Wed . 19 May 2019

Slackware

slackware, slackware.com
Slackware is a Linux distribution created by Patrick Volkerding in 1993 Originally based on Softlanding Linux System, Slackware has been the basis for many other Linux distributions, most notably the first versions of SUSE Linux distributions,34 and is the oldest distribution that is still maintained5

Slackware aims for design stability and simplicity and to be the most "Unix-like" Linux distribution6 It makes as few modifications as possible to software packages from upstream and tries not to anticipate use cases or preclude user decisions In contrast to most modern Linux distributions, Slackware provides no graphical installation procedure and no automatic dependency resolution of software packages It uses plain text files and only a small set of shell scripts for configuration and administration Without further modification it boots into a command-line interface environment Because of its many conservative and simplistic features, Slackware is considered to be most suitable for advanced and technically inclined Linux users789101112

Slackware is available for the IA-32 and x86-64 architectures, with a port to the ARM architecture While Slackware is mostly13 free and open source software, it does not have a formal bug tracking facility or public code repository, with releases periodically announced by Volkerding There is no formal membership procedure for developers and Volkerding is the primary contributor to releases

Contents

  • 1 Name
  • 2 History
    • 21 Birth
    • 22 Development
  • 3 Design philosophy
  • 4 Development model
  • 5 Packages
    • 51 Management
    • 52 Dependency resolution
    • 53 Repositories
  • 6 Releases
  • 7 Support
  • 8 Hardware architectures
  • 9 Distribution
  • 10 Use
  • 11 References
  • 12 External links

Nameedit

The name "Slackware" stems from the fact that the distribution started as a private side project with no intended commitment To prevent it from being taken too seriously at first, Volkerding gave it a humorous name, which stuck even after Slackware became a serious project14

Slackware refers to the "pursuit of Slack", a tenet of the Church of the Subgenius Certain aspects of Slackware graphics reflect this15 — the pipe which Tux is smoking, as influenced by the image of J R "Bob" Dobbs' head

A humorous reference to the Church of the Subgenius can be found in many versions of the installend text files, which indicate the end of a software series to the setup program In recent versions, including Slackware release 141, the text is ROT13 obfuscated1617

Historyedit

Birthedit

Slackware was originally derived from the Softlanding Linux System SLS, the most popular of the original Linux distributions and the first to offer a comprehensive software collection that comprised more than just the kernel and basic utilities,18 including X11 graphical interface, TCP/IP and UUCP networking and GNU Emacs19

Patrick Volkerding started with SLS after needing a LISP interpreter for a school project at the then named Moorhead State University MSU He found CLISP was available for Linux and downloaded SLS to run it A few weeks later, Volkerding was asked by his artificial intelligence professor at MSU to show him how to install Linux at home and on some of the computers at school Volkerding had made notes describing fixes to issues he found after installing SLS and he and his professor went through and applied those changes to a new installation However, this took almost as long as it took to just install SLS, so the professor asked if the install disks could be adjusted so the fixes could be applied during installation This was the start of Slackware Volkerding continued making improvements to SLS: fixing bugs, upgrading software, automatic installation of shared libraries and the kernel image, fixing file permissions, and more In a short time, Volkerding had upgraded around half the packages beyond what SLS had available

Volkerding had no intentions to provide his modified SLS version for the public His friends at MSU urged him to put his SLS modifications onto an FTP server, but Volkerding assumed that "SLS would be putting out a new version that included these things soon enough", so he held off for a few weeks During that time, many SLS users on the internet were asking SLS for a new release, so eventually Volkerding made a post titled "Anyone want an SLS-like 099pl11A system", to which he received many positive responses After a discussion with the local sysadmin at MSU, Volkerding obtained permission to upload Slackware to the university's FTP server14 This first Slackware release, version 100, was distributed on 17 July 1993 at 00:16:36 UTC,1 and was supplied as 24 3½" floppy disk images20 After the announcement was made, Volkerding watched as the flood of FTP connections continually crashed the server Soon afterwards, Walnut Creek CDROM offered additional archive space on their FTP servers

Developmentedit

The size of Slackware quickly increased with the addition of included software, and by version 21, released October 1994, it had more than tripled to comprise 73 144M floppy disk images21

In 1999, Slackware saw its version jump from 4 to 7 Slackware version numbers were lagging behind other distributions, and this led many users to believe it was out of date even though the bundled software versions were similar Volkerding made the decision to bump the version as a marketing effort to show that Slackware was as up-to-date as other Linux distributions, many of which had release numbers of 6 at the time He chose 7 estimating that most other distributions would soon be at this release number22

In April 2004, Patrick Volkerding added XOrg Server packages into the testing/ directory of -current as a replacement for the XFree86 packages currently being used, with a request for comments on what the future of the X Window System in Slackware should be A month later, he switched from XFree86 to XOrg Server after stating that the opinions were more than 4 to 1 in favor of using the Xorg release as the default version of X He stated the decision was primarily a technical one, as XFree86 was proving to cause compatibility problems Slackware 100 was the first release with XOrg Server23

In March 2005, Patrick Volkerding announced the removal of the GNOME desktop environment in the development ChangeLog He stated this had been in consideration for more than 4 years and that there were already projects that provided a more complete version of GNOME for Slackware than what Slackware provided itself Volkerding stated future GNOME support would rely on the community24 The community responded and as of October 2016, there are several active GNOME projects for Slackware These include: Cinnamon, Dlackware, Dropline GNOME, MATE, and SlackMATE The removal was deemed significant by some in the Linux community due to the prevalence of GNOME in many distributions25

In May 2009, Patrick Volkerding announced the public development release of an official x86_64 variant, called Slackware64, maintained in parallel with the IA-32 distribution26 Slackware64 is a pure 64-bit distribution in that it does not support running or compiling 32-bit programs, however, it was designed as "multilib-ready" Eric Hameleers, one of the core Slackware team members, maintains a multilib repository that contains the necessary packages to convert Slackware64 to multilib to enable running of 32-bit software27 Hameleers started the 64-bit port as a diversion from the pain of recovering from surgery in September 2008 Volkerding tested the port in December 2008, and was impressed when he saw speed increases between 20 and 40 percent for some benchmarks compared to the 32-bit version To minimize the extra effort of maintaining both versions in parallel, Slackware's build scripts, called SlackBuilds, were slowly transitioned to supporting either architecture, allowing for one set of sources for both versions28 Slackware64 saw its first stable release with version 130

Between the November 2013 release of 141 and June 2016, Slackware saw a 31-month gap between releases, marking the longest span in release history During this time the development branch went without updates for 47 days However, on 21 April 2015, Patrick Volkerding apologized on the ChangeLog for the absence of updates and stated that the development team used the time to get "some good work done" There were over 700 program changes listed on that ChangeLog entry, including many major library upgrades In January 2016, Volkerding announced the reluctant addition of PulseAudio, primarily due to BlueZ dropping direct ALSA support in v5x while various other projects were in turn dropping support for BlueZ v4x Knowing some users would not be happy with the change, he stated that "Bug reports, complaints, and threats can go to me" These changes culminated in the release of Slackware 142 in June 201629

Design philosophyedit

The design philosophy of Slackware is oriented toward simplicity, software purity,clarification needed and a core design that emphasizes lack of change to upstream sources Many design choices in Slackware can be seen as a heritage of the simplicity of traditional Unix systems and as examples of the KISS principle30 In this context, "simple" refers to the simplicity in system design, rather than system usage Thus, ease of use may vary between users: those lacking knowledge of command line interfaces and classic Unix tools may experience a steep learning curve using Slackware, whereas users with a Unix background may benefit from a less abstract system environmentcitation needed In keeping with Slackware's design philosophy, and its spirit of purity, most software in Slackware uses the original configuration mechanisms supplied by the software's authors; however, for some administrative tasks, distribution-specific configuration tools are delivered

Development modeledit

There is no formal issue tracking system and no official procedure to become a code contributor or developer The project does not maintain a public code repository Bug reports and contributions, while being essential to the project, are managed in an informal way All the final decisions about what is going to be included in a Slackware release strictly remain with Slackware's benevolent dictator for life, Patrick Volkerding313233

The first versions of Slackware were developed by Patrick Volkerding alone Beginning with version 40, the official Slackware announce files list David Cantrell and Logan Johnson as part of the "Slackware team"34 Later announce statements, up to release version 81, include Chris Lumens35 Lumens, Johnson and Cantrell are also the authors of the first edition of "Slackware Linux Essentials", the official guide to Slackware Linux36 The Slackware website mentions Chris Lumens and David Cantrell as being "Slackware Alumni", who "worked full-time on the Slackware project for several years"32 In his release notes for Slackware 100 and 101 Volkerding thanks Eric Hameleers for "his work on supporting USB, PCI, and Cardbus wireless cards"3738 Starting with version 120 there is, for a second time, a team building around Volkerding According to the release notes of 122, the development team consists of seven people Future versions added people39 Since version 130, the Slackware team seems to have core members Eric Hameleers gives an insight into the core team with his essay on the "History of Slackware Development", written on 3–4 October 2009 shortly after the release of version 13031

Packagesedit

Managementedit

The Slackware mascot: Tux smoking a pipe

Slackware's package management system, collectively known as pkgtools, can administer pkgtool, install installpkg, upgrade upgradepkg, and remove removepkg packages from local sources It can also uncompress explodepkg and create makepkg packages The official tool to update Slackware over a network or the internet is slackpkg It was originally developed by Piter Punk as an unofficial way to keep Slackware up-to-date It was officially included in the main tree in Slackware 122,40 having been included in extras/ since Slackware 9141 When a package is upgraded, it will install the new package over the old one and then remove any files that no longer exist in the new package When running upgradepkg, it only confirms that the version numbers are different, thus allowing downgrading the package if desired

Slackware packages are tarballs compressed using various methods Starting with 130, most packages are compressed using xz based on the LZMA compression algorithm, utilizing the txz filename extension42 Prior to 130, packages were compressed using gzip based on the DEFLATE compression algorithm, using the tgz extension Support for bzip2 and lzma compression was also added, using the filename extensions tbz and tlz respectively, although these are not commonly used

Packages contain all the files for that program, as well as additional metadata files used by the package manager The package tarball contains the full directory structure of the files and is meant to be extracted in the system's root directory during installation The additional metadata files, located under the special install/ directory within the tarball, usually include a slack-desc file, which is a specifically formatted text file that is read by the package manager to provide users with a description of the packaged software,43 as well as a doinstsh file, which is a post-unpacking shell script allowing creation of symbolic links, preserving permissions on startup files, proper handling of new configuration files, and any other aspects of installation that can't be implemented via the package's directory structure44

The package manager maintains a directory, /var/log/packages, where each package installed will have a corresponding install log file that lists the package size, both compressed and uncompressed, the software description, and the full path of all files that were installed45 It also maintains the directory /var/log/scripts containing all doinstsh files to allow proper removal of installed symlinks When a package is removed or upgraded, the old install logs and doinstsh files are moved to /var/log/removed_package and /var/log/removed_scripts respectively, making it possible to review any previous packages and see when they were removed

Dependency resolutionedit

The package management system does not track or manage dependencies, however, when performing the recommended full install, all dependencies of the stock packages are met For custom installations or 3rd-party packages, Slackware relies on the user to ensure that the system has all the supporting system libraries and programs required by the program Since no official lists of dependencies for stock packages are provided, if users decide to install a custom installation or install 3rd-party software, they will need to work through any possible missing dependencies themselves Since the package manager doesn't manage dependencies, it will install any and all packages, whether or not dependencies are met A user may only find out that dependencies are missing when the software is attempted to be used

While Slackware itself does not incorporate official tools to resolve dependencies, some unofficial, community-supported software tools do provide this function, similar to the way APT does for Debian-based distributions and yum does for Red Hat-based distributions They include:

  • slapt-get is a command line utility that functions in a similar way to APT While slapt-get does provide a framework for dependency resolution, it does not provide dependency resolution for packages included within the Slackware distribution However, several community package sources and Slackware based distributions take advantage of this functionality Gslapt is a graphical interface to slapt-get
  • Swaret is a package management tool featuring dependency resolution It was originally included in Slackware version 91 as an optional package, but did not contain dependency resolution at that time46 It was removed from the distribution with Slackware 100 and turned over to the community It eventually added dependency resolution and roll-back functionality; however, as of May 2014, there are no active developers47
  • NetBSD's pkgsrc provides support for Slackware, among other Unix-like operating systems pkgsrc provides dependency resolution for both binary and source packages

Repositoriesedit

There are no official repositories for Slackware The only official packages Slackware provides are available on the installation media However, there are many third-party repositories for Slackware; some are standalone repositories and others are for distributions that are Slackware-based but retain package compatibility with Slackware Many of these can be searched at once using pkgsnet, which is a Linux package search engine However, mixing and matching dependencies from multiple repositories can lead to two or more packages that require different versions of the same dependency, which is a form of Dependency Hell Slackware itself won't provide any dependency resolution for these packages, however some projects will provide a list of dependencies that are not included with Slackware with the files for the package, commonly with a dep extension

Due to the possibility of dependency issues, many users choose to compile their own programs using community-provided SlackBuilds SlackBuilds are shell scripts that will create an installable Slackware package from a provided software tarball Since SlackBuilds are scripts, they aren't limited to just compiling a program's source; they can also be used to repackage pre-compiled binaries provided by projects or other distributions' repositories into proper Slackware packages SlackBuilds that compile sources have several advantages over pre-built packages: since they build from the original author's source code, the user does not have to trust a third-party packager; furthermore the local compilation process allows for machine-specific optimization In comparison to manual compilation and installation of software, SlackBuilds provide cleaner integration to the system by utilizing Slackware's package manager Some SlackBuilds will come with an additional file with metadata that allows automated tools to download the source, verify the source is not corrupted, and calculate additional dependencies that are not part of Slackware48 Some repositories will include both SlackBuilds and the resulting Slackware packages, allowing users to either build their own or install a pre-built package

The only officially endorsed49 SlackBuilds repository is SlackBuildsorg, commonly referred to as SBo This is a community-supported project offering SlackBuilds for building software not included with Slackware Users are able to submit new SlackBuilds for software to the site and, once approved, they become the "package maintainer" They are then responsible for providing updates to the SlackBuild, either to fix issues or to build newer versions provided by upstream To ensure all programs can be compiled and used, any required dependencies of the software not included with Slackware are required to be documented and be available on the site All submissions are tested by the site's administrators before being added to the repository The administrators intend for the build process to be nearly identical to the way Slackware's official packages are built, mainly to ensure Volkerding was "sympathetic of our cause" This allows SlackBuilds that Volkerding deems worthy to be pulled into regular Slackware with minimal changes to the script It also prevent users from suggesting Volkerding to change his scripts to match SBo's50 SBo provides templates51 for SlackBuilds and the additional metadata files and they encourage package maintainers to not deviate unless necessary52

Two Slackware team members, Eric Hameleers1 and Robby Workman2 each have their own repository of pre-compiled packages along with the SlackBuilds and source files used to create the packages While most packages are just additional software not included in Slackware that they felt was worth their time to maintain, some packages are used as a testbed for future upgrades to Slackware, most notably, Hameleers provides "Ktown" packages for newer versions of KDE53 He also maintains Slackware's "multilib" repository, enabling Slackware64 to run and compile 32bit packages54

Releasesedit

Slackware's release policy follows a feature and stability based release cycle, in contrast to the time-bound eg, Ubuntu or rolling release eg, Gentoo Linux schemes of other Linux distributions This means there's not set time on when to expect a release Volkerding will release the next version after he feels a suitable number of changes from the previous version have been made and those changes lead to a stable environment As stated by Patrick Volkerding, "It's usually our policy not to speculate on release dates, since that's what it is — pure speculation It's not always possible to know how long it will take to make the upgrades needed and tie up all the related loose ends As things are built for the upcoming release, they'll be uploaded into the -current tree"55

Throughout Slackware's history, they generally try to deliver up-to-date software on at least an annual basis31 However, between Slackware 141 and 142, there was more than a 2-year gap between releases From its inception, other than 2014 and 2015, Slackware had at least one release per year Release activity peaked in 1994, 1995, 1997 and 1999, with three releases each year Starting with version 71 22 June 2000 the release progression became more stable and tended to occur once a year Since then, the only years with two releases were 2003, 2005 and 2008

Slackware's latest 32bit x86 and 64bit x86_64 stable releases are at version 142 released on 30 June 2016, which include support for Linux 44142

Volkerding also maintains a testing/developmental version of Slackware called "-current"56 that can be used for a more bleeding edge configuration This version will eventually become the next stable release, at which point Volkerding will start a new -current to start developing for the next release of Slackware While this version is generally known to be stable, it is possible for things to break, so -current tends to not be recommended for production systems57

x86 release history
Version Release date End-of-life date Kernel version Notable changes
Old version, no longer supported: 1001 1993-07-17 No EOL specified 09911 Alpha
Old version, no longer supported: 11 1993-11-05 No EOL specified 09913
Old version, no longer supported: 20 1994-07-02 No EOL specified 109
Old version, no longer supported: 21 1994-10-31 No EOL specified 1159
Old version, no longer supported: 22 1995-03-30 No EOL specified 121
Old version, no longer supported: 23 1995-05-24 No EOL specified 128
Old version, no longer supported: 30 1995-11-30 No EOL specified 1213 Transitioned from aout to Executable and Linkable Format ELF and first release to be offered on CD-ROM58
Old version, no longer supported: 31 1996-06-03 No EOL specified 200 Named "Slackware 96", an allusion to Windows 955960
Old version, no longer supported: 32 1997-02-17 No EOL specified 2029
Old version, no longer supported: 33 1997-06-11 No EOL specified 2030
Old version, no longer supported: 34 1997-10-14 No EOL specified 2030 Introduced ZipSlack61
Old version, no longer supported: 35 1998-06-09 No EOL specified 2034
Old version, no longer supported: 36 1998-10-28 No EOL specified 2035
Old version, no longer supported: 39 1999-05-10 No EOL specified 2037pre10
Old version, no longer supported: 40 1999-05-17 No EOL specified 226
Old version, no longer supported: 70 1999-10-25 No EOL specified 2213
Old version, no longer supported: 71 2000-06-22 No EOL specified 2216
Old version, no longer supported: 80 2001-07-01 No EOL specified 2219 Added Mozilla Browser and optional Linux 24
Old version, no longer supported: 81 2002-06-18 2012-08-0162 2418 Switched from package naming from 83 to name-version-arch-buildtgz and evolved hdsetup to pkgtools
Old version, no longer supported: 90 2003-03-19 2012-08-01 2420 patched to 242163
Old version, no longer supported: 91 2003-09-26 2012-08-01 2422 patched to 242641 Switched from OSS to ALSA64
Old version, no longer supported: 100 2004-06-23 2012-08-01 2426 Switched from XFree86 to Xorg Server
Old version, no longer supported: 101 2005-02-02 2012-08-01 2429
Old version, no longer supported: 102 2005-09-14 2012-08-01 2431 Removed GNOME desktop environment
Old version, no longer supported: 110 2006-10-02 2012-08-01 24333 First release offered on DVD
Old version, no longer supported: 120 2007-07-01 2012-08-01 26215 Switched from Linux 24 to 26 and added support for HAL and removed floppy disk installation support except for PXE
Old version, no longer supported: 121 2008-05-02 2013-12-0965 26245
Old version, no longer supported: 122 2008-12-10 2013-12-0966 26277 patched to 26273166
Older version, yet still supported: 130 2009-08-26 No EOL announced 26296 Added 64bit version and switched from KDE 35 to 4x and switched from gzip to xz compressed packages
Older version, yet still supported: 131 2010-05-24 No EOL announced 26334 Added PolicyKit and ConsoleKit and switched to the libata subsystem
Older version, yet still supported: 1337 2011-04-27 No EOL announced 26376 Added support for GPT and utilities for the Btrfs filesystem
Older version, yet still supported: 140 2012-09-28 No EOL announced 3229 patched to 328367 Added NetworkManager Removed HAL as its functionality was merged into udev
Older version, yet still supported: 141 2013-11-04 No EOL announced 31017 patched to 31010468 Added support for UEFI hardware
Current stable version: 142 2016-06-30 No EOL announced 4414 patched to 443829 Added PulseAudio and VDPAU and switched from udev to eudev and ConsoleKit to ConsoleKit2
Latest preview version of a future release: -current rolling N/A 443869
Legend: Old version Older version, still supported Latest version Latest preview version Future release

Supportedit

Currently, Slackware has no officially stated support term policy However, on 14 June 2012, notices appeared in the changelogs for versions 81,70 90, 91, 100, 101, 102, 110, and 120 stating that, effective 1 August 2012, security patches would no longer be provided for these versions The oldest release, version 81, was released on 18 June 2002 and had over 10 years of support before reaching EOL Later, on 30 August 2013, announcements were made on the changelogs of 12171 and 122 stating their EOL on 9 December 2013 It was stated in the changelog entries that they had at least 5 years of support As of November 2015, there have been no announcements from the Slackware team on when any versions of Slackware from 130 and up will be EOL

While there has been no official announcements for versions prior to 81, they are no longer maintained and are effectively EOL

Hardware architecturesedit

Historically, Slackware concentrated solely on the IA-32 architecture and releases were available as 32-bit only However, starting with Slackware 130 a 64-bit x86-64 variant is available and officially supported in symmetrical development with the 32-bit platform Prior to the release of Slackware64 users wanting 64-bit were required to use unofficial ports such as slamd64

Slackware is also available for the IBM S/390 architecture in the form of Slack/390 and for the ARM architecture under Slackware ARM originally known as 'ARMedslack' Both ports have been declared "official" by Patrick Volkerding,7273 However, the S/390 port is still at version 100 for the stable version and 110 for the testing/developmental version, and has had no updates since 20097475 Also, on 7 May 2016, the developer of Slackware ARM announced 141 will be EOL on 1 September 2016 and development of -current will cease with the release of 142, however support for 142 will be maintained for the foreseeable future76 The EOL announcement for 141 was added to the changelog on 25 June 201677

Slackintosh is an unofficial port of Slackware to the "New World" Macintosh's PowerPC architecture Slackintosh's final release was 121 Slackintosh is no longer being maintained78

Distributionedit

Slackware 141 can be ordered from the official Slackware store as a 6-CD set or as a single DVD The CD set is targeted at the IA-32 platform but also runs on x86_64 processors in 32-bit mode The DVD contains both the IA-32 distribution and a 64-bit x86_64 version

Slackware ISO images for the CD set and the DVD can also be downloaded via BitTorrent or from various FTP and HTTP mirrors

The distributions of the ports for the ARM architecture and for IBM S/390 are neither available as CD/DVDs nor as ISO images, but can be downloaded Slackware S/390 installs from a DOS Partition or from floppy disk79 Slackware ARM does not distribute ISO files because most ARM devices can not boot from a CD or DVD80 Instead, it is installed off a network, using Das U-Boot and a TFTP boot server81 or from a mini-root filesystem82 Slackware ARM can also be installed on a PC running QEMU83 using the same technique

Useedit

Slackware family tree

DistroWatch shows a decreasing but still substantial interest regarding Slackware In 2002 the Slackware page was ranked as number 7,84 but dropped to number 10 by 200585 In 2006 it reached number 9,86 whereas since then being constantly below the ten most popular pages In 2010 it had been listed as number 11,87 in the years 201188 and 201289 as number 12, and in 2015 as number 3390

However, since DistroWatch only tracks visitors to the various distributions' pages, they state their ranking doesn't always correlate with the usage of a distribution, only the popularity of that distribution on their site Because of this, their rankings "should not be used to measure the market share of distributions"91 Many people who are already familiar with a distribution may have no need to visit DistroWatch, so their trends could be applied more toward either new or potentially new users who are curious about a distribution

Currently, there is no official method to track the usage or number of installs of Slackware


  • Linux portal
  • Open-source software portal

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b c Patrick J Volkerding <bf703@clevelandFreenetEdu> 17 Jul 1993 "ANNOUNCE: Slackware Linux 100" Newsgroup: composlinux Usenet: 227gd4$jtq@usenetINSCWRUEdu Retrieved 5 December 2014 
  2. ^ a b Slackware Release Announcement, The Slackware Linux Project, 30 June 2016 
  3. ^ SUSE distributions Slackware-based
  4. ^ Slackware-based Linux Distributions
  5. ^ Distrowatchcom "Top Ten Distributions" 
  6. ^ General Information at Slackware's website
  7. ^ Slackware Inc "Slackware FAQ: Slackware Linux has a reputation for being tough for newbies Is this true" 
  8. ^ Datamation "Top Linux Distros For Every Level User" 
  9. ^ Linuxorg "Which Distro is Right for Me" 
  10. ^ Tech Radar "Power user Linux distros: 5 reviewed and rated" 
  11. ^ IT Pro "Slackware Linux - Less is more" 
  12. ^ PC World "A Guide to Today's Top 10 Linux Distributions" 
  13. ^ FreeSlack, a project documenting non-free software in the Slackware distribution
  14. ^ a b Hughes, Phil 1 April 1994 "Interview with Patrick Volkerding" Linux Journal Retrieved 3 July 2007 
  15. ^ Slackware Propaganda
  16. ^ Slackware version 112 installend file
  17. ^ Slackware version 141 installend file
  18. ^ A Short History of Linux Distributions at LWNnet
  19. ^ Stefan Strobel; Volker Elling 1 January 1997 LINUX Springer pp 82–83 ISBN 978-0-387-94880-5 Retrieved 4 August 2013 
  20. ^ Slackware Release Announcement, The Slackware Linux Project
  21. ^ README210 Slackware Release 21
  22. ^ Frequently Asked Questions, The Slackware Linux Project
  23. ^ Change log of Slackware 100
  24. ^ Change log of Slackware 102
  25. ^ https://techslashdotorg/story/05/03/28/009237/gnome-removed-from-slackware
  26. ^ Change log of Slackware64 130 See entry Tue May 19 15:36:49 CDT 2009
  27. ^ http://wwwslackwarecom/~alien/multilib/
  28. ^ http://wwwlinux-magcom/id/7502/
  29. ^ a b http://slackwarecsutahedu/pub/slackware/slackware-142/ChangeLogtxt
  30. ^ Slackware Linux Basics, Chapter 2
  31. ^ a b c History of Slackware Development
  32. ^ a b "Slackware Alumni" slackwarecom Retrieved 20 September 2014 
  33. ^ "Stories of Linux: A Look at Slackware Linux" linuxcom 
  34. ^ Announcement of Slackware 40
  35. ^ Announcement of Slackware 81
  36. ^ "The Revised Slackware Book Project" Retrieved 26 May 2015 
  37. ^ Release notes of Slackware 100
  38. ^ Release notes of Slackware 101
  39. ^ Release notes of Slackware 120
  40. ^ Info about changes in Slackware 122 at Slackware's website
  41. ^ a b http://slackwarecsutahedu/pub/slackware/slackware-91/ChangeLogtxt
  42. ^ http://slackwarecsutahedu/pub/slackware/slackware-130/ChangeLogtxt
  43. ^ http://wwwslackwikicom/Slack-desc
  44. ^ http://wwwslackwikicom/Doinstsh
  45. ^ https://docsslackwarecom/slackware:package_management_hands_on#know_more_about_the_contents_of_a_package
  46. ^ "The Slackware Linux Project: Slackware Release Announcement" Retrieved 26 May 2015 
  47. ^ https://sourceforgenet/p/swaret/discussion/303953/thread/a4627fcd/limit=25#22c3
  48. ^ https://slackbuildsorg/guidelines/#info
  49. ^ http://wwwlinuxquestionsorg/questions/slackware-14/slackware-14-2-is-coming-but-will-the-slackbuilds-will-also-be-updated-accordingly-4175575223/#post5517961
  50. ^ http://alienslackbookorg/blog/ten-years-of-slackbuilds-org/
  51. ^ https://slackbuildsorg/templates
  52. ^ https://slackbuildsorg/guidelines/
  53. ^ http://alienslackbookorg/ktown/
  54. ^ http://wwwslackwarecom/~alien/multilib/
  55. ^ "The Slackware Linux Project: Frequently Asked Questions" Retrieved 26 May 2015 
  56. ^ "The Slackware Linux Project: Slackware ChangeLogs" Retrieved 26 May 2015 
  57. ^ http://docsslackwarecom/slackware:current
  58. ^ CDROMtxt file in the Slackware 30 repository
  59. ^ Change log of Slackware 31
  60. ^ 2002-2012 Andrew Maltsev, 2012-2013 Derek J Curtis "Linux Slackware 96 - ISBNdbcom - Book Info" Retrieved 26 May 2015 
  61. ^ http://slackwarecsutahedu/pub/slackware/slackware-34/ChangeLogtxt
  62. ^ 81 ChangeLogtxt
  63. ^ ftp://ftpslackwarecom/pub/slackware/slackware-90/ChangeLogtxt
  64. ^ Release Notes for Slackware 91
  65. ^ 121 ChangeLogtxt
  66. ^ a b 122 ChangeLogtxt
  67. ^ ftp://ftpslackwarecom/pub/slackware/slackware-140/ChangeLogtxt
  68. ^ ftp://ftpslackwarecom/pub/slackware/slackware-141/ChangeLogtxt
  69. ^ "The Slackware Linux Project: Slackware ChangeLogs" Retrieved 15 Dec 2015 
  70. ^ Change log of Slackware 81
  71. ^ Change log of Slackware 121
  72. ^ "The Slackware Linux Project: Slackware Ports" Retrieved 26 May 2015 
  73. ^ Stuart Winter "Slackware ARM" Retrieved 26 May 2015 
  74. ^ Change log of Slack390
  75. ^ Change log of Slack390x
  76. ^ https://wwwlinuxquestionsorg/questions/slackware-arm-108/slackware-arm-14-1-and-current-end-of-life-announcement-4175579194/
  77. ^ ftp://ftparmslackwarecom/slackwarearm/slackwarearm-141/ChangeLogtxt
  78. ^ "Slackintosh homepage" 
  79. ^ "Search results for "slack390"" Retrieved 26 May 2015 
  80. ^ Stuart Winter "Slackware ARM: Get Slack" Retrieved 26 May 2015 
  81. ^ "Slackware Arm: Installation" Retrieved 28 May 2015 
  82. ^ READMEtxt file for mini-root filesystem, Slackware ARM
  83. ^ Installation instructions for Slackware ARM Qemu
  84. ^ http://distrowatchcom/indexphpdataspan=2002
  85. ^ http://distrowatchcom/indexphpdataspan=2005
  86. ^ http://distrowatchcom/indexphpdataspan=2006
  87. ^ http://distrowatchcom/indexphpdataspan=2010
  88. ^ http://distrowatchcom/indexphpdataspan=2011
  89. ^ http://distrowatchcom/indexphpdataspan=2012
  90. ^ http://distrowatchcom/indexphpdataspan=2015
  91. ^ http://distrowatchcom/dwresphpresource=popularity

External linksedit

  • Official website
  • Slackware at DMOZ

slackware, slackware current, slackware download, slackware install, slackware iso, slackware live, slackware package manager, slackware packages, slackware.com, www.slackware.com


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    29.10.2014


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