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Sino-American Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction

sino-american joint commission on rural reconstruction foundation, sino-american joint commission on rural reconstruction nepal vacancy
Sino-American Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction JCRR; Chinese: 中國農村復興聯合委員會; pinyin: Zhōngguó Nóngcūn Fùxīng Liánhé Wěiyuánhuì is a commission established in 1948 in mainland China After the Chinese Civil War, the JCRR then moved to Taiwan, where its work has been widely credited with laying the agricultural basis in the 1950s and 1960s for Taiwan's outstanding economic growth in the following decades by a coordinated program of economic, social, and technical development

Contents

  • 1 The JCRR on the mainland
  • 2 The JCRR and the economic development of Taiwan
  • 3 See also
  • 4 Further reading
  • 5 Notes

The JCRR on the mainlandedit

After intensive lobbying by YC James Yen, the American Congress included a provision in the China Aid Act of 1948 to fund an independent entity which would take advantage of Yen's experience in the Rural Reconstruction Movement1 The JCRR was governed by five commissioners, three of whom were Chinese, appointed by the Chinese government, and two of whom were American, appointed by the American president On the mainland, during the last days of the Chinese Civil War the JCRR carried out a program of rent reduction, guarantee of tenure security, and formation of cooperatives, in addition to expansion of the agronomic and irrigation programs By one estimate, this was the largest non-Communist land reform program in China before 19492

The JCRR and the economic development of Taiwanedit

With the impending defeat of the Chinese Nationalist Party, the JCRR moved to Taiwan, where under the leadership of Chiang Monlin it supervised major land reform, agricultural improvement, and education projects Since the JCRR was funded from the United States and its salary scale was not governed by government pay schedules, the agency could offer higher pay than the government bureaucracy and attracted highly trained and capable staff3 Commissioners included Shen Tsung-han zh, a graduate of Cornell College of Agriculture Lee Teng-hui, the future President of the Republic of China and Nationalist Party Chairman, worked as an agricultural economist for the JCRR in the early 1950s4

From 1951 to 1965, around one third of US government aid to Taiwan was directed by the JCRR into agriculture, creating almost two thirds of net domestic capital formation JCRR programs contributed directly to improving crop and animal stock, development of irrigation and flood control, soil improvement, rural credit programs and cooperatives, health programs, and birth control The JCRR continued the strategy developed by the Rural Reconstruction Movement on the mainland of coordinating all these programs instead of running them independently one by one Under the combined stimulus of the land reform and the agricultural development programs, production in agriculture increased at an average annual rate of 4 per cent from 1952 to 1959, greater than the growth in population, which was 36 percent The JCRR is widely credited with creating the basis of agricultural prosperity which led to Taiwan's rapid economic growth in the 1970s and 1980s5

JCRR was combined with the Council of Agriculture when the United States ended the official foreign relation with the Republic of China in 1979

See alsoedit

  • Land Reform Museum
  • Council of Agriculture Taiwan

Further readingedit

Tsung-han Shen zh, The Sino-American Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction: Twenty Years of Cooperation for Agricultural Development Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1970

Joseph A Yager, Transforming Agriculture in Taiwan: The Experience of the Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988

Notesedit

  1. ^ Ekbladh, David 2010 The Great American Mission: Modernization and the Construction of an American World Order Princeton: Princeton University Press p 117 ISBN 9780691133300 
  2. ^ Hayford, Charles W 1990 To the People: James Yen and Village China New York: Columbia University Press pp 204–9 ISBN 9780231072045 
  3. ^ Clough, Ralph 1991 "Chapter 12: Taiwan under Nationalist Rule, 1949-1982" In MacFaquhar, Roderick; Fairbank, John K The People's Republic Cambridge Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press p 837 ISBN 9780521243377 
  4. ^ Kagan, Richard C 2007 Taiwan's Statesman: Lee Teng-Hui and Democracy in Asia Naval Institute Press pp 60, 62–63 ISBN 9781591144274 
  5. ^ Clough 1991, p 837

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