Surrey, a city within Greater Vancouver, as of 2012, is one of the world's largest South Asian enclaves2 Most Indo-Canadians in Greater Vancouver and cities adjacent to it are descended from Punjab, although the 2007 data from Stats Can states "Canadians of South Asian origin are almost equally divided among the Sikh, Hindu and Muslim faith groups In 2001, 28% of South Asians reported they were Sikh, 28% said they were Hindu, and 22% were Muslim At the same time, another 16% reported that they were Christian In contrast, relatively few people of South Asian origin have no religious affiliation In 2001, just 4% said they had no religious affiliation, compared with 17% of the overall population"


68% percent of Indo-Canadians in Canada live in the Toronto and Vancouver areas as of 2001, together making up 7% of the combined populations of the cities3

South Asians living in Canada tend to be bilingual 2001, 93% reported the ability to converse in one or both official languages, while 7% could not speak either English or French According to Stats Can 2001, 65% of those who reported a South Asian origin said that their mother tongue was a non-official language At the same time, 35% reported that their mother tongue was English and almost 1% reported that it was French Among the non-official languages reported as mother tongue, the most common included Punjabi 29%, Tamil 10%, Urdu 9%, Gujurati 6%, Hindi 6% and Bengali 3%4

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Demographics
    • 21 Ethnic and national origins
  • 3 Economy
    • 31 Businesses
  • 4 Geography
  • 5 Institutions
    • 51 Welfare, immigrant, employment, and health associations
    • 52 Ethnic and national organizations
    • 53 Cultural organizations
  • 6 Language
  • 7 Politics
    • 71 Politics in Vancouver
    • 72 Politics in Surrey
    • 73 Politics in other cities
  • 8 Culture
    • 81 Bhangra dance
  • 9 Media
    • 91 Newspapers
    • 92 Radio
      • 921 Pirate radio
    • 93 Television
  • 10 Education
    • 101 Public schools
    • 102 Private schools
    • 103 Post-secondary education
    • 104 Language education
    • 105 Educational demographics
  • 11 Religion
    • 111 Sikhism
    • 112 Hinduism
    • 113 Islam
    • 114 Christianity
    • 115 Other religions
  • 12 Recreation
  • 13 Crime
  • 14 Relations with mainstream society
  • 15 Research
  • 16 Notable residents
  • 17 See also
  • 18 References
  • 19 Notes
  • 20 Further reading
  • 21 External links

Historyedit

Margaret Walton-Roberts and Daniel Hiebert, the authors of Immigration, Entrepreneurship, and the Family, wrote that "The history of Indo-Canadian settlement in Vancouver began in the late 19th century"5

The Empress of India arrived in Vancouver in 1904 On board were the first members of Vancouver's South Asian community6

At the turn of the century the Mayor of Vancouver did not permit cremation, so when the first Sikh died in 1907 he could not be cremated in the Vancouver city limits Christian missionaries did not permit him to be buried with whites Even though the missionaries promoted burial, the Sikhs instead cremated the man in a distant wilderness This prompted Sikhs to establish their own religious institutions7

In 1908 the Canadian Dominion government had a plan to obtain labour for sugar plantations in British Honduras, now Belize, by recruiting Punjabis in Vancouver The plan was not tested because the Punjabis had already found employment8

In 1914 South Asians in Vancouver protested after authorities turned away the Komagata Maru and most of its passengers; this vessel South Asians, may of who were Sikhs, who were intending to move to Canada Shelley Sang-Hee Lee, the author of A New History of Asian America, wrote that the incident had persuaded persons of Indian origin residing on the North American West Coast to oppose discrimination against their ethnic groups9

By 1923 Vancouver became the primary cultural, social, and religious centre of British Columbia Indo-Canadians and it had the largest East Indian-origin population of any city in North America10 Walton-Roberts and Hiebert stated that until the 1960s the Indo-Canadian community in Vancouver "was relatively small"5

In 1961 the immigration patterns of South Asians arriving in Canada changed, with Ontario becoming a major centre of immigration Prior to 1961 Vancouver was the sole major point of immigration to Canada11 The first significant non-Sikh immigration occurred post-1947 occurred12 Additional immigration of those of Indian background residing in India, Fiji, and England occurred in the late 1960s6 Immigration from Fiji continued to occur in the 1969-1979 period Other groups immigrating from 1969 through 1979 included Pakistanis, Sri Lankans, and Ismaili Muslims and Gujarati Hindus from East Africa12 In the period 1971 through 1981 East Indians from South Asia, Fiji, England, East Africa, East Asia, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia arrived in Vancouver These immigrants included Sikhs and non-Sikhs13

71,801 South Asian immigrants moved to Vancouver during the period 1980 to 200114

Air India Flight 182 memorial at Stanley Park

Some passengers on board Air India Flight 182, which crashed in 1985, were from Greater Vancouver15 The bomb that went on AI182 was first placed on a connecting flight that departed Vancouver16 Since then, there have been memorial services held at Stanley Park The Ceperley Playground at Stanley Park has a memorial listing the names of the passengers17

By the mid-1980s wealthier Indo-Canadians were moving to Surrey from South Vancouver because land in Surrey was more inexpensive18

In 1996 a controversy occurred when Dr Stephens, a doctor in San Jose, California, put advertisements for sex-selection services which would allow parents to reject female children The Coalition of Women's Organizations Against Sex Selection, organized by Mahila, a women's group headquartered in Vancouver, criticized Stephens19

In 2006 the Royal Canadian Mounted Police RCMP stated that there had been attempts to extort and kidnap people in Surrey; the RCMP did not disclose when the attempts occurred and who the targets were The RCMP stated that businesspersons of Indo-Canadian origins in Surrey need to take precautions In response, the president of Sikh Alliance Against Violence, Kandola, stated that the warning was too vague and could cause unnecessary panic and confusion20

In August 2008, during a community meeting,21 the Prime Minister of Canada gave an apology for the Komagata Maru incident in a park,22 in Surrey21 Some members of Canada's Indo-Canadian community argued that he should have apologized in Parliament22

In 2010 Charlie Smith, the editor of The Georgia Straight, criticized area news reports which stated that Indo-Canadians were disproportionately connected to gay bashings; Smith argued that it is not fair to lump all Indo-Canadians together and label them with the same description, citing the ethnic diversity within the community23 He also cited the fact that no Indo-Canadian professionals were charged with any such crimes He added "I doubt there is a single university graduate among the lot"23

Demographicsedit

The 1992 Census stated that in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area CMA there were about 75,000 persons of South Asian origin24

In 2001, according to a Statistics Canada survey of Vancouverites in which 546,070 persons responded, there were 26,420 responses claiming East Indian ancestry, out of a total of 806,805 responses; due to persons giving multiple responses, the total responses is a larger number than the number of people who took the survey25

In 2006 the Vancouver area had 207,165 South Asians, making up 25% of the total visible minorities in the metropolitan area26 That year, according to Statistics Canada data, the numbers of visible minority South Asians in Greater Vancouver included 32,515 in Vancouver city,27 107,810 in Surrey,28 16,840 in Burnaby,29 14,215 in Delta,30 13,865 in Richmond,31 4,660 in New Westminster,32 4,180 in Coquitlam,33 and 950 in West Vancouver34 According to the same data, the numbers of people claiming South Asian ancestry were 33,415 in Vancouver City,27 107,435 in Surrey,28 16,755 in Burnaby,29 14,210 in Delta,30 13,950 in Richmond,31 4,725 in New Westminster,32 4,305 in Coquitlam,33 and 1,040 in West Vancouver34

In 2011, there were 250,820 Indo-Canadians, making up 101% of the Greater Vancouver Areacitation needed

Ethnic and national originsedit

The majority of the Greater Vancouver Indo-Canadian and East Indian-origin populations is of Sikh Punjabi heritage3536 As of 1988 the heavy concentration of Punjabis in Vancouver differs from the South Asian populations in Toronto and other central and eastern Canadian cities, as those groups have more balance and diversity in their South Asian linguistic groups37 As of 1988, in addition to Punjabis, there are also Gujaratis, Bengalis, and individuals from South India as well as East African Ismailis,38 and Fijian Indians12 Hugh Johnston, author of "The Development of the Punjabi Community in Vancouver since 1961," wrote that "few" Pakistani Punjabis and Pakistanis of other ethnic groups "have any sense of affinity with Punjabis from India"39

As of the Statistics Canada 2001 Census there were 163,340 South Asians in the Vancouver region Of them, 142,060 were classified as East Indian, 11,965 were Punjabi, 5,680 were Pakistani, 4,810 were South Asian, nie, 2,025 were Sri Lankan, 975 were Tamil, 345 were Sinhalese, 290 were Bengali, 265 were Nepali, 225 were Goan, 205 were Gujarati, 60 were Kashmiri, 20 were Bangladeshi40

As of 1981 there were about 25,000 ethnic Punjabis in Vancouver, including about 2,288 Hindus with the remainder being Sikhs37 In the period 1980 to 2001, India supplied 75% of the Indo-Canadians who moved to Vancouver 14% originated from Fiji Others originated from Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka14 In 2001, according to Statistics Canada data on 250,095 immigrants into Vancouver, 12,385 were born in India41

Economyedit

Many Indo-Canadians work as taxi drivers in Vancouver42 Other Indo-Canadians have professional jobs and many also own their businesses They are a community in diverse professions

James G Chadney, the author of the 1984 book The Sikhs of Vancouver, stated that "one knowledgeable informant" told him that due to "business purposes" many wealthy Vancouver Sikhs use their company or the name of their spouses to legally list their residences43

During the Indo-Canadian community's early history, many members worked in sawmills within the Vancouver city limits and in areas which would become suburbs in Greater Vancouver They also opened firewood businesses Indo-Canadians entered this sector because they were not permitted to enter several other occupations By 1991 Indo-Canadians continued to be active in the wood business, and Indo-Canadian construction, wood processing, and distribution businesses opened by the 1980s5 As of 1998 most of the businesses were located in Vancouver, North Delta, and Surrey44 Within Greater Vancouver, about 2,300 men of South Asian heritage each worked in the construction and wood processing areas in 1991, and during the same year there were about 2,000 men of South Asian heritage working in the Greater Vancouver transportation sector5

According to Michael M Ames and Joy Inglis, authors of "Conflict and Change in British Columbia Sikh Family Life," as of circa 1973-1974, within the Vancouver Lower Mainland area, about 20% of Sikhs are managers and foremen and about 80% work in semi-skilled or unskilled jobs; most of the latter are in the lumber sector Others were accountants, importers, salespeople, shopkeepers, and truckers45 Ames and Inglis stated that they got the supporting data from August 1951-December 1966 marriage records,46 as well as donor lists,47 at the Vancouver Khalsa Diwan Society temple46

Businessesedit

Indian restaurants in the Punjabi Market and other parts of the Vancouver area serve Punjabi food and other South Asian cuisines48 The majority of Indo-Canadian restaurants focus on the cuisine of northern India49 Fodors wrote that Vij's, a restaurant established by Vikram Vij that prepared South Asian food with Canadian ingredients and produce, "shook up the Vancouver food scene" in the 1990s when it first opened48 There are also many Indian restaurants in Surrey In 2013 Alexandra Gill of The Globe and Mail wrote that in regards to area food critics the Indian restaurant scene was "a largely unknown dining landscape"50

Other businesses operated by the South Asians, as of 1988, included automobile dealerships, contractors, insurance agencies, jewellers, real estate agencies, sari shops, sweet shops, and travel agencies39

In 1970 there were no specialized South Asian movie theatres in the Vancouver area; five of them appeared by 1977, and there was one more by 198039

Geographyedit

As of circa 2009 Southeast Vancouver has the primary concentration of the city's Indo-Canadians51 The Sunset community in Vancouver includes an Indo-Canadian population52 Many recent immigrants settled the Southern Slope area by the 1970s53 The Punjabi Market, an Indo-Canadian business district, is focussed on the intersection of 49th Avenue and Main Street54 By 2013 the numbers of businesses in the Punjabi Market had declined as Indo-Canadians moved to suburban areas55 Punjabi language street signs are visible in neighborhoods that have large numbers of Indo-Canadians56 In 1980 southern Vancouver had the primary concentration of the city Indo-Canadians due to the proximity of the gurdwara and the lumber mills57

As of 2013, Indo-Canadians make up about 30% of the population of Surrey,55 and they are the largest visible minority group in the city58 This was an increase from about 25% circa 201042 As of 2012, of all of the Canadian municipalities, Surrey had the second-highest concentration of South Asians59 Surrey includes a shopping center catering to Indo-Canadians and two Sikh temples Pang Guek-Cheng, the author of Culture Shock! Vancouver, wrote that "Surreyis to Indo-Canadians what Richmond is to the Chinese"42 Most persons of South Asian origins in Surrey are Indo-Canadians, or have Canadian citizenship58 By 2009 Judy Villeneuve, a member of the Surrey City Council, stated that the main developers of Surrey were the Indo-Canadians By 2009 the City of Surrey had posted job advertisements in the Indo-Canadian Times60

Newton, an area in Surrey, has a concentration of Indo-Canadians61 A City of Surrey fact sheet stated that those of South Asian origin made up 621% of the immigrants in Newton; the total number of immigrants made up over 40% of Newton's population By 2013 the city government was planning to establish a new "Little India" in Newton62 In addition to Newton, Indo-Canadians also live in Cloverdale, South Surrey, and other areas of Surrey63

As of 2013, many younger Indo-Canadians are moving to areas in Vancouver and Burnaby close to their places of work instead of areas with concentrated Indo-Canadian populations63

In the 1970s there was no particular residential concentration of Sikhs in the Vancouver Lower Mainland47 However by the late 1970s and into the early 1980s two concentrations developed: South Vancouver and Burnaby59 In the 1980s Indo-Canadians were located throughout Greater Vancouver and not only in Southern Vancouver57 As of circa 1988, within Greater Vancouver, about 66% of Indo-Canadians lived in Vancouver city while about 33% lived in Surrey, Richmond, and other suburban cities64

Institutionsedit

In 1988 Hugh Johnston wrote that "Vancouver's South Asian community was an unweildy entity without a great sense of common purpose" even before the 1984 assault at Amritsar, and that because of the Khalistan-related tensions there was no "effective umbrella organization" in existence65 The National Organization of Canadians of Origins NACOI in India, founded in 1977,39 had a British Columbia chapter, but Shiromani Akali Dal Sikhs chose not to take part, and Khalsa Diwan Society extremist Sikhs hijacked the British Columbia chapter in 198566 The promotion of the multicultural policies in Canada in the mid-20th century also caused additional organizations, including those funded by governments and private entities, to be founded67

Welfare, immigrant, employment, and health associationsedit

In 1947 the East Indian Canadian Citizens' Welfare Association EICCWA or the Canadian East Indian Welfare Association opened68 It was officially not a part of any gurdwara69 Members originated from both the Khalsa Diwan Society KDS, a Sikh society which historically had de facto dominance in the welfare association organization; affiliates of the KDS; and the Akali Singh Society68 The organization began taking political functions from the KDS69 By 1961 it was the primary Vancouver-area organization representing Indo-Canadian interests The organization avoided publicity to reduce chances of negative public attention while it promoted quotas for Indo-Canadian politicians Hugh Johnson wrote that "resentment" sometimes resulted from the KDS's dominance68 Dusenbery wrote that the organization, by taking the entire East Indian community into its scope, promoted the idea that "there exists a distinct "East Indian" ethno-cultural group sharing unique interests and activities" and therefore "implicitly accepted the Canadian view of social reality"69 Prior to the 1977 formation of the NACOI it was the sole pan-South Asian organization in Vancouver39

The Multilingual Orientation Service Association for Immigrant Communities MOSAIC serves newly arrived immigrants in the city of Vancouver and also is involved with social concerns The organization Options serves immigrants, particularly adults, by providing referrals and resources; it is headquartered in Surrey New immigrants in the Surrey and also Delta, particularly adults, receive services from the Surrey-Delta Immigrant Services Society67

A senior centre for Sikh persons in Surrey opened on November 29, 199467

Issues related to employment and labour are handled by the Progressive Intercultural Community Services Society PICS, which serves Vancouver and Surrey67

The Rainbow Project, an organization involved in health-related matters, is based in Surrey67

Ethnic and national organizationsedit

As of 1988 there is no specific Punjabi ethnic organization in Greater Vancouver while there are dedicated ethnic organizations for the Bengalis, East Africans, Gujaratis, and South Indians The Gujarati association became a Gujarati Hindu organization exclusively even though Hindus, Ismailis, and Parsis had worked to establish the organization; the post-1974 growth of Ismailis caused the focus of the organization to change38

As of 1988 there are about 700-800 members of the Pakistan Canada Association in Greater Vancouver, with most of them being ethnic Punjabi English and Urdu are the organization's primary languages The Pakistan Canada Association Centre serves as the hub of activity39 The association organized in 1963, had about 200 members in the Vancouver area in 198370

Cultural organizationsedit

The youth committee Guru Nanak Sikh Gurdwara in Surrey established "Sikh Skillz," an Indo-Canadian arts organization that originally had a focus on music but later branched into television71

Languageedit

Gurmukhi language sign board at Vancouver International Airport

According to 1987 Statistics Canada figures, 20,835 persons in the Vancouver area stated that they spoke Punjabi as a native language72 In 1991, 38,225 people in the Vancouver area had Punjabi as their mother language, making it the region's third most common mother language, after English and Chinese73

As of 2005 Punjabi was approximately the third to fourth most common mother language74 As of 1991 fewer than 50% of those who natively spoke Punjabi in the Vancouver area lived in Surrey73 Of the Punjabi speakers in Canada, most are located in the Vancouver and Toronto areas predominantly Surrey and Brampton74

Due to the use of Punjabi by the Indo-Canadian community, City of Vancouver, British Columbia, and Canadian federal institutions in Vancouver have literature and office signage using the Gurmukhi script74

Politicsedit

As of 2011 three South Asian and East Asian-dominated "ridings" are in Greater Vancouver: Burnaby-Douglas, Newton-North Delta, and Vancouver South75

Politics in Vancouveredit

Until the 1960s Sikh religious organizations were the primary political interest groups of the Indo-Canadian community in the Vancouver region76

In 1973 Dr Venkatachala Setty Pendakur, an Indo-Canadian, was the first visible minority elected to the Vancouver City Council He served one term, which ended in 197477 He was defeated in his re-election campaign that year, and in 1985 there were no Indo-Canadians who had any elected positions in area municipal governments78

Irene Bloemraad, author of "Diversity and Elected Officials in the City of Vancouver," stated that the at-large voting system used by Vancouver makes it difficult to elect women and minorities,77 and that the council's majority White demographics were "probably" influenced by the original rationale of the at-large system, to "keep those with social democratic ideologies out of politics"79 The ward system was abolished in 193580 Charlie Smith of The Georgia Straight wrote in 2004 that from 1990 to 2004 there had been difficulty in having Indo-Canadians elected to City of Vancouver municipal positions81 That year, the President of the Ross Street Sikh Temple, Jarnail Singh Bhandal, advocated for a ward voting system in the City of Vancouver so that Indo-Canadians and other ethnic minorities have more of a chance to be elected81 During a 2004 failed election proposal to reinstitute the ward system in the City of Vancouver, the area with the highest concentration of Indo-Canadians mostly voted in favor of reestablishing it77 In 2008 Kashmir Dhaliwal, a candidate for the Vision Vancouver council, stated that he had plans to legally challenge the at-will voting system Dr Lakhbir Singh, a candidate for the Vancouver School Board, criticized the at-large voting system, saying that it discriminates against Indo-Canadians and that he would join the legal challenge82 Smith accused the voting community of Vancouver city of racism, saying that racism results in a lack of votes for South Asian candidates83

Politics in Surreyedit

The first Indo-Canadian elected to Surrey's city council was Tom Gill, who was elected in 200584

In 2014 Barinder Rasode campaigned to be the Mayor of Surrey85 Kalwinder "Kal" Dosanjh, a former Vancouver Police Department officer,86 joined One Surrey, Rasode's political party, and campaigned to be a member of the Surrey city council in 201487

Kristin R Good, the author of Municipalities and Multiculturalism: The Politics of Immigration in Toronto and Vancouver, stated in 2009 that Surrey's Indo-Canadian community was politically fragmented, including along religious lines88

In October 2014 a series of political campaign signs in Surrey showing South Asian candidates were vandalized89 Signs belonging to Surrey First and SafeSurrey Coalition, two political parties, were defaced, with only names of Indo-Canadian candidates crossed out90 Tom Gill accused racists of defacing the signs91

Politics in other citiesedit

In 2005 Bobby Singh won a position in the Richmond School Board84

Kamala Elizabeth Nayar, the author of The Punjabis in British Columbia: Location, Labour, First Nations, and Multiculturalism, wrote that compared to Indo-Canadian people who were born and raised in the Lower Mainland, Indo-Canadians born in Canada whose ancestors settled in rural areas of British Columbia, and who themselves live in Vancouver, "tended to assess Canada's policy of multiculturalism more critically"92

Cultureedit

Nayar stated that third-generation Punjabis who have lived in Vancouver their whole lives have a positive opinion of multiculturalism while those who live in Vancouver but have lived outside of Vancouver before have ambivalence about it: they argue that multiculturalism can divide people while it can also protect culture93

Nayar uses the term "Punjabi Bubble" to refer to a common effect of Punjabis only associating with other Punjabis This occurs in Greater Vancouver94 Nayar stated that "The Vancouver Sikh community is more insulated from the mainstream" compared to small town British Columbia Sikhs95

An anonymous interviewee of Nayar, a woman in the third generation,96 stated "In Vancouver, there is pressure to live strictly according to the precepts in comparison to other places like in California"94 She referred to the practice of Sikhism94

As of 1988 many residents of rural Punjab, including children, women, and dependent older persons, were arriving in Vancouver due to the sponsorship of relatives37 Relations among clans and the home village ancestry are major factors within the Vancouver Sikh community95 Margaret Walton-Roberts, the author of "Embodied Global Flows: Immigration and Transnational Networks between British Columbia, Canada, and Punjab, India," wrote that there is a specific "spatial relationship" between the Greater Vancouver region and Doaba, a region of Punjab, to the point where Punjabi villagers recite the specific locations of their Canadian relatives97

Sher Vancouver, an Indo-Canadian LGBT support group, was founded in April 2008 by Amar Sangha, a resident of North Delta and a former resident of Surrey98 Sher Vancouver has opposed antigay laws in India The organization showcases South Asian LGBT culture in its Out and Proud Project99

Bhangra danceedit

The Vancouver Indo-Canadian community practices Bhangra dance and Bhangra music In the 1960s and 1970s immigrants from the Punjab used Bhangra, as did 1980s area labour movements Bhangra dancers and DJs both perform in the city100 In 2014 Gurpreet Sian, an instructor at the Simon Fraser University SFU School for the Contemporary Arts, described Metro Vancouver as "the capital of bhangra outside of India" which has "the best bhangra dancers, schools and the best teams"101

The City of Bhangra Festival is celebrated annually,102 involving Bhangra teams originating from throughout North America Held in both Surrey and Vancouver and lasting for about ten days,103 it is hosted by the Vancouver International Bhangra Celebration Society VIBC104 The Museum of Vancouver put on a temporary exhibit about Bhangra, Bhangrame: Vancouver’s Bhangra Story,105 from May 5, 2011 to October 23, 2011 guest curator Naveen Girn and curator of contemporary issues Vivian Gosselin,106 received the Canadian Museums Association's Award for Excellence107 As of 2014 SFU is the only North American university that offers bhangra as a course for university credit108 Sian, who also serves as the executive director of South Asian arts, as of 2014 serves as the class's instructor109

Mediaedit

There is a variety of Indo-Canadian newspapers and magazines serving Greater Vancouver and the Lower Mainland As of 1985 most of these publications were in Punjabi, while some were printed in English and Hindi110 As of 2009, of all of the major ethnic categories in Vancouver the South Asians had the highest number of media products111

Newspapersedit

The Indo-Canadian Times is a Punjabi-language weekly and is one of the country's largest112 The Indo-Canadian Voice is an online English-language newspaper published by Rattan Mall, serving the Indo-Canadian community but also covering a wide range of British Columbia and other news113 Mall had been a reporter for the Times of India from 1979 to 1990, for the Vancouver Sun in 1994, and The Province in 1996, and was an associate producer what CFMT-TV now Omni in Toronto in 1999 and 2000114 Also of note are Apna Roots: South Asian Connection,115 which publishes in English, and Punjab di Awaaz/Voice of Punjab, which publishes in Punjabi116 In 1985 other publications included Canadian Darpan, Link, Overseas Times, Ranjeet, and Sikh Samajar110 As of 1996 gurdwaras and establishments in the Punjabi Market distribute Punjabi newspapers117

The Circular-i-Azadi began publication in 1906-1907 This made it the city's first Punjabi newspaper118 As of 1971 there was a quarterly publication and a monthly publication, both in English, catering to South Asians39

A South Asian paper in New York established a subsidiary publication in Vancouver during the 1970s39

In 1980 there were three Punjabi newspapers published in Vancouver64 Four Punjabi papers in the Vancouver area were established in the period 1972 to 198039 As of 1980 there were no newspapers published in other Indo-Pakistani languages in Greater Vancouver64

A Punjabi journalist established a new paperclarification needed, published every two weeks one fortnight in Vancouver, in 1972 The Anglophone publication included South Asian-related news in Canada and news related to India This paper's target audience included all South Asian groups39

The Sach Di Awaaz is a weekly newspaper headquartered in Surrey As of 2011 Mickey Gill is the newspaper's publisher119

Radioedit

In 1971 the only South Asian-catered radio services included a one and one half hour radio program on Sunday morning and a one-hour program on Friday, both on the same radio station39 As of 1985 CFRO and one other area radio station broadcast programs in Punjabi and Hindi110

The first fully Indo-Canadian radio station, Rim Jhim, was established in 1987 The founder, Shushma Datt, was born in Kenya and had previously worked in the BBC's London bureau120 As of 2004 Rim Jhim's listeners are East Indians, particularly second-generation women Rim Jhim caters to persons of all religious backgrounds and its programming discusses gender, health, and social concerns121 Tristin Hopper of the National Post wrote that Datt was "widely acknowledged as the godmother of Indo-Canadian broadcasting in Canada"120

As of 2004 the area had five radio stations broadcasting material in Punjabi: Rim Jhim, Gurbani Radio, Punjab Radio, Radio India, and Radio Punjabi Akashwani All of them had talk show components and four of them played music from Bollywood films and other classical and religious music from South Asia121 Datt started an AM radio station in 2005; she had attempted to create an AM radio station for 20 years By 2014 it had gained its current name, Spice Radio120

RedFM 931 Vancouver, an Indo-Canadian radio station,122 has its offices in Surrey123

As of 2004 first and second generation Indo-Canadians are the audience of Gurbani Radio, which is pro-Khalistan Gurbani Radio does not broadcast music, and it includes talk shows focusing on Sikh religious and religio-political matters121

Punjab Radio's clientele consisted of many first and second generation Indo-Canadians Its programming discussed political, religious, and social concerns as well as Punjabi culture121

As of that year Radio India also has a clientele of first and second generation Indo-Canadians Its shows discuss the culture, politics, and religion of India121 Radio India's headquarters are in Surrey124

Radio Punjabi Akashwani's main audience was first and second generation Indo-Canadians Its programming discussed political, religious, and social concerns and Punjabi culture121

Pirate radioedit

As of 2014 several "pirate radio" stations with transmitters in northern Washington state in the United States served the Indo-Canadian community in Greater Vancouver and the Lower Mainland1 These stations, all of which had programming mostly in Punjabi, were Radio India; Radio Punjab Ltd, also headquartered in Surrey; and Sher-E-Punjab Radio Broadcasting Inc, headquartered in Richmond124 These stations did not get licences from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission CRTC, and so they avoided paying copyright tariffs and licence fees and complying with rules regarding the station's content124 Radio stations on the Canadian side had complained about the US-based pirates,1 saying that they unfairly received funds from advertising125

The CRTC decided to act against the pirate stations in 2014, after they had operated for years125 Radio India initially stated that it had political connections; Managing director Maninder Gill had mailed photographs of himself socializing with Canadian politicians In a presentation in October of that year Maninder Gill said that the station was going to be shut down and asked the CRTC to give him 120 days to make the shutdown; he mentioned the connections to politicians in the same presentation124 The CRTC ultimately decided that the deadline to close Radio India was Midnight Pacific time on November 14, 2014 The CRTC guaranteed the closure of Radio Punjab and Sher-E-Punjab by getting compliance agreements The details of these agreements were not disclosed to the public125

Televisionedit

Channel Punjabi programs are broadcast in the Vancouver area

Sikh Skillz produces "Onkar TV," which is the only English-language Sikh television show made in Canada In 2013 its third season began71

As of 2004 Now TV, the Shaw multicultural channel, and Vision broadcast shows aimed at Indo-Canadians121

In 1985 there was a Vancouver area cable television station that screened movies from India110

Educationedit

Dedar Sihota, who immigrated to Canada in 1936 and was educated at the University of British Columbia, was the first Indo-Canadian teacher in British Columbia He began working at Renfrew Elementary School in Vancouver He worked at Lord Tweedsmuir Senior Secondary School, going from teacher to vice principal He then became a principal, working at three elementary schools He retired in 1986126

Public schoolsedit

As of 1982 the Vancouver School Board's VSB elementary and primary schools had 2,086 Punjabi native speakers, 526 Hindi native speakers, 123 Gujarati native speakers, 17 Urdu native speakers, and 134 native speakers of other Indo-Pakistani languages Hugh Johnston wrote that some of the students who indicated Hindi was their primary language may have been ethnic Punjabis64 As of 1973, the public schools Southern Slope area of Vancouver had the highest concentration of East Indians53

As of 2008 about 1,000 Surrey Schools students were enrolled in Punjabi classes Other Greater Vancouver school districts offering Punjabi classes included the VSB and the Richmond School District127 British Columbia schools began offering Punjabi education in 1996128 As of 1985 none of the school districts in Greater Vancouver offered any classes in Indian languages as part of their standard curricula;78 British Columbia school systems began offering Punjabi language classes in their 5th grade through 12th grade standard curricula in 199667

By 1993 the VSB had hired Punjabi-speaking home-school employees, and there were after-school Punjabi classes held on VSB campuses129

Circa 1989 a research team took a sample of opinions of 135 Indo-Canadian parents at the VSB The team determined that over 85% of the sample size expressed a belief that the school system respected the identity of their children The remainder believed that the system did not respect the identity of their children or were not sure about the question The study was done in regards to the VSB's race relations policies130

Private schoolsedit

The Vancouver Khalsa School, which opened in 1986,131 is a K-10 day school128 It offers Punjabi language classes and Sikh religious instruction,131 along with standard British Columbia curriculum Newton Campus, which opened in 1992, is in Surrey The Old Yale Road Campus, also in Surrey, opened in 2008128 The school began leasing from the VSB after a 2009 fire destroyed the school's original site In 2012 the VSB stated that it was not going to renew the school's lease131 In 2013 the Vancouver Khalsa School had 200 students in Preschool-Grade 7 That year, the VSB stated that the BC Khalsa School was going to have to vacate South Hill Education Centre site132

In 2008 Sikh Academy opened a private day school program for grades PreK-7 The campus is in Surrey128

Post-secondary educationedit

The University of British Columbia UBC offers Punjabi classes This is the oldest Punjabi language education program in British Columbia Kwantlen Polytechnic University also offers Punjabi classes127

Language educationedit

As of 1985 several area institutions offer education in the Indian languages to area children: in addition to the Khalsa School, institutions that offered Punjabi language instruction included the Heritage Language School, which was held on Saturdays within the campus of a Vancouver high school, and several Sikh temples in Vancouver, Surrey, and New Westminster78

Educational demographicsedit

A survey conducted in 1980 selected random households from a Vancouver Sikh gurdwara; 602 households were documented According to the survey, there was no spoken English fluency in 37% of people who arrived between 1961 and 1974 and 42% of people who arrived between 1975 and 1980 The same survey concluded that 65% of the male household heads and almost 80% of the wives of these household heads, while in India, had no education after ages 16 or 17 In other words they never had tertiary education37

Religionedit

The 1992 Census stated that about 65% of the persons of South Asian origin in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area were Sikh In addition, 20% were Hindu, and 15% belonged to other religions The other religious groups included Buddhists, Christians, Jains, Muslims, and Zoroastrian Parsis Ismailis were among the Muslims133

Sikhismedit

Khalsa Diwan Society Vancouver Main article: Sikhism in Greater Vancouver

Verne A Dusenbery, author of "Canadian Ideology and Public Policy: The Impact on Vancouver Sikh Ethnic and Religious Adaptation," wrote in 1981 that the Sikh community in Vancouver was Canada's "most influential", oldest, and largest13 As of the 2001 Statistics Canada there were 99,005 Sikhs in Greater Vancouver40 By 2003 the Sikhs became the largest non-Christian group in the metropolitan area134 Most South Asians in Surrey, as of 2001, are Sikhs88

Until the 1960s Sikh religious organizations were the primary political interest groups of the Indo-Canadian community in the Vancouver region,76 and Sikh gurdwaras Sikh temples in Vancouver were the city's only community centres for the Indo-Canadians until the 1960s76 This meant that the gurdwaras at the time also gave social outlets to Punjabi Hindus and other South Asians135 By 1981, gurdwaras mainly filled religious purposes136 Many major gurdwaras in Greater Vancouver were initially established in isolated areas, but these areas over time became urbanized137 In 1988 Hugh Johnston, author of "The Development of the Punjabi Community in Vancouver since 1961," wrote that in regards to the city's Punjabi community, "being Punjabi is coming to mean, exclusively, being Sikh",76 and that "it seems likely that Punjabi culture" in Vancouver would be exclusively "an aspect of Sikh identity" and exclude Hindus, who disagreed on the Khalistan issue138

Hinduismedit

As of the 2001 Statistics Canada there were 27,405 Hindus in Greater Vancouver40

In the past, Hindus went to Sikh gurdwaras because they lacked their own Hindu temples Historically there were ten times the number of Punjabi Sikhs compared to Punjabi Hindus38

In 1972 Indo-Fijian Canadians established the first Hindu temple in Vancouver139 Around the 1970s Punjabi Hindus began having fewer interactions with Sikhs,76 and in general became more distant from Punjabi Sikhs,138 as they established their own Hindu religious organizations76 This occurred as the Indo-Canadian community increased with more and more immigration138 As of 1981 Vancouver had 6,865 Hindus, about one third of them ethnic Punjabis37 As of 1988 there was no specific Punjabi Hindu organization in Greater Vancouver Because the Gujarati society morphed into a Gujarati Hindu society, Gujarati Hindus had religious and social functions from both the Vishva Hindu Prasad, the primary Hindu temple in Vancouver, and from their ethnic society38

As of 1988 the primary Hindu temple in the area was the Vishva Hindu Prasad, which in 1982 had about 500 members who paid dues In 1974 Vishva Hindu Prasad received its own building, a former community centre for an adjacent church The temple building has a kitchen in the basement and the temple on the primary floor Its worshipers include South Indians, Bengalis, Gujaratis, and Punjabis Its primary language is Hindi; Hugh Johnston stated that this "has been an obstacle for the South Indians"38 The first head priest was an East African Punjabi who was of the Brahman caste and a part of Arya Samaj A South Indian Vedantist priest began participating in 1981 after the first priest did not participate in a ceremony to install idols and, after a political struggle, resigned70

Other temples included a Hare Krishna temple and the Shiv Mandir Westerners supported the former and Fijians supported the latter38

Islamedit

As of 1988 the BC Muslim Association has a majority Fijian membership The Pakistan Canada Association, according to Hugh Johnson, "have played a leading role in its affairs"39 By 1983 there was a mosque and community centre in Richmond and a mosque in Surrey controlled by this organization140 The primary language used in the mosque is English In addition to Indian Fijians and Punjabis, Arabs and other non-South Asian ethnic groups are a part of the mosque39

Originally Muslims participated in Sikh gurdwaras After 1947 Indo-Canadian Muslims continued having a relationship with Sikhs but began referring to themselves as "Pakistanis" due to the Partition of India The BC Muslim Association was established in 196670 Around the 1970s Punjabi Muslims began having fewer interactions with Sikhs,76 and in general became more distant from Punjabi Sikhs,138 as they established their own Muslim religious organizations76 The movement of South Asian professionals of Pakistani national origins from other Canadian provinces into Vancouver caused existing Punjabi Muslims to move further away from Punjabi Sikhs39 Immigration from several countries, including Fiji and Middle Eastern countries, increased the Indo-Canadian Sunni Muslim population70 Several South Asian groups, including Indo-Fijians, together established one of the Vancouver area's first permanent mosques139 There were 8,000 Muslims that were a part of the BC Muslim Association in 1983140

Christianityedit

As of 1997 there are eight Punjabi Christian churches in Greater Vancouver141 In February 2014 the Punjabi Masihi Church had about 300 worshipers, most of them of South Asian origins It was the first ever Punjabi Christian church to be established Most of its services are held in English, while some are also in Hindi, Punjabi, and Urdu It originally operated in an annex of the Delta Pentecostal Church in Delta Construction on its standalone congregational building in Surrey began in 2008; initially, 9,500 square feet 880 m2, it was scheduled to open in March of that year and there are further plans to build additions until the building has a total of 13,000 square feet 1,200 m2142

Other religionsedit

Anand Jain, a person quoted in a 2006 Vancouver Sun article, stated that the Lower Mainland region may have around 60 Jain families143

Recreationedit

Vaisakhi parade in Surrey in 2006

Sikhs, Hindus, and Jains in the Vancouver area celebrate Diwali48 Events related to Diwali are held in Vancouver and Surrey, including DiwaliFest,144 which was established in 2004 as "Vancouver Celebrates Diwali" Within the Lower Mainland region DiwaliFest is one of the largest such events145

The Indian Summer Festival is held every year Canadian Broadcasting Corporation CBC Vancouver sponsors the festival146

The Vaisakhi parade, which takes place in Vancouver and Surrey every year, is the largest outside of India The British Columbian government recognized the parade in 199567 As of 2013, the annual number of visitors for the Vancouver Vaisakhi is over 150,000147 The Surrey Vaisakhi Parade set a record of 350,000 visitors in 2016

Several South Asian organizations, including religious and regional-based groups, manage celebrations and cultural events39

The Indo-Canadian Tournaments Association and the United Summer Soccer League, under the United Summer Soccer Association, manage Indo-Canadian-oriented youth soccer The association stated that each tournament-playing team of girls under 14 and boys under the ages of 13 or 14 may have up to four "imports" or non-Indo-Canadian players, while other teams may have up to two "imports" One parent of a team banned from the league for having too many "imports" criticized the practice in 2012148

As of 1988 Bengali Hindus in the Vancouver area celebrate Durga Puja38

Crimeedit

See also: Indo-Canadian organized crime

By 2009, the Indo-Canadian communities of Greater Vancouver had encountered gang violence among their young males149

Bindy Johal was a prominent figure in the organized crime world150 As a result of the gang wars, over 100 men of South Asian origins were murdered in a period from the mid-1990s until 2012151 Between 1992 and 2002 at least 50 people died152 Greater Vancouver had a peak in gang violence in the mid-2000s150 The Indo-Canadian males involved in the gangs often originated from affluent families153 In 2002 Scott Driemel of the Vancouver Police Department had requested cooperation from the Indo-Canadian community; until that point there had been little cooperation between Indo-Canadians and the city police152

One gang originally was active at the Sunset Community Centre had the name Sunset Boys This gang morphed into the Independent Soldiers IS The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation stated that IS "brought together Indo-Canadian gangsters in southeast Vancouver" around 2001154

Baljit Sangra directed the 2008 film Warrior Boyz which documents Indo-Canadian gangs in Greater Vancouver155 This film had its premiere at the DOXA Documentary Film Festival in Vancouver156 This documentary is a production of the National Film Board of Canada The documentary A Warrior's Religion, directed by Mani Amar, is also about Indo-Canadian gangs in Vancouver It was screened in Surrey149

Surrey author Ranj Dhaliwal wrote the Daaku series of novels about crime within the Indo-Canadian community157

R K Pruthi, author of Sikhism And Indian Civilization, wrote that Vancouver was the centre of the Khalistan movement's militant activities in Canada but that the movement did not only conduct militant activities in Vancouver158

Relations with mainstream societyedit

In the period 1905 to 1914,159 the Vancouver Daily World and Vancouver Province both negatively portrayed the South Asian immigrants Doreen M Indra, author of "South Asian Stereotypes in the Vancouver Press," wrote that the newspapers' view was that South Asians were "intrinsically dirty and unsanitary" people who were "both physically and morally polluting"160

By the 1920s and 1930s, the newspapers still maintained a belief that, as stated by Indra, the South Asians had "negative cultural practices" and "deviant behavior",161 but the papers did not have a large amount of focus and did not put importance on the idea of South Asians being a social issue, partly because South Asians, who had received the right to have family members come to Canada, did not start outright activism during that period In addition, there were only a small number of South Asians, and the media perceived India as being distant from Canada162

In 1979 Indra wrote that despite the increase in political influence and immigration of South Asians,12 and despite an increase in "normal" news coverage of South Asian celebrities,163 the mainstream newspapers continued to characterize South Asians as being outside of mainstream Canadian society and that the papers continued to associate South Asians with deviancy12 Indra added that the Vancouver Sun had more positive news coverage of other ethnic groups163

Researchedit

James Gaylord Chadney wrote the 1984 book The Sikhs of Vancouver, which is based on a late 1970s study of how the Sikh community of Vancouver retained its familial and social aspects and changed its economic character as it became a part of the wider Canadian community Kamala Elizabeth Nayar wrote The Sikh Diaspora in Vancouver, which studied the development of the Sikh community in Vancouver Nayar also wrote The Punjabis in British Columbia: Location, Labour, First Nations, and Multiculturalism164

Notable residentsedit

  • Balwant Singh Atwal priest of the Second Avenue Sikh Temple - Vancouver165
  • Ranj Dhaliwal novelist - Surrey157
  • Ujjal Dosanjh former Premier of British Columbia - Vancouver166
  • Dave Hayer - Surrey167168
  • Tara Singh Hayer - Surrey167
  • Khursheed Nurali Sheerazi - Pakistani film Playback Singer
  • Kash Heed politician
  • Irshad Manji writer, of East African heritage - Richmond169
  • Renée Sarojini Saklikar poet - Raised in New Westminster, lives in Vancouver,170171
  • Teja Singh professor and creator of the Guru Nanak Mining and Trust Company - Vancouver165
  • Daljit Thind CEO of Thind Holdings Ltd - Vancouver165

See alsoedit

  • Vancouver portal
  • India portal
  • Indo-Canadians in Toronto
  • Demographics of Vancouver
  • Indo-Canadians in British Columbia
  • Khalistan movement#Sikh diaspora in Canada

Referencesedit

  • Bloemraad, Irene "Diversity and Elected Officials in the City of Vancouver" Chapter 2 In: Andrew, Caroline, John Biles, Myer Siemiatycki, and Erin Tolley editors Electing a Diverse Canada: The Representation of Immigrants, Minorities, and Women UBC Press, July 1, 2009 ISBN 0774858583, 9780774858588 Start p 46
  • Campbell, Michael Graeme 1977 The Sikhs of Vancouver: A Case Study in Minority-Host Relations MA thesis Archive, Political Science Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver Profile at the UBC
  • Chadney, James Gaylord The Sikhs of Vancouver Issue 1 of Immigrant communities & ethnic minorities in the United States & Canada, ISSN 0749-5951 New York: AMS Press 1984 ISBN 0404194036, 9780404194031 See snippet view at Google Books
  • Chadney, James Gaylord 1980 “Sikh Family Patterns and Ethnic Adaptation in Vancouver” In Amerasia, Vol 7: 1 p 31-50
  • Dusenbery, Verne A 1981 “Canadian Ideology and Public Policy: The Impact on Vancouver Sikh Ethnic and Religious Adaptation” In Canadian Ethnic Studies, Vol 13: 3, Winter
  • Fair, C Christine University of Chicago 1996 “Female Foeticide among Vancouver Sikhs: Recontextualising Sex Selection in the North American Diaspora” ” Archive In International Journal of Punjab Studies, Vol 3:1
  • Hans, Raj Kumar 2003 “Gurdwara as a Cultural Site of Punjabi Community in British Columbia, 1905 – 1965” In Fractured Identity: The Indian Diaspora in Canada, Sushma J Varma & Radhika Seshan eds Jaipur: Rawat Publications
  • Indra, Doreen M 1979 “South Asian Stereotypes in the Vancouver Press” In Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol 2:2 - doi:101080/0141987019799993261
  • Ironside, Linda L Chinese- and Indo-Canadian elites in greater Vancouver : their views on education Master's thesis Master's thesis Archive Simon Fraser University 1985 See profile at Simon Fraser University
  • Johnston, Hugh 1988 “The Development of Punjabi Community in Vancouver since 1961” In Canadian Ethnic Studies, Vol 20:2
  • Nayar, Kamala Elizabeth The Punjabis in British Columbia: Location, Labour, First Nations, and Multiculturalism McGill-Queen's studies in ethnic history: Series 2 McGill-Queen's Press MQUP, October 1, 2012 ISBN 0773540709, 9780773540705
  • Nayar, Kamala Elizabeth The Sikh Diaspora in Vancouver: Three Generations Amid Tradition, Modernity, and Multiculturalism University of Toronto Press, 2004 ISBN 0802086314, 9780802086310
  • Nayar, Kamala Elizabeth "The Making of Sikh Space: The Role of the Gurdwara" Chapter 2 In: DeVries, Larry, Don Baker, and Dan Overmyer Asian Religions in British Columbia Asian Religions and Society Series UBC Press, January 1, 2011 ISBN 0774859423, 9780774859424 Start: p 43
  • Nayar, Kamala Elizabeth, "Misunderstood in the Diaspora: The Experience of Orthodox Sikhs in Vancouver" Sikh Formations 4, No 1 2008, p 17-32 - doi:101080/17448720802075397
  • Nodwell, Evelyn ""Integrating Indian Culture into our Life": The Construction of East "Indian Culture" in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada" " Archive PhD thesis University of British Columbia, 1993 - See record at University of British Columbia See record at ResearchGate
  • Nodwell, Evelyn and Neil Guppy "The effects of publicly displayed ethnicity on interpersonal discrimination: Indo-Canadians in Vancouver" The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, Feb, 1992, Vol291, p 8713
  • Sumartojo, Widyarini “My kind of Brown”: Indo-Canadian youth identity and belonging in Greater Vancouver PhD thesis PhD thesis Archive Simon Fraser University, 2012 See profile at Simon Fraser University
  • Walton, Margaret Winifred "Indo-Canadian Residential Construction Entrepreneurs in Vancouver: An Examination of the Interface Between Culture and Economy" master's thesis " master's thesis Archive University of British Columbia, 1996 See profile at UBC
  • Walton-Roberts, Margaret 1998 “Three Readings of the Turban: Sikh Identity in Greater Vancouver” ” Archive In Urban Geography, Vol 19: 4, June - DOI 102747/0272-3638194311 - Available at Academiaedu and at ResearchGate
  • Walton-Roberts, Margaret and Daniel Hiebert "Immigration, Entrepreneurship, and the Family: Indo-Canadian Enterprise in the Construction Industry of Greater Vancouver" " Archive Research on Immigration and Integration in the Metropolis RIIM, University of British Columbia Canadian Journal of Regional Science 1997 p 119-140

Notesedit

  1. ^ a b c Hopper, Tristin "Pirate Radio: Why do three of the biggest Indian language stations in Vancouver broadcast out of the US" Archived 2014-10-15 at WebCite National Post October 3, 2014 Retrieved on October 15, 2014
  2. ^ Todd, Douglas "Mapping our ethnicity Part 1: South Asia in Surrey" Archive Vancouver Sun May 2, 2012 Retrieved on October 23, 2014
  3. ^ "The East Indian community in Canada" Archived 2014-10-15 at WebCite Statistics Canada Retrieved on October 15, 2014 "The large majority of Canadians of East Indian origin also live in either Toronto or Vancouver In 2001, 68% of the overall East Indian community lived in one of these two cities That year close to 350,000 Canadians of East Indian origin lived in Toronto, while almost 150,000 lived in Vancouver Canadians of East Indian origin made up 7% of the residents of both Toronto and Greater Vancouver that year"
  4. ^ http://wwwstatcangcca/pub/89-621-x/89-621-x2007006-enghtm
  5. ^ a b c d Walton-Roberts and Hiebert, Immigration, Entrepreneurship, and the Family Archived 2014-10-18 at WebCite, p 124
  6. ^ a b Pang, Guek-cheng Culture Shock! Vancouver Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd, August 15, 2010 ISBN 9814484806, 9789814484800 p 30
  7. ^ Hans, p 221-222
  8. ^ Henderson, Martha L Geographical Identities of Ethnic America: Race, Space, and Place University of Nevada Press, 2002 ISBN 0874174872, 9780874174878 p 71
  9. ^ Lee, Shelley Sang-Hee A New History of Asian America Routledge, October 1, 2013 ISBN 1135071063, 9781135071066 p 156
  10. ^ Das, Rajani Kant Hindustani Workers on the Pacific Coast Wde Gruyter & Co Berlin, 1923 -- CITED: p 20-21 Archived 2015-05-24 at WebCite
  11. ^ Campbell, The Sikhs of Vancouver: A Case Study in Minority-Host Relations, p 3-4
  12. ^ a b c d e Indra, p 177
  13. ^ a b Dusenbery, p 101
  14. ^ a b Bauder, Harald Labor Movement: How Migration Regulates Labor Markets Oxford University Press, January 28, 2006 ISBN 019534622X, 9780195346220 p 56
  15. ^ Kelleher, Olivia "Special tributes to remember tragic victims of rail and air disasters" Irish Independent 6 July 2005 Retrieved on October 22, 2014 "On June 23, 1985, Air India Flight 182 from Montreal to London, carrying passengers from Vancouver, exploded and crashed off the Cork coast"
  16. ^ Staff "John Major's Air India Flight 182 inquiry's key findings before the bomb exploded in 1985, killing 329 people" Archived January 5, 2015, at the Wayback Machine The Georgia Straight July 17, 2010 Retrieved on January 5, 2015
  17. ^ Bolan, Kim "Air India anniversary memorial service planned for Stanley Park tonight" Archived 2014-10-22 at WebCite Vancouver Sun June 23, 2014 Retrieved on October 22, 2014
  18. ^ Johnston, Hugh, p 10
  19. ^ Fair, p 1
  20. ^ "RCMP warning to Indo-Canadian community draws fire" Archived 2014-10-22 at WebCite CBC News August 23, 2006 Retrieved on October 22, 2014
  21. ^ a b Bloemraad, p 48
  22. ^ a b Lundy, Kathleen Gould Teaching Fairly in an Unfair World Pembroke Publishers Limited ISBN 1551388073, 9781551388076 p 93
  23. ^ a b Smith, Charlie editor "Gay bashings and "South Asians"" Archived May 16, 2013, at the Wayback Machine The Georgia Straight July 18, 2010 Retrieved on October 19, 2014
  24. ^ Nodwell, ""Integrating Indian Culture into our Life" Archived 2014-10-18 at WebCite," p 1
  25. ^ Bloemraad, p 51
  26. ^ Ahadi, Daniel and Catherine A Murray Simon Fraser University "Urban Mediascapes and Multicultural Flows: Assessing Vancouver’s Communication Infrastructure" Archived 2015-01-29 at WebCite Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol 34 2009 p 587-611 CITED: p 594
  27. ^ a b "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 Vancouver" Archived 2014-10-24 at WebCite Government of British Columbia Retrieved on October 24, 2014
  28. ^ a b "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 Surrey" Archived 2014-10-24 at WebCite Government of British Columbia Retrieved on October 24, 2014
  29. ^ a b "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 Burnaby" Archived 2014-10-24 at WebCite Government of British Columbia Retrieved on October 24, 2014
  30. ^ a b "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 Delta" Archived 2014-10-24 at WebCite Government of British Columbia Retrieved on October 24, 2014
  31. ^ a b "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 Richmond" Archived 2014-10-24 at WebCite Government of British Columbia Retrieved on October 24, 2014
  32. ^ a b "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 New Westminster" Archived 2014-10-24 at WebCite Government of British Columbia Retrieved on October 24, 2014
  33. ^ a b "Profile of Diversity in BC Communities 2006 Coquitlam" Archived 2014-10-24 at WebCite Government of British Columbia Retrieved on October 24, 2014
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  35. ^ "Country Brief – Canada" Archived 2014-10-21 at WebCite Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs p 3/7 Retrieved on October 21, 2014 "The vast majority of Vancouver Indians are of Sikh Punjabi origin"
  36. ^ Walton, p 61 PDF 70/209 "Indo-Canadian refers to those of South Asian ethnicity In Vancouver the majority are Sikhs from the Punjab, and this group is composed of first and second generation as well as more recent immigrants My focus on Indo-Canadians, more specifically Sikhs,"
  37. ^ a b c d e Johnston, Hugh, p 3 "The 1981 census showed a Canadian population of 67,710 Sikhs and 69,500 Hindus, with 22,392 Sikhs and only 6,865 Hindus in Vancouver Approximately one-third of Vancouver's Hindus are Punjabis, making Vancouver's total Punjabi population in 1981 about 25,000" - NOTE: Based on the figures: one third of the Vancouver Hindu population would be about 228833, which means there would be 22,712 Sikhs Since the number of Sikhs was actually 22,392, this means virtually all Sikhs are Punjabi Also: "In Toronto and other major centres in central and eastern Canada, other linguistic groups are more numerous, and Punjabis are part of a more balanced South Asian population"
  38. ^ a b c d e f g Johnston, Hugh, p 11
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Johnston, Hugh, p 13
  40. ^ a b c "Annexes" Archived 2014-10-21 at WebCite Report of Meetings with Representatives of the Indo‑Canadian Community Government of Canada Retrieved on October 21, 2014
  41. ^ Bloemraad, p 50
  42. ^ a b c Pang, Guek-Cheng Culture Shock! Vancouver Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd, August 15, 2010 ISBN 9814484806, 9789814484800 p 31
  43. ^ Chadney, The Sikhs of Vancouver 1984, p 53 "In the same vein, many prosperous Vancouver Sikhs have their residence legally listed in the name of their spouse or company they own One knowledgeable informant indicated that this was rather common practice "for business purposes" It cannot be stated with certainty that these"
  44. ^ Walton-Roberts and Hiebert, Immigration, Entrepreneurship, and the Family Archived 2014-10-18 at WebCite, p 125
  45. ^ Ames, Michael M & Joy Inglis 1974 “Conflict and Change in British Columbia Sikh Family Life” Archived 2014-10-21 at WebCite In British Columbia Studies, Vol 20 Winter 1973-1974 - CITED: p 22-23
  46. ^ a b Ames, Michael M & Joy Inglis 1974 “Conflict and Change in British Columbia Sikh Family Life” Archived 2014-10-21 at WebCite In British Columbia Studies, Vol 20 Winter 1973-1974 - CITED: p 23
  47. ^ a b Ames, Michael M & Joy Inglis 1974 “Conflict and Change in British Columbia Sikh Family Life” Archived 2014-10-21 at WebCite In British Columbia Studies, Vol 20 Winter 1973-1974 - CITED: p 22 "The Sikh "community" of Vancouver lower mainland, where most BC Sikhs live, is not a residential entity; it operates more as a collection of reference groups of relatives, friends, and acquaintances who recognize a common ethnic membership, a proudly shared religion, mutual interests, and several temples"
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  51. ^ Bloemraad, p 62
  52. ^ "Sunset" Archived 2014-10-19 at WebCite City of Vancouver Retrieved on October 19, 2014
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  58. ^ a b Good, Kristin R Municipalities and Multiculturalism: The Politics of Immigration in Toronto and Vancouver Volume 34 of Studies in comparative political economy and public policy University of Toronto Press, 2009 ISBN 1442609931, 9781442609938 p 169
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  103. ^ Cahute, Larissa "Embroidery adds bling to bhangra dancers’ ensembles" Archived 2015-04-18 at WebCite Vancouver Desi May 29, 2013 Retrieved on April 18, 2015
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  116. ^ Punjabi di Awaaz website
  117. ^ Fair, p 5
  118. ^ Kaur, Mandeep "THE MAKING OF CANADIAN PUNJABI DIASPORA" Archived 2014-11-10 at WebCite Chapter 3 In: Kaur, Mandeep Canadian-Punjabi Philanthropy and its Impact on Punjab: A Sociological Study PhD thesis Punjabi University Award date: 22 August 2012 p 85 PDF 25/32
  119. ^ "Husband charged in Surrey newspaper stabbing" Archived 2015-04-13 at WebCite CBC News July 29, 2011 Retrieved on April 13, 2015
  120. ^ a b c Hopper, Tristan "Pirate Radio: Why do three of the biggest Indian language stations in Vancouver broadcast out of the US" Archived 2015-04-13 at WebCite National Post October 3, 2014 Retrieved on April 13, 2015
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  122. ^ "Indo-Canadian radio station cited in CRTC complaint" Archived 2015-04-13 at WebCite CBC News August 16, 2011 Updated August 18, 2011 Retrieved on April 13, 2015
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Further readingedit

  • Cassin, A Marguerite 1977 Class and Ethnicity: The Social Organization of Working Class East Indians in Vancouver MA thesis MA thesis Archive, University of British Columbia, Vancouver Profile at the UBC
  • Cassin, A Marguerite 1979 “East Indian Women Farm Workers in Vancouver” In Multiculturalism, Vol 2:4
  • Chadney, James Gaylord 1975 “The Joint Family as Structure and Process Vancouver Sikhs” In Journal of Social Thought, Vol 7:1
  • Chadney, James Gaylord 1976 The Vancouver Sikhs: An Ethnic Community in Canada Unpublished PhD dissertation Department of Anthropology, Michigan State University See profile at Google Books
  • Chadney, James Gaylord 1977 “Demography, Identity and Decision-Making: The Case of the Vancouver Sikhs” In Urban Anthropology: Vol 6 3
  • Chadney, James Gaylord 1985 “India’s Sikhs in Vancouver: Immigration, Occupation and Ethnic Adaptation” In Population Review, Vol 29: 1-2
  • Chadney, James Gaylord 1989 “The Formations of Ethnic Communities: Lessons from the Vancouver” In The Sikh Diaspora: Migration and the Experience beyond Punjab, N Gerald Barrier & Verne A Dusenbery eds Delhi: Chanakya
  • Colwell, Bryan C 1988 A Handbook of Increasing Understanding of Sikhs in the Surrey/Delta Area: With Implications for the Mission and Ministry of the United Church of Canada D Min thesis, San Francisco Theological Seminary See profile at Google Books
  • Dhaliwal, Baljeet 1985 Sikhs in Vancouver Region: A Descriptive Study of Certain Sikhs’ Views of Education since 1904 MA thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC
  • Mayer, Adrian C "A report on the East Indian Community in Vancouver" 1959 - University of British Columbia Institutes of Social and Economic Research Working Paper of Social and Economic Research See profile at Google Books See profile at OpenLibrary
  • Nodwell, Evelyn "The effects of publicly displayed ethnicity on interpersonal discrimination: Indo-Canadians in Vancouver" Canadian Review of Sociology & Anthropology; Feb1992, Vol 29 Issue 1, p87 February 1992 Available at EBSCOHost Accession #9203301106
  • Ralston, Helen, PhD "Identity and Lived Experience of Daughters of South Asian Immigrant Women in Halifax and Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: An Exploratory Study" working paper Archive University of Alberta Prepared for International Migration and Ethnic Relations Conference “Youth in the Plural City: Individualized and Collectivized Identities” Norwegian Institute, Rome, May 25 to 28, 1999
  • Ramangalahy, Charles 2001 Ethnic Entrepreneurship: Data from a Survey of Indian/Sikh Communities in the Canadian Cities of Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver Montreal: Chaire d’ entrepreneurship MacLean Hunter
  • Sanghera, Gumar S The Male Punjabi Elderly of Vancouver: Their Background, Health Beliefs and Access to Health Care Services University of British Columbia, 1991 See profile at Google Books
  • Scanlon, Joseph 1977 “The Sikhs of Vancouver: A Case Study of the Role the Media in Ethnic Relations” In From Ethnicity and the Media: An Analysis of Media Reporting in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Ireland Paris: UNESCO
    • Also published by Carleton University, 1975 See profile at Google Books
  • Singh, Mohinder Indo-Canadians in Greater Vancouver : a Socio-economic Study National Association of Canadians of Origins in India BC Chapter, 1981 See profile at Google Books

External linksedit

  • Indo-Canadian Times - Vancouver Sun
  • Indian Summer Festival
  • Surrey Delta Indo-Canadian Seniors Society
  • Surrey-Delta Indo Canadian Senior's Society


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