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Sleep and learning

sleep and learning, sleep and learning in children
Multiple hypotheses explain the possible connections between sleep and learning in humans Research indicates that sleep does more than allow the brain to rest It may also aid the consolidation of long-term memories

REM sleep and slow-wave sleep play different roles in memory consolidation REM is associated with the consolidation of nondeclarative implicit memories An example of a nondeclarative memory would be a task that we can do without consciously thinking about it, such as riding a bike Slow-wave, or non-REM NREM sleep, is associated with the consolidation of declarative explicit memories These are facts that need to be consciously remembered, such as dates for a history class1

Contents

  • 1 Increased learning
  • 2 Electrophysiological evidence in rats
  • 3 Sleep in relation to school
  • 4 Other theories
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Increased learningedit

Popular sayings can reflect the notion that remolded memories produce new creative associations in the morning, and that performance often improves after a time-interval that includes sleep2 Current studies demonstrate that a healthy sleep produces a significant learning-dependent performance boost34 The idea is that sleep helps the brain to edit its memory, looking for important patterns and extracting overarching rules which could be described as 'the gist', and integrating this with existing memory5 The 'synaptic scaling' hypothesis suggests that sleep plays an important role in regulating learning that has taken place while awake, enabling more efficient and effective storage in the brain, making better use of space and energy6

Healthy sleep must include the appropriate sequence and proportion of NREM and REM phases, which play different roles in the memory consolidation-optimization process During a normal night of sleep, a person will alternate between periods of NREM and REM sleep Each cycle is approximately 90 minutes long, containing a 20-30 minute bout of REM sleep7 NREM sleep consists of sleep stages 1–4, and is where movement can be observed A person can still move their body when they are in NREM sleep If someone sleeping turns, tosses, or rolls over, this indicates that they are in NREM sleep REM sleep is characterized by the lack of muscle activity Physiological studies have shown that aside from the occasional twitch, a person actually becomes paralyzed during REM sleep7 In motor skill learning, an interval of sleep may be critical for the expression of performance gains; without sleep these gains will be delayed Korman et al, 2003

Procedural memories are a form of nondeclarative memory, so they would most benefit from slow-wave, or NREM sleep7 In a study,8 procedural memories have been shown to benefit from sleep Walker et al, 2002, as cited in Walker, 2009 Subjects were tested using a tapping task, where they used their fingers to tap a specific sequence of numbers on a keyboard, and their performances were measured by accuracy and speed This finger-tapping task was used to simulate learning a motor skill The first group was tested, retested 12 hours later while awake, and finally tested another 12 hours later with sleep in between The other group was tested, retested 12 hours later with sleep in between, and then retested 12 hours later while awake The results showed that in both groups, there was only a slight improvement after a 12-hour wake session, but a significant increase in performance after each group slept This study gives evidence that NREM sleep is a significant factor in consolidating motor skill procedural memories, therefore sleep deprivation can impair performance on a motor learning task This memory decrement results specifically from the loss of stage 2, NREM sleep9

Declarative memory has also been shown to benefit from sleep, but not in the same way as procedural memory Declarative memories benefit from REM sleep7 A study10 was conducted where the subjects learned word pairs, and the results showed that sleep not only prevents the decay of memory, but also actively fixates declarative memories Payne et al, 20061112 Two of the groups learned word pairs, then either slept or stayed awake, and were tested again The other two groups did the same thing, except they also learned interference pairs right before being retested to try to disrupt the previously learned word pairs The results showed that sleep was of some help in retaining the word pair associations, while against the interference pair, sleep helped significantly

After sleep, there is increased insight This is because sleep helps people to reanalyze their memories The same patterns of brain activity that occur during learning have been found to occur again during sleep, only faster One way that sleep strengthens memories is by weeding out the less successful connections between neurons in the brain This weeding out is essential to prevent overactivity The brain compensates for strengthening some synapses connections between neurons, by weakening others The weakening process occurs mostly during sleep This weakening during sleep allows for strengthening of other connections while we are awake Learning is the process of strengthening connections, therefore this process could be a major explanation for the benefits that sleep has on memory13

Research has shown that taking an afternoon nap increases learning capacity A study Mednick et al 2009 tested two groups of subjects on a nondeclarative memory task One group engaged in REM sleep, and one group did not meaning that they engaged in NREM sleep The investigators found that the subjects who engaged only in NREM sleep did not show much improvement The subjects who engaged in REM sleep performed significantly better, indicating that REM sleep facilitated the consolidation of nondeclarative memories7 More recently Holtz et al 2012 demonstrated that a procedural task was learned and retained better if it was encountered immediately before going to sleep, while a declarative task was learned better in the afternoon 6

Electrophysiological evidence in ratsedit

A 2009 study14 based on electrophysiological recordings of large ensembles of isolated cells in the prefrontal cortex of rats revealed that cell assemblies that formed upon learning were more preferentially active during subsequent sleep episodes More specifically, those replay events were more prominent during slow wave sleep and were concomittant with hippocampal reactivation events This study has shown that neuronal patterns in large brain networks are tagged during learning so that they are replayed, and supposedly consolidated, during subsequent sleep

Sleep in relation to schooledit

Sleep has been directly linked to the grades of students One in four US high school students admit to falling asleep in class at least once a week15 Consequently, results have shown that those who sleep less do poorly In the United States sleep deprivation is common with students because almost all schools begin early in the morning and many of these students either choose to stay awake late into the night or cannot do otherwise due to delayed sleep phase syndromecitation needed As a result, students that should be getting between 85 and 925 hours of sleep are getting only 7 hours16 Perhaps because of this sleep deprivation, their grades lower and their concentration is impaired17 As a result of studies showing the effects of sleep deprivation on grades, and the different sleep patterns for teenagers, a school in New Zealand, changed its start time to 10:30 am, in 2006, to allow students to keep to a schedule that allowed more sleep In 2009, Monkseaton High School, in North Tyneside, had 800 pupils aged 13–19 starting lessons at 10 am instead of the normal 9 am and has reported that general absence has dropped by 8% and persistent absenteeism by 27%18 Similarly, a high school in Copenhagen has committed to providing at least one class per year for students who will start at 10 am or later

College students represent one of the most sleep-deprived segments of our population Only 11% of American college students sleep well, and 40% of students feel well rested only two days per week About 73% have experienced at least some occasional sleep issues This poor sleep is thought to have a severe impact on their ability to learn and remember information because the brain is being deprived of time that it needs to consolidate information which is essential to the learning process19

Other theoriesedit

Other researchers'who theories on additional functions of sleep differ significantly One older idea is the energy conservation theory Others claim that REM sleep is needed to "refresh" the brain after the NREM phase, or that REM is needed to prevent stasis of fluids in the eye Roth Ari-Even et al, 2005

See alsoedit

  • Dream
  • Preconscious
  • Unconscious mind
  • Portal:Thinking
  • List of thought processes
  • Lucid dream
  • Sleep-learning
  • Sharp wave–ripple complexes

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Wilhelm, I; Diekelmann, S; Born, J 2008 "Sleep in children improves memory performance on declarative but not procedural tasks" Learning and Memory 15: 373–377 doi:101101/lm803708 
  2. ^ "Sleep On It" CBS News 2004-01-21 
  3. ^ Role of Sleep in Learning, Memory, and Health, Maria Bagby, http://therapeuticliteracycentercom/the-role-of-sleep-in-learning-memory-and-health/
  4. ^ "To understand the big picture, give it time – and sleep" EurekAlert April 20, 2007 Retrieved 2007-04-23 
  5. ^ http://wwwnaturecom/neuro/journal/v16/n2/full/nn3303html
  6. ^ a b http://wwwsmrv-journalcom/article/S1087-07920500042-0/abstract
  7. ^ a b c d e Carlson, N R 2010 Physiology of Behavior, 11th Edition New York: Allyn & Bacon
  8. ^ Walker, MP 2009, October 5 Sleep and Cognition II: Memory Procedural Skills Lecture given in Psychology 133 at the University of California, Berkeley, CA
  9. ^ Stickgold, R; Walker, MP 2004 "Sleep-dependent learning and memory consolidation" Neuron 44: 121–133 doi:101016/jneuron200408031 
  10. ^ Walker, MP 2009, October 7 Sleep and Cognition III: Memory Declarative Facts Lecture given in Psychology 133 at the University of California, Berkeley, CA
  11. ^ Payne, J D, Tucker, M A, Ellenbogen, J M, Wamsley, E J, Walker, M P, Schacter, D L, & Stickgold, R 2012 Memory for semantically related and unrelated declarative information:
  12. ^ Payne, JD; Tucker, MA; Ellenbogen, JM; Wamsley, EJ; Walker, MP; Schacter, DL; Stickgold, R "The benefit of sleep, the cost of wake" PLOS ONE 7 3: e33079 doi:101371/journalpone0033079 PMC 3310860  PMID 22457736 
  13. ^ Kalat, JW 2009 Biological Psychology, 10th Edition California: Wadsworth
  14. ^ Peyrache, A; Khamassi, M; Benchenane, K; Wiener, S I; Battaglia, F P 2009 "Replay of rule-learning related neural patterns in the prefrontal cortex during sleep" Nature Neuroscience 12 7: 919–926 doi:101038/nn2337 PMID 19483687 
  15. ^ "http://abcnewsgocom/US/wireStoryid=1775003"  External link in |title= help
  16. ^ "http://sleepdisordersaboutcom/cs/sleepdeprivation/a/backtoschoolhtm"  External link in |title= help
  17. ^ Roth Ari-Even et al, 2005
  18. ^ Ryan, Margaret 2010-03-22 "Lie-in for teenagers has positive results – BBC News" 
  19. ^ 2008 Sleep and Memory Retrieved from http://healthysleepmedharvardedu/need-sleep/

External linksedit

  • "Study puts us one step closer to understanding the function of sleep" - from University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health
  • "To sleep, perchance to learn" - from Nature
  • "Birds May Refine Their Songs While Sleeping" - from Science
  • "Review of Studies showing sleep helps improve memory, learning" - from Science and Nature

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    Sleep and learning beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


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