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sriracha, sirach bible
The Book of the All-Virtuous Wisdom of Joshua ben Sira,1 commonly called the Wisdom of Sirach /ˈsaɪræk/ or simply Sirach, and also known as the Book of Ecclesiasticus /ᵻˌkliːziˈæstɪkəs/ abbreviated Ecclus2 or Ben Sira,3 is a work of ethical teachings from approximately 200 to 175 BCE written by the Jewish scribe Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira of Jerusalem, on the inspiration of his father Joshua son of Sirach, sometimes called Jesus son of Sirach or Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira

In Egypt, it was translated into Greek by the author's unnamed grandson, who added a prologue This prologue is generally considered the earliest witness to a canon of the books of the prophets, and thus the date of the text as we have it is the subject of intense scrutiny The book itself is the largest wisdom book to have been preserved from antiquity4


  • 1 Canonical status
  • 2 Structure
  • 3 Contents
  • 4 Authorship and translation of work
  • 5 Language and alternative titles
  • 6 Date and historical significance
  • 7 Manuscripts
  • 8 Theological significance
    • 81 Influence in the Jewish doctrine and liturgy
    • 82 In the New Testament
    • 83 Messianic interpretation by Christians
  • 9 References to non-religious texts
  • 10 References in culture
  • 11 See also
  • 12 Notes
  • 13 Sources
  • 14 External links

Canonical statusedit

"Alle Weissheit ist bey Gott dem Herren" modern orthography: Alle Weisheit ist bei Gott dem Herrn Sirach, first chapter, German translation, anonymous artist 1654 See also: Development of the Old Testament canon

Sirach is accepted as part of the Christian biblical canons by Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, and most of Oriental Orthodox The Anglican Church does not accept Sirach as protocanonical, and say it should be read only "for example of life and instruction of manners; but yet doth not apply them to establish any doctrine"5 Similarly, the Lutheran Churches include it in their lectionaries, and as a book proper for reading, devotion, and prayer It was cited in some writings in early Christianity There are claims that it is cited in the Epistle of James, and also the non-canonical Didache iv 5 and Epistle of Barnabas xix 9 Clement of Alexandria and Origen quote from it repeatedly, as from a γραφή, or holy book6 The Catalogue of Cheltenham, Pope Damasus I, the Councils of Hippo 393 and Carthage 397, Pope Innocent I, the second Council of Carthage 419, and Augustine all regarded it as canonical, although the Council of Laodicea, of Jerome, and of Rufinus of Aquileia, ranked it instead as an ecclesiastical book6 The Apostolic Canons not recognized by the Catholic Church stated as venerable and sacred the Wisdom of Sirach7 The Roman Catholic Church declared it to be canonical in 1546 during the fourth session of the Council of Trent6

Sirach is not part of the Jewish canon, once thought to have been established at the hypothetical Council of Jamnia, perhaps due to its late authorship,8 although it is not clear that the canon was completely "closed" at the time of Ben Sira9 Others have suggested that Ben Sira's self-identification as the author precluded it from attaining canonical status, which was reserved for works that were attributed or could be attributed to the prophets,10 or that it was denied entry to the canon as a rabbinical counter-reaction to its embrace by the nascent Christian community11

However, some Jews in the diaspora considered Sirach scripture For instance, it was included in the canon of the Septuagint, the 2nd century BCE Greek version of the Jewish scriptures used by Diaspora Jews, through which it became part of the Greek canon The multiplicity of manuscript fragments uncovered in the Cairo Genizah evidence its authoritative status among Egyptian Jewry until the Middle Ages12

Because it was excluded from the Jewish canon, Sirach was excised from the Protestant canon following the Reformation


As with other wisdom books, there is no easily recognizable structure in Sirach; in many parts it is difficult to discover a logical progression of thought or to discern the principles of arrangement4 However, a series of six poems about the search for and attainment of wisdom 1:1-10, 4:11-19; 6:18-37; 14:20-15:10; 24:1-33; and 38:24-39:11 divide the book into something resembling chapters, although the divisions are not thematically based4 The exceptions are the first two chapters, whose reflections on wisdom and fear of God provide the theological framework for what follows, and the last nine chapters, which function as a sort of climax, first in an extended praise of God's glory as manifested through creation 42:15-43:33 and second in the celebration of the heroes of ancient Israel's history dating back to before the Great Flood through contemporary times see previous section4

Despite the lack of structure, there are certain themes running through the Book that reappear at various points The New Oxford Annotated Apocrypha identifies ten major recurring topics:

  • 1 The Creation 16:24-17:24, 18:1-14; 33:7-15; 39:12-35; and 42:15-43:33;
  • 2 Death 11:26-28; 22:11-12; 38:16-23; and 41:1-13;
  • 3 Friendship 6:5-17; 9:10-16: 19:13-17; 22:19-26: 27:16-21; and 36:23-37:15;
  • 4 Happiness 25:1-11; 30:14-25; and 40:1-30;
  • 5 Honor and shame 4:20-6:4; 10:19-11:6; and 41:14-42:8;
  • 6 Money matters 3:30-4:10; 11:7-28; 13:1-14:19; 29:1-28; and 31:1-11;
  • 7 Sin 7:1-17; 15:11-20; 16:1-17:32; 18:30-19:3; 21:1-10; 22:27-23:27; and 26:28-28:7;
  • 8 Social justice 4:1-10; 34:21-27; and 35:14-26;
  • 9 Speech 5:6,9-15; 18:15-29; 19:4-17; 20:1-31; 23:7-15; 27:4-7; 27:11-15; and 28:8-26; and
  • 10 Women 9:1-9; 23:22-27; 25:13-26:27; 36:26-31; and 42:9-144


Illustration for Sirach, c 1751

The Wisdom of Sirach is a collection of ethical teachings Thus Ecclesiasticus closely resembles Proverbs, except that, unlike the latter, it is presented as the work of a single author, not an anthology of maxims drawn from various sources, presented in verse form The question of which apothegms actually originated with Sirach is open to debate, although scholars tend to regard him as a compiler or anthologist4

The teachings are applicable to all conditions of life: to parents and children, to husbands and wives, to the young, to masters, to friends, to the rich, and to the poor Many of them are rules of courtesy and politeness; and a still greater number contain advice and instruction as to the duties of man toward himself and others, especially the poor, as well as toward society and the state, and most of all toward God

Wisdom, in ben Sirach's view, is synonymous with the fear of God, and sometimes is identified in his mind with adherence to the Mosaic law The maxims are expressed in exact formulas, and are illustrated by striking images They show a profound knowledge of the human heart, the disillusionment of experience, a fraternal sympathy with the poor and the oppressed

By contrast, Sirach exhibits little compassion for either women or slaves, and advocates distrust and possessiveness over women,13 and the harsh treatment of slaves which presupposes the validity of slavery as an institution,14 positions which are not only difficult for modern readers, but cannot be completely reconciled with the social milieu at the time of its composition15

As in Ecclesiastes, two opposing tendencies war in the author: the faith and the morality of olden times, which are stronger than all argument, and an Epicureanism of modern date Occasionally Sirach digresses to attack theories which he considers dangerous; for example, that man has no freedom of will, and that God is indifferent to the actions of mankind and does not reward virtue Some of the refutations of these views are developed at considerable length

Through these moralistic chapters runs the prayer of Israel imploring God to gather together his scattered children, to bring to fulfilment the predictions of the Prophets, and to have mercy upon his Temple and his people The book concludes with a justification of God, whose wisdom and greatness are said to be revealed in all God's works as well as in the history of Israel These chapters are completed by the author's signature, and are followed by two hymns, the latter apparently a sort of alphabetical acrostic

Of particular interest to biblical scholars are Chapters 44–50, in which Ben Sira praises "men of renown, and our fathers in their generation", starting from the antediluvian Enoch and continuing through to "Simon, the high priest, son of Onias" 300–270 BCE Within this recitation, Ben Sira identifies, either directly or indirectly, each of the books of the Old Testament that would eventually become canonical, with the apparent exception of only Ezra, Daniel, Ruth, Esther, and perhaps Chronicles16 The ability to date the composition of Sirach within a few years given the autobiographical hints of Ben Sira and his grandson author of the introduction to the work provides great insight regarding the historical development and evolution of the Jewish canon17

Authorship and translation of workedit

Main article: Jesus ben Sirach Illustration of the high priest Jesus Sirach in the Secret Book of Honour of the Fugger by Jörg Breu the Younger, 1545-1549

Joshua ben Sirach, or, according to the Greek text "Jesus the son of Sirach of Jerusalem," was a Jewish scribe who had been living in Jerusalem, may have authored the work in Alexandria, Egypt ca 180–175 BCE, where he is thought to have established a school4 Ben Sirach is unique among all Old Testament and Apocryphal writers in that he signed his work6

The Prologue, attributed to Ben Sira's grandson and dated to 132 BCE, is generally considered the earliest witness to a canon of the books of the prophets Thus the date of the text, has been the subject of intense scrutiny by biblical scholars181920

Joshua ben Sirach's grandson was in Egypt, translating and editing after the usurping Hasmonean line had definitively ousted Simon's heirs in long struggles and was finally in control of the High Priesthood in Jerusalem Comparing the Hebrew and Greek versions shows that he altered the prayer for Simon and broadened its application "may He entrust to us his mercy", in order to avoid having a work centered around praising God’s covenanted faithfulness that closed on an unanswered prayer20

The Greek translator states in his preface that he was the grandson of the author, and that he came to Egypt in the thirty-eighth year of the reign of "Euergetes" This epithet was borne by only two of the Ptolemies Of these, Ptolemy III Euergetes reigned only twenty-five years 247 – 222 BCE and thus Ptolemy VIII Euergetes must be intended; he ascended the throne in the year 170 BCE, together with his brother Ptolemy VI Philometor, but he soon became sole ruler of Cyrene, and from 146 to 117 BCE held sway over all Egypt He dated his reign from the year in which he received the crown ie, from 170 BCE The translator must therefore have gone to Egypt in 132 BCE21

The translation into Greek is believed to have been done after 117 BCE22

Language and alternative titlesedit

The "Book of ben Sirach" ספר בן סירא, Sefer ben Siraʼ was originally written in Hebrew, and was also known in Hebrew as the "Proverbs of ben Sirach" משלי בן סירא, Mišley ben Siraʼ or the "Wisdom of ben Sirach" חכמת בן סירא, Ḥokhmat ben Siraʼ The book was not accepted into the Hebrew Bible and as a result the original Hebrew text was not preserved in the Jewish canon However, various original Hebrew versions have since been recovered, including fragments recovered within the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Cairo Genizah, the latter of which includes fragments from six separate manuscripts23

The Greek translation was accepted in the Septuagint under the abbreviated name of the author: Sirakh Σιραχ Some Greek manuscripts give as the title the "Wisdom of Iēsous Son of Sirakh" or in short the "Wisdom of Sirakh" The older Latin versions were based on the Septuagint, and simply transliterated the Greek title in Latin letters: Sirach In the Vulgate the book is called Liber Iesu filii Sirach "Book of Joshua Son of Sirach"

The Greek Church Fathers also called it the "All-Virtuous Wisdom", while the Latin Church Fathers, beginning with Cyprian,24 termed it Ecclesiasticus because it was frequently read in churches, leading the early Latin Fathers to call it liber ecclesiasticus Latin and Latinised Greek for "church book" Similarly, the Nova Vulgata and many modern English translations of the Apocrypha use the title Ecclesiasticus, literally "of the Church" because of its frequent use in Christian teaching and worship

Date and historical significanceedit

Considering the average length of two generations, Sirach's date must fall in the first third of the 2nd century BCE Furthermore, Sirach contains a eulogy of "Simon the High Priest, the son of Onias, who in his life repaired the House" 50:1 Festschrift MGilbert and other scholarswho posit that this seems to have formed the original ending of the text, and that Chapters 50 from verse 2 and 51 are later interpolations25 Under this theory, the second High Priest Simon died 196 BCE would have been intended, and the composition would have concluded shortly thereafter, given that struggles between Simon's successors 175 – 172 BCE are not alluded to in the book, nor is the persecution of the Jews by Antiochus IV Epiphanes 168 BCE2627


The work of Sirach is presently known through various versions, which scholars still struggle to disentangle28

The Greek version of Sirach is found in many codices of the Septuagint28

As early as 1896, several substantial Hebrew texts of Sirach, copied in the 11th and 12th centuries, were found in the Cairo geniza a synagogue storage room for damaged manuscripts Although none of these manuscripts is complete, together they provide the text for about two-thirds of the Wisdom of Sirach According to scholars including Solomon Schechter and Frederic Kenyon, this shows that the book was originally written in Hebrew2930

In the 1950s and 1960s three copies of portions of Sirach were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls The largest scroll was discovered at Masada, the Jewish fortress destroyed in 73 CE The earliest of these scrolls 2Q18 has been dated to the second part of the 1st century BCE, approximately 150 years after Sirach was first composed These early Hebrew texts are in substantial agreement with the Hebrew texts discovered in Cairo, although there are numerous minor textual variants With these findings, scholars are now more confident that the Cairo texts are reliable witnesses to the Hebrew original3132

Theological significanceedit

Influence in the Jewish doctrine and liturgyedit

Hebrew translation of Sirach, 1814

Although excluded from the Jewish canon, Sirach was read and quoted as authoritative from the beginning of the rabbinic period There are numerous citations to Sirach in the Talmud and works of rabbinic literature as "ספר בן סירא", eg, Hagigah 13a, Niddah 16b; Ber 11b Some of those Sanhedrin 100b records an unresolved debate between R'Joseph and Abaye as to whether it is forbidden to read the Sirach, wherein Abaye repeatedly draws parallels between statements in Sirach cited by R'Joseph as objectionable and similar statements appearing in canonical books33

Sirach may have been used as a basis for two important parts of the Jewish liturgy In the Mahzor High Holiday prayer book, a medieval Jewish poet may have used Sirach as the basis for a poem, KeOhel HaNimtah, in the Yom Kippur musaf "additional" service for the High Holidays34 However, some question whether this passage in Sirach is referring at all to Yom Kippur, and thus argue it cannot form the basis of this poem35 Some early 20th Century scholars also argued that the vocabulary and framework used by Sirach formed the basis of the most important of all Jewish prayers, the Amidah, but that conclusion is disputed as well36

Current scholarship takes a more conservative approach On one hand, scholars find that "Ben Sira links Torah and wisdom with prayer in a manner that calls to mind the later views of the Rabbis," and that the Jewish liturgy echoes Sirach in the "use of hymns of praise, supplicatory prayers and benedictions, as well as the occurrence of Biblical words and phrases that take on special forms and meanings"37 However, they stop short of concluding a direct relationship existed; rather, what "seems likely is that the Rabbis ultimately borrowed extensively from the kinds of circles which produced Ben Sira and the Dead Sea Scrolls "37

In the New Testamentedit

Some people claim that there are several allusions to the Wisdom of Sirach in the New Testament These include the Virgin Mary's Magnificat in Luke 1:52 following Sirach 10:14; the description of the seed in Mark 4:5,16-17 following Sirach 40:15; the statement by Jesus in Matthew 7:16,20 following Sirach 27:6; and James 1:19 quoting Sirach 5:1138

The distinguished patristic scholar Henry Chadwick has claimed that in Matthew 11:28 Jesus was directly quoting Sirach 51:23,39 as well as comparing Matthew 6:12 "And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors" KJV with Sirach 28:2 "Forgive your neighbor a wrong, and then, when you petition, your sins will be pardoned"39

Messianic interpretation by Christiansedit

Some Christians regard the catalogue of famous men in Sirach as containing several messianic references The first occurs during the verses on David Sir 47:11 reads "The Lord took away his sins, and exalted his power for ever; he gave him the covenant of kings and a throne of glory in Israel" This references the covenant of 2 Sam 7, which pointed toward the Messiah "Power" Heb qeren is literally translated as horn This word is often used in a messianic and Davidic sense eg Ezek 29:21, Ps 132:17, Zech 6:12, Jer 33:15 It is also used in the Benedictus to refer to Jesus "and has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David"40

Another verse 47:22 that Christians interpret messianically begins by again referencing 2 Sam 7 This verse speaks of Solomon and goes on to say that David’s line will continue forever The verse ends telling us that "he gave a remnant to Jacob, and to David a root of his stock" This references Isaiah’s prophecy of the Messiah: "There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots"; and "In that day the root of Jesse shall stand as an ensign to the peoples; him shall the nations seek…" Is 11:1, 1041

References to non-religious textsedit

Verse numbers may vary slightly between versions

  • Aesop's fable of The Two Pots referenced at Sirach 13:2–342
  • The Egyptian Satire of the Trades written during the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, between 2025 and 1700 BC, or another work in that tradition43 referenced at Sirach 38:24–39:11

References in cultureedit

  • The opening lines of the 1982 Academy Awarded Best Picture, Chariots of Fire, "Let us now praise famous men, and our fathers that begat us", is from Sirach 44:144
  • In "Canon Alberic's Scrap-Book", the first ghost story in his first published collection, MR James has his protagonist, Dennistoun, quote lines from Ecclesiasticus 39:28: "Some spirits there be that are created for vengeance, and in their fury lay on sore strokes"
  • Title of James Agee and Walker Evans's book: "Let Us Now Praise Famous Men" Three Tenant Families, from Sirach 44:1

See alsoedit

  • Roy Kinneer Patteson, Jr
  • David Kohn
  • Development of the Hebrew Bible canon


  1. ^ Or "…of Joshua son of Sirach", the literal translation of ben
  2. ^ MLA citation Gigot, Francis Ecclesiasticus The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol 5 New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909 25 Oct 2013
  3. ^ "Book of Ben Sira" BibleStudyToolscom Salem Communications Corporation Retrieved 2013-10-25 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Daniel J Harrington 2001 Michael Coogan, ed The New Oxford Annotated Bible: With the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books New York, pp 99–101 4th ed New York, USA: Oxford University Press pp 99–101 ISBN 0-19-528478-X 
  5. ^ "Canon VI Of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for salvation The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion" Church Society Retrieved 25 July 2014 
  6. ^ a b c d "Sirach, The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of" Jewish Encyclopedia 1906 
  7. ^ in Trullo, Council The Apostolic Canons Canon 85 newadvent Retrieved 12 October 2016 
  8. ^ Manhardt,Laurie, PhD, Come and See Wisdom: Wisdom of the Bible, p 173 Emmaus Road Publishing 2009, ISBN 978-1-931018-55-5
  9. ^ Ska, Jean Louis, The Exegesis of the Pentateuch: Exegetical Studies and Basic Questions, pp 184–195 Mohr Siebeck Tubingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-16-149905-0
  10. ^ Mulder, Otto , Simon the High Priest in Sirach 50, p 3 fn8 Koninkliijke Brill nv 2003, ISBN 978-90-04-12316-8 "The highly esteemed book of Ben Sira is not sacred Scripture because 'the author was known to have lived in comparatively recent times, in an age when, with the death of the last prophets, the holy spirit had departed from Israel"
  11. ^ Sulmasy, Daniel P, MD The Rebirth of the Clinic: An Introduction to Spirituality in Health Care, p 45 Georgetown Univ Press 2006, ISBN 978-1-58901-095-6
  12. ^ Harrington, Daniel J 1999 Invitation to the Apocrypha Grand Rapids, Mich ua: Eerdmans p 90 ISBN 0-8028-4633-5 
  13. ^ eg, see: Sirach 42:12–14 "Do not look upon any one for beauty,and do not sit in the midst of women; 13 for from garments comes the moth,and from a woman comes woman's wickedness 14 Better is a man's harshness than a woman's indulgence, a frightened daughter than any disgrace"; Sir 22:3 "the birth of a daughter is a loss" But see Sirach 7:27 "With all your heart honor your father,and do not forget the birth pangs of your mother"; Sir 36:24–25 "He who acquires a wife gets his best possession,a helper fit for him and a pillar of support25 Where there is no fence, the property will be plundered;and where there is no wife, a man will wander about and sigh"
  14. ^ See: Sirach 33:24–28 "Fodder and a stick and burdens for an ass;bread and discipline and work for a servant25 Set your slave to work, and you will find rest;leave his hands idle, and he will seek liberty 26 Yoke and thong will bow the neck,and for a wicked servant there are racks and torturesSet him to work, as is fitting for him,and if he does not obey, make his fetters heavy" But see: Sir 33:30–31 "If you have a servant, let him be as yourself,because you have bought him with blood31 If you have a servant, treat him as a brother,for as your own soul you will need him"
  15. ^ Harrington, pp 89–90
  16. ^ Marttila, Marko Foreign Nations in the Wisdom of Ben Sira: A Jewish Sage between Opposition and Assimilation, pp 196–199 Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co 2012, ISBN 978-3-11-027010-5
  17. ^ Perspectives on Hebrew Scriptures II, Volume 5, Ehud Ben Zvi ed, pp 179–190 Gorgias Press LLC 2007, ISBN 978-1-59333-612-7
  18. ^ Williams, David Salter 1994 "The Date of Ecclesiasticus" Vetus Testamentum 444: pp 563–566
  19. ^ DeSilva, David Arthur 2002 "Wisdom of Ben Sira" Introducing the Apocrypha: Message, Context, and Significance Baker Academic, Grand Rapids, p 158, ISBN 0-8010-2319-X
  20. ^ a b Guillaume, Philippe 2004 "New Light on the Nebiim from Alexandria: A Chronography to Replace the Deuteronomistic History PDF" PDF Journal of Hebrew Scriptures 5: Section: 3 The Date of Ben Sira 
  21. ^ Baxter, J Sidlow 1968 The Strategic Grasp of the Bible Zondervan p 46 
  22. ^ Sirach, INTRODUCTION -- United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Bible
  23. ^ See generally The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at Leiden University, 11–14 December 1995, Volume 26 T Muraoka & JF Elwolde eds, ISBN 90-04-10820-3
  24. ^ Testimonia, ii 1; iii 1, 35, 51, 95, et passim
  25. ^ Mulder, p 11 However, other scholars take the position that Sirach started with chapters 1 – 23 and 51, with the intermediate sections being inserted thereafter Mulder, pp 30–31
  26. ^ 1 Maccabees 1:20–25, see "Polyglot Bible 1 Maccabees" Retrieved 2009-08-05 
  27. ^ Flavius Josephus "How the City Jerusalem Was Taken, and the Temple Pillaged As Also Concerning the Actions of the Maccabees, Matthias and Judas; and Concerning the Death of Judas"" In William Whiston The Wars of the Jews 
  28. ^ a b Stone, Michael E ed 1984 Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period: Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, Qumran, sectarian writings, Philo, Josephus Van Gorcum, Assen, Netherlands, p 290, ISBN 0-8006-0603-5
  29. ^ See for example the account of Schechter's work on the Geniza manuscripts in Soskice, Janet 2010 Sisters of Sinai: How Two Lady Adventurers Found the Hidden Gospels London: Vintage, 240 – 49
  30. ^ Adams, AW 1958 Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts London: Eyre & Spottiswoode, 83
  31. ^ Elizur, Shulamit , "A New Fragment from the Hebrew Text of the Book of Ben Sira," Tarbiz76 2008 17–28 in Hebrew
  32. ^ Egger-Wenzel, Renate "Ein neues Sira-Fragment des MS C," Biblische Notizen 138 2008 107-14
  33. ^ Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 100b
  34. ^ See: MR Lehmann, "The Writings of Ben Sira, the Dead Sea Scrolls and Temple Worship in the Liturgy of Yom Kippur," in Piyyut in Tradition, vol 2 eds B Bar-Tikva and E Hazan Hebrew; Ramat Gan: Bar-Ilan Univ, 2000, pp 13–18
  35. ^ Tabori, Yosef 1996 Moʻade Yiśraʼel bi-teḳufat ha-Mishnah ṿeha-Talmud Mahad 2 metuḳenet u-murḥevet ed Yerushalayim: Hotsaʼat sefarim ʻa sh YL Magnes, ha-Universiṭah ha-ʻIvrit pp 260 n4 ISBN 9652238880 
  36. ^ Reif, Stefan C Prayer in Ben Sira, Qumran and Second Temple Judaism: A Comparative Overview, in Ben Sira's God: Proceedings of the International Ben Sira Conference, Durham, Renate Egger-Wenzel ed, p 322 Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co 2002, ISBN 3-11-017559-2
  37. ^ a b Reif, p 338
  38. ^ Scripture Catholic – Deuterocanonical Books In The New Testament
  39. ^ a b Chadwick, Henry2001 The Church in Ancient Society: From Galilee to Gregory the Great Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, page 28, ISBN 0-19-924695-5
  40. ^ Skehan, Patrick 1987 The Wisdom of Ben Sira: a new translation with notes Series: The Anchor Bible volume 39 Doubleday, New York, p 524, ISBN 0-385-13517-3
  41. ^ Skehan, p 528
  42. ^ See footnote to the Biblical passage in The Jerusalem Bible, Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1966
  43. ^ Rollston, Chris A April 2001 "Ben Sira 38:24–39:11 and The Egyptian Satire of the Trades" Journal of Biblical Literature 120 Spring: 131–139 doi:102307/3268597 
  44. ^ Colin Welland July 17, 2015 "Chariots of Fire Script" PDF 


  • Beentjes, Pancratius C 1997 The Book of Ben Sira in Hebrew: A Text Edition of All Extant Hebrew Manuscripts and a Synopsis of All Parallel Hebrew Ben Sira Texts EJ Brill, Leiden, ISBN 90-04-10767-3
  • Toy, Crawford Howell and Lévi, Israel 1906 "Sirach, The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of" entry in the Jewish Encyclopedia
  • Amidah, entry in 1972 Encyclopedia Judaica Jerusalem, Keter Publishing, Jerusalem, OCLC 10955972

External linksedit

  • Sirach Ecclesiasticus – Latin Vulgate with Douay-Rheims version side-by-side
  • BenSiraorg, original Hebrew manuscripts
  • "Ecclesiasticus" Catholic Encyclopedia
  • Ecclesiasticus, "Biblical Proportions"
  • Sirach – Bibledex video overview
  • Sirach 2012 Translation with Audio
  • The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach, Jewish Encyclopedia 1906 ed
Preceded by
Book of Wisdom
Roman Catholic Old Testament Succeeded by
Eastern Orthodox Old Testament
see Deuterocanon

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