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Sinicization

sinicization meaning, sinicization
Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Han Chinese societies come under the influence of Han Chinese state and society Areas of influence include writing, diet, economics, industry, language, law, lifestyle, politics, religion, sartorial choices, technology, culture, and cultural values More broadly, "Sinicization" may refer to policies of acculturation, assimilation, or cultural imperialism of neighbouring cultures to China, depending on historical political relations This is reflected in the histories of Korea, Vietnam and Japan in the East Asian cultural sphere, for example, in the adoption of the Chinese writing system

Contents

  • 1 Integration
  • 2 Historical examples of sinicization
    • 21 Austronesian peoples
    • 22 Turkic peoples
    • 23 Tang dynasty
    • 24 Yuan dynasty
    • 25 Ming dynasty
    • 26 Qing dynasty
    • 27 Nguyen dynasty Vietnam
  • 3 Modern examples of sinicization
    • 31 Kuomintang
    • 32 Ma Clique
    • 33 Xinjiang
    • 34 Taiwan
    • 35 Tibet
  • 4 In popular culture
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Integrationedit

The integration policy is a type of nationalism aimed at strengthening of the Chinese identity among population Proponents believe integration will help to develop shared values, pride in being the country’s citizen, respect and acceptance towards cultural differences among citizens of China Critics argue that integration destroys ethnic diversity, language diversity, and cultural diversity Analogous to North America with approximately 300 Native American languages and distinct ethnic groups, in China there are 292 non-Mandarin languages spoken by native peoples of the region 1 There are also a number of immigrant languages, such as Khmer, Portuguese, English, etc

Historical examples of sinicizationedit

Austronesian peoplesedit

Before sinicization, Austronesian speakers spread down the coastdubious – discuss of southern China past Taiwan as far as the Gulf of Tonkin In times, the southward spread of Han Chinese led to the sinicization of all Austronesian speakers population that remained on the mainland, whether in the Yangtze Valley or in coastal areas from the mouth of the Yangtze to the Gulf of Tonkin1

Turkic peoplesedit

Main article: Taoyuan County, Hunan § Taoyuan Uyghurs

Descendants of Uyghurs who migrated to Taoyuan County, Hunan have largely assimilated into the Han Chinese and Hui population and practice Chinese customs, speaking Chinese as their language

Tang dynastyedit

During the 8th and 9th centuries in the Tang dynasty, Chinese soldiers moved into Guizhou Kweichow and married native women, their descendants being known as Lao-han-jen original Chinese, in contrast to new Chinese people who colonized Guizhou at later times They still speak an archaic dialect2 Many immigrants to Guizhou were descended from these soldiers in garrisons who married non-Chinese women3

Yuan dynastyedit

The Mongol Yuan dynasty appointed a Muslim from Bukhara, Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar, as governor of Yunnan after conquering the Kingdom of Dali Sayyid Ajjall then promoted Sinicization and Confucianization of the non-Han Chinese peoples in Yunnan during his reign Sayyid Ajjal founded a "Chinese style" city where modern Kunming is today, called Zhongjing Cheng He ordered that a Buddhist temple, a Confucian temple, and two mosques be built in the city4 Advocating Confucianism was part of his policy The Confucian temple that Sayyid Ajjall built in 1274, which also doubled as a school, was the first Confucian temple ever to be built in Yunnan5

Both Confucianism and Islam were promoted by Sayyid Ajall in his "civilizing mission" during his time in Yunnan6 Sayyid Ajall viewed Yunnan as "backward and barbarian" and utilized Confucianism, Islam, and Buddhism for "civilizing" the area7

In Yunnan, the widespread presence of Islam is credited to Sayyid Ajjal's work8

Sayyid Ajjal was first to bring Islam to Yunnan He promoted Confucianism and Islam by ordering construction of mosques and temples of Confucianism9 Sayyid Ajjal also introduced Confucian education into Yunnan1011 He was described as making 'the orangutans and butcherbirds became unicorns and phonixes and their felts and furs were exchanged for gowns and caps', and praised by the Regional Superintendent of Confucian studies, He Hongzuo12

Shams al-Din constructed numerous Confucian temples in Yunnan, and promoted Confucian education He is best known among Chinese for helping sinicize Yunnan province13 He also built multiple mosques in Yunnan as well

Confucian rituals and traditions were introduced to Yunnan by Sayyid Ajall14 Several Confucian temples and schools were founded by him Chinese social structures, Chinese funeral rituals and Chinese marriage customs were spread to the natives by Sayyid Ajall715

The aim of Sayyid Ajall's policy of promoting Confucianism and education in Yunnan was to "civilize" the native "barbarians" Confucian rituals were taught to students in newly founded schools by Sichuanese scholars, and Confucian temples were built1617 The natives of Yunnan were instructed in Confucian ceremonies like weddings, matchmaking, funerals, ancestor worship, and kowtow by Sayyid Ajall The native leaders has their "barbarian" clothing replaced by clothing given to them by Sayyid Ajall1718

Both Marco Polo and Rashid al-Din recorded that Yunnan was heavily populated by Muslims during the Yuan Dynasty, with Rashid naming a city with all Muslim inhabitants as the 'great city of Yachi'19 It has been suggested that Yachi was Dali City Ta-li Dali had many Hui people20

His son Nasir al-Din became Governor of Yunnan in 1279 after sayyid Ajjal died2122

The historian Jacqueline Armijo-Hussein has written on Sayyid Ajall's Confucianization and Sinicization policies, in her dissertation Sayyid 'Ajall Shams al-Din: A Muslim from Central Asia, serving the Mongols in China, and bringing 'civilization' to Yunnan,23 the paper The Origins of Confucian and Islamic Education in Southwest China: Yunnan in the Yuan Period,24 and The Sinicization and Confucianization in Chinese and Western Historiography of a Muslim from Bukhara Serving Under the Mongols in China25

Ming dynastyedit

Main articles: Ming conquest of Yunnan and Miao Rebellions Ming Dynasty

Massive military campaigns were launched by the Ming dynasty during the Miao Rebellions against the southern indigenous Miao, Yao, and other tribes, settled thousands of Han and Hui in their land after exterminating most of the former indigenous tribes

During the Ming conquest of Yunnan Chinese military soldiers were settled in Yunnan, and many married the native women

Qing dynastyedit

The Manchu people became the rulers during the Qing dynasty The "orthodox" historical view emphasized the power of Han Chinese to "sinicize" their conquerors, although more recent research such as the New Qing History school revealed Manchu rulers were savvy in their manipulation of their subjects and from the 1630s through at least the 18th century, the emperors developed a sense of Manchu identity and used Central Asian models of rule as much as Confucian ones There is however evidence of sinicization For example, Manchus originally had their own separate style of naming from the Han Chinese, but eventually adopted Han Chinese naming practices

Manchu names consisted of more than the two or one syllable Chinese names, and when phonetically transcribed into Chinese, they made no sense at all26 The meaning of the names that Manchus used were also very different from the meanings of Chinese names27 The Manchus also gave numbers as personal names28

They gave their children Chinese names, which were separate from the Manchu names, and even adopted the Chinese practice of generation names, although its usage was inconsistent and error ridden, eventually they stopped using Manchu names29

The Niohuru family of the Manchu changed their family name to Lang, which sounded like "wolf" in Chinese, since wolf in Manchu was Niohuru30

Although the Manchus replaced their Manchu names with Chinese personal names, the Manchu bannermen followed their traditional practice in typically used their first/personal name to address themselves and not their last name, while Han Chinese bannermen used their last name and first in normal Chinese style3132

Usage of surnames was not traditional to the Manchu while it was to the Han Chinese33

Nguyen dynasty Vietnamedit

Vietnamese Nguyen Emperor Minh Mạng sinicized ethnic minorities such as Cambodians, claimed the legacy of Confucianism and China's Han dynasty for Vietnam, and used the term Han people 漢人 to refer to the Vietnamese34 Minh Mang declared that "We must hope that their barbarian habits will be subconsciously dissipated, and that they will daily become more infected by Han Sino-Vietnamese customs"35 This policies were directed at the Khmer and hill tribes36 The Nguyen lord Nguyen Phuc Chu had referred to Vietnamese as "Han people" in 1712 when differentiating between Vietnamese and Chams37

Minh Mang used the name "Trung Quốc" 中國 to refer to Vietnam38

Chinese clothing was forced on Vietnamese people by the Nguyễn39404142

Modern examples of sinicizationedit

Kuomintangedit

The Kuomintang pursued a sinicization policy, it was stated that "the time had come to set about the business of making all natives either turn Chinese or get out" by foreign observers on the Kuomintang policy It was noted that "Chinese colonization" of "Mongolia and Manchuria" led to the conclusion "to a conviction that the day of the barbarian was finally over"434445

Ma Cliqueedit

Hui Muslim General Ma Fuxiang created an assimilationist group and encouraged the integration of Muslims into Chinese society46 Ma Fuxiang was a hardcore assimilationist and said that Hui should assimilate into Han47

Xinjiangedit

The Hui Muslim 36th Division National Revolutionary Army governed southern Xinjiang in 1934–1937 The administration that was set up was colonial in nature, putting up street signs and names in Chinese, which used to be in only Uighur language They lived much like Han Chinese, importing Han cooks and baths48 The Hui also switched carpet patterns from Uyghur to Han in state owned carpet factories49

Taiwanedit

After the Republic of China took control of Taiwan in 1945 and relocated its capital to Taipei in 1949, the intention of Chiang Kai-shek was to eventually go back to mainland China and retake control of it Chiang believed that to retake mainland China, it would be necessary to re-Sinicize Taiwan's inhabitants who had undergone assimilation under Japanese rule Examples of this policy included the renaming of streets with mainland geographical names, use of Mandarin Chinese in schools and punishments for using other regional languages, and teaching students to revere traditional ethics, develop pan-Chinese nationalism, and view Taiwan from the perspective of China5051 Other reasons for the policy were to combat the Japanese influences on the culture that had occurred in the previous 50 years, and to help unite the recent immigrants from mainland China that had come to Taiwan with the KMT and among whom there was a tendency to be more loyal to one's city, country or province than to China as a nation52

The process of re-asserting non-Chinese identity, as in the case of ethnic groups in Taiwan, is sometimes known as desinicization

Tibetedit

Main article: Sinicization of Tibet

The sinicization of Tibet is the change of Tibetan society to Han Chinese standards, by means of cultural assimilation, immigration, and political reform5354

In popular cultureedit

In some forms of fiction, due to China's communist statehood, Soviet-themed characters are de-Sovietized and switched over to become Chinese to fit modern post-Cold War times The original cut of the 2012 Red Dawn remake depicted a Chinese invasion before having said information leaked to the Global Times, sparking controversy in China and threatening its airing in the country the invaders were changed to North Koreans55 In 2006, Chinese versions of the Crimson Dynamo and the Abomination were created and made members of the Liberators in Marvel Comics

See alsoedit

  • China portal
  • Taiwan portal
  • Japan portal
  • Korea portal
  • Vietnam portal
  • Ryukyu portal
  • Sinocentrism
  • Desinicization
  • Taiwanization
  • Conquest Dynasties
  • New Qing History

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Prehistoric Settlement of the Pacific, Volume 86, Part 5 
  2. ^ in English Scottish Geographical Society 1929 Scottish geographical magazine, Volumes 45–46 Royal Scottish Geographical Society p 70 Retrieved 2010-06-28 
  3. ^ in English Margaret Portia Mickey 1947 The Cowrie Shell Miao of Kweichow, Volume 32, Issue 1 The Museum p 6 Retrieved 2010-06-28 
  4. ^ Gaubatz, Piper Rae 1996 Beyond the Great Wall: Urban Form and Transformation on the Chinese Frontiers illustrated ed Stanford University Press p 78 ISBN 0804723990 Retrieved 24 April 2014 
  5. ^ Tan Ta Sen 2009 Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia illustrated, reprint ed Institute of Southeast Asian Studies p 92 ISBN 9812308377 Retrieved 24 April 2014 
  6. ^ Atwood, Christopher P "Sayyid Ajall 'Umar Shams-ud-Din" Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire New York: Facts On File, Inc, 2004 Ancient and Medieval History Online Facts On File, Inc http://wwwfofwebcom/History/MainPrintPageaspiPin=EME454&DataType=Ancient&WinType=Free accessed July 29, 2014
  7. ^ a b Lane, George June 29, 2011 "SAYYED AJALL" Encyclopædia Iranica Encyclopædia Iranica Retrieved 17 November 2012 
  8. ^ M Th Houtsma 1993 First encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913–1936 BRILL p 847 ISBN 90-04-09796-1 Retrieved December 20, 2011 Although Saiyid-i Adjall certainly did much for the propagation of Islam in Yunnan, it is his son Nasir al-Din to whom is ascribed the main credit for its dissemination He was a minister and at first governed the province of Shansi : he later became governor of Yunnan where he died in 1292 and was succeeded by his brother Husain It cannot be too strongly emphasised that the direction of this movement was from the interior, from the north The Muhammadan colonies on the coast were hardly affected by it On the other hand it may safely be assumed that the Muslims of Yunnan remained in constant communication with those of the northern provinces of Shensi and Kansu 
  9. ^ Original from the University of Virginia Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Jāmi'at al-Malik 'Abd al-'Azīz Ma'had Shu'ūn al Aqallīyat al-Muslimah 1986 Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volumes 7–8 The Institute p 385 Retrieved December 20, 2011 certain that Muslims of Central Asian originally played a major role in the Yuan Mongol conquest and subsequent rule of south-west China, as a result of which a distinct Muslim community was established in Yunnan by the late 13th century AD Foremost among these soldier-administrators was Sayyid al-Ajall Shams al-Din Umar al-Bukhari Ch Sai-tien-ch'ih shan-ssu-ting a court official and general of Turkic origin who participated in the Mongol invasion of Szechwan  And Yunnan in c 1252, and who became Yuan Governor of the latter province in 1274–79 Shams al-Din—who is widely believed by the Muslims of Yunnan to have introduced Islam to the region—is represented as a wise and benevolent ruler, who successfully "pacified and comforted" the people of Yunnan, and who is credited with building Confucian temples, as well as mosques and schools 
  10. ^ Liu, Xinru 2001 The Silk Road in World History Oxford University Press p 116 ISBN 019979880X Retrieved 24 April 2014 
  11. ^ The Hui ethnic minority
  12. ^ Thant Myint-U 2011 Where China Meets India: Burma and the New Crossroads of Asia Macmillan ISBN 1-4668-0127-1 Retrieved December 20, 2011 claimed descent from the emir of Bokhara  and was appointed as the top administrator in Yunnan in the 1270s Today the Muslims of Yunnan regard him as the founder of their community, a wise and benevolent ruler who 'pacified and comforted' the peoples of Yunnan Sayyid Ajall was officially the Director of Political Affairs of the Regional Secretariat of Yunnan  According to Chinese records, he introduced new agricultural technologies, constructed irrigation systems, and tried to raise living standards Though a Muslims, he built or rebuilt Confucian temples and created a Confucian education system His contemporary, He Hongzuo, the Regional Superintendent of Confucian studies, wrote that through his efforts 'the orangutans and butcherbirds became unicorns and phonixes and their felts and furs were exchanged for gowns and caps'  page needed
  13. ^ Michael Dillon 1999 China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects Richmond: Curzon Press p 23 ISBN 0-7007-1026-4 Retrieved 2010-06-28 
  14. ^ Rachewiltz, Igor de, ed 1993 In the Service of the Khan: Eminent Personalities of the Early Mongol-Yüan Period 1200–1300 Volume 121 of Asiatische Forschungen Otto Harrassowitz Verlag p 476 ISBN 3447033398 ISSN 0571-320X Retrieved 24 April 2014 
  15. ^ Rachewiltz, Igor de, ed 1993 In the Service of the Khan: Eminent Personalities of the Early Mongol-Yüan Period 1200–1300 Volume 121 of Asiatische Forschungen Otto Harrassowitz Verlag p 477 ISBN 3447033398 ISSN 0571-320X Retrieved 24 April 2014 
  16. ^ Yang, Bin 2009 Between winds and clouds: the making of Yunnan second century BCE to twentieth century CE Columbia University Press p 154 ISBN 0231142544 Retrieved 24 April 2014 
  17. ^ a b Yang, Bin 2008 "Chapter 5 Sinicization and Indigenization: The Emergence of the Yunnanese" Between winds and clouds: the making of Yunnan second century BCE to twentieth century CE PDF Columbia University Press ISBN 0231142544 Retrieved 24 April 2014 page needed
  18. ^ Yang, Bin 2009 Between winds and clouds: the making of Yunnan second century BCE to twentieth century CE Columbia University Press p 157 ISBN 0231142544 Retrieved 24 April 2014 
  19. ^ Original from the University of Virginia Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Jāmi'at al-Malik 'Abd al-'Azīz Ma'had Shu'ūn al Aqallīyat al-Muslimah 1986 Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volumes 7–8 The Institute p 174 Retrieved December 20, 2011 from the Yuan Dynasty, and indicated further Muslim settlement in northeastern and especially southwestern Yunnan Marco Polo, who travelled through Yunnan "Carajan" at the beginning of the Yuan period, noted the presence of "Saracens" among the population Similarly, the Persian historian Rashid al-Din died 1318 AD recorded in his Jami' ut-Tawarikh that the 'great city of Yachi' in Yunnan was exclusively inhabited by Muslims 
  20. ^ Original from the University of Virginia Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Jāmi'at al-Malik 'Abd al-'Azīz Ma'had Shu'ūn al Aqallīyat al-Muslimah 1986 Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volumes 7–8 The Institute p 387 Retrieved December 20, 2011 when Maroco Polo visited Yunnan in the early Yuan period he noted the presence of "Saracens" among the population while the Persian historian Rashid al-Din died 1318 AD recorded in his Jami' ut-Tawarikh that 'the great city of Yachi' in Yunnan was exclusively inhabited by Muslims Rashid al-Din may have been referring to the region around Ta-li in western Yunnan, which was to emerge as the earliest centre of Hui Muslim settlement in the province 
  21. ^ Thant Myint-U 2011 Where China Meets India: Burma and the New Crossroads of Asia Macmillan ISBN 1-4668-0127-1 Retrieved December 20, 2011 In this way, Yunnan became known to the Islamic world When Sayyid Ajall died in 1279 he was succeeded by his son Nasir al-Din who governed for give years and led the invasion of Burma His younger brother became the Transport Commissioner and the entire family entrenched their influence page needed
  22. ^ Original from the University of Virginia Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Jāmi'at al-Malik 'Abd al-'Azīz Ma'had Shu'ūn al Aqallīyat al-Muslimah 1986 Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volumes 7–8 The Institute p 385 Retrieved December 20, 2011 On his death he was succeeded by his eldest son, Nasir al-Din Ch Na-su-la-ting, the "Nescradin" of Marco Polo, who governed Yunnan between 1279 and I284 While Arab and South Asian Muslims, pioneers of the maritime expansion of Islam in the Bay of Bengal, must have visited the 
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  24. ^ Session 8: Individual Papers: New Work on Confucianism, Buddhism, and Islam from Han to Yuan
  25. ^ Gladney, Dru C 1996 Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People's Republic Volume 149 of Harvard East Asian monographs illustrated ed Harvard Univ Asia Center p 366 ISBN 0674594975 ISSN 0073-0483 Retrieved 24 April 2014 
  26. ^ Mark C Elliott 2001 The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China illustrated, reprint ed Stanford University Press p 242 ISBN 0-8047-4684-2 Retrieved March 2, 2012 famous Manchu figure of the early Qing who belonged to the Niohuru clan would have been the unwieldy "Niu-gu-lu E-bi-long" in Chinese Moreover, the characters used in names were typically chosen to represent the sounds of Manchu, and not to carry any particular meaning in Chinese For educated Han Chinese accustomed to names composed of a familiar surname and one or two elegang characters drawn from a poem or a passage from the classics, Manchu names looked not just different, but absurd What was oneo to make of a name like E-bi-long, written in Chinese characters meaning "repress-must flourish," or Duo-er-gun, meaning "numerous-thou-roll" S To them they looked like nonsense But they are not nonsense in Manchu: "E-bi-long" is the transcription of ebilun, meaning "a delicate or sickly child," and "Duo-er-gun" is the Chinese transcription of dorgon, the Manchu word for badger 
  27. ^ Mark C Elliott 2001 The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China illustrated, reprint ed Stanford University Press p 242 ISBN 0-8047-4684-2 Retrieved March 2, 2012 Thus we find names like Nikan Chinese, Ajige little, Asiha young, Haha nale, Mampi knot—a reference to the hair, Kara black, Fulata red-eyed, Necin peaceful, Kirsa steppe fox, Unahan colt, Jumara squirrel, Nimašan sea eagle, Nomin lapis lazuli, and Gacuha toy made out of an animal's anklebone44 Names such as Jalfungga long-lived, Fulingga lucky one, Fulungga majestic, and Hūturingga fortunate, were not unknown, either, particularly after the seventeenth century Although mightily foreign when written as Zha-la-feng-a, Fu-ling-a, Fu-long-a, or Hu-tu-ling-ga 
  28. ^ Mark C Elliott 2001 The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China illustrated, reprint ed Stanford University Press p 243 ISBN 0-8047-4684-2 Retrieved March 2, 2012 While Chinese names, too, sometimes ended in characters with the sounds "zhu," "bao," and "tai," more often than not, such names in the Qing belonged to Manchus and other bannermen Chinese bannermen and Mongols sometimes took Manchu-sounding names, even if the attached meaning is not clear it is not certain that all names in fact had a specific meaning Giving "numeral names" was another unique Manchu habit These were names that actually referred to numbers Sometimes they were given using Manchu numbers—for example, Nadanju seventy or Susai fifty Other times number names used the Manchu transcriptions of Chinese numbers, as in the name Loišici = Liushi qi, "sixty-seven", Bašinu = bashi wu, "eight-five"45 Such names, unheard of among the Han, were quite common among the Manchus, an appeared from time to time among Chinese bannermen Popular curiosity about this odd custom in Qing was partly satisfied by the nineteenth-century bannerman-writer Fu-ge, who explained in his book of "jottings" that naming children for their grandparents' ages was a way of wishing longevity to the newly born46 
  29. ^ Edward J M Rhoads 2001 Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861–1928 reprint, illustrated ed University of Washington Press p 56 Retrieved March 2, 2012 At Xiuyan, in eastern Fengtian, the Manchus in the seventh or eighth generation continued as before to give their sons polysyllabic Manchu personal names that were meaningless when transliterated into Chinese, but at the same time they began to also give them Chinese names that were disyllabic and meaningful and that conformed to the generational principle Thus, in the seventh generation of the Gūwalgiya lineage were sons with two names, one Manchu and one Chinese, such as Duolunbu/Shiman, Delinbu/Shizhu, and Tehengbu/Shizhen Within the family and the banner, these boys used their Manchu name, but outside they used their Han-style name Then, from the eight or ninth generation one, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Gūwalgiya at Xiuyan stopped giving polysyllabic Manchu names to their sons, who thereafter used Chinese names exclusively 
  30. ^ Edward J M Rhoads 2001 Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861–1928 reprint, illustrated ed University of Washington Press p 56 Retrieved March 2, 2012 and when the ancient and politically prominent Manchu lineage of Niohuru adopted the Han-style surname Lang, he ridiculed them for having "forgotten their roots" The Niohuru, whose name was derived from niohe, Manchu for wolf," had chosen Lang as their surname because it was a homophone for the Chinese word for "wolf" 
  31. ^ Edward J M Rhoads 2001 Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861–1928 reprint, illustrated ed University of Washington Press p 56 Retrieved March 2, 2012 Manchu men had abandoned their original polysyllabic personal names infavor of Han-style disyllabic names; they had adopted the Han practice of choosing characters with auspicious meanings for the names; and they had assigned names on a generational basis Except among some Hanjun such as the two Zhao brothers, bannermen still did not, by and large, use their 
  32. ^ Edward J M Rhoads 2001 Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861–1928 reprint, illustrated ed University of Washington Press p 57 Retrieved March 2, 2012 family name but called themselves only by their personal name—for example, Yikuang, Ronglu, Gangyi, Duanfang, Xiliang, and Tieliang In this respect, most Manchus remained conspicuously different from Han 
  33. ^ Mark C Elliott 2001 The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China illustrated, reprint ed Stanford University Press p 241 ISBN 0-8047-4684-2 Retrieved March 2, 2012 Chinese names consist typically of a single-character surname and a given name of one or two characters, the latter usually chosen for their auspicious meaning Manchu names were different For one thing, Manchus did not commonly employ surnames, identifying themselves usually by their banner affiliation rather than by their lineage Even if they had customarily used both surname and given name, this would not have eliminated the difference with Han names, since Manchu names of any kind were very often longer than two characters—that is, two syllables— in length Where a Han name to pick at random two names from the eighteenth century might read Zhang Tingyu or Dai Zhen, the full name of, say, Ebilun a 
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  48. ^ Andrew D W Forbes 1986 Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949 Cambridge, England: CUP Archive p 130 ISBN 0-521-25514-7 Retrieved 2010-06-28 
  49. ^ Andrew D W Forbes 1986 Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949 Cambridge, England: CUP Archive p 131 ISBN 0-521-25514-7 Retrieved 2010-06-28 
  50. ^ Dreyer, June Teufel July 17, 2003 Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Taiwan’s Evolving Identity Check |url= value help Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars Retrieved May 20, 2009 In order to shore up his government’s legitimacy, Chiang set about turning Taiwan’s inhabitants into Chinese To use Renan’s terminology, Chiang chose to re-define the concept of shared destiny to include the mainland Streets were re-named; major thoroughfares in Taipei received names associated with the traditional Confucian virtues The avenue passing in front of the foreign ministry en route to the presidential palace was named chieh-shou long life, in Chiang’s honor Students were required to learn Mandarin and speak it exclusively; those who disobeyed and spoke Taiwanese Min, Hakka, or aboriginal tongues could be fined, slapped, or subjected to other disciplinary actions 
  51. ^ "Starting Anew on Taiwan" Hoover Institution 2008 Retrieved 2009-06-05 The new KMT concluded that it must “Sinicize” Taiwan if it were ever to unify mainland China Textbooks were designed to teach young people the dialect of North China as a national language Pupils also were taught to revere Confucian ethics, to develop Han Chinese nationalism, and to accept Taiwan as a part of China 
  52. ^ "Third-Wave Reform" The government initiated educational reform in the 1950s to achieve a number of high-priority goals First, it was done to help root out fifty years of Japanese colonial influence on the island's populace--"resinicizing" them, one might say- -and thereby guarantee their loyalty to the Chinese motherland Second, the million mainlanders or so who had fled to Taiwan themselves had the age-old tendency of being more loyal to city, county, or province than to China as a nation They identified themselves as Hunanese, Cantonese, or Sichuanese first, and as Chinese second 
  53. ^ Burbu, Dawa 2001 China's Tibet Policy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-7007-0474-3, pp 100–124
  54. ^ Samdup, Tseten 1993 Chinese population—Threat to Tibetan identity
  55. ^ Schrader, Chris "'Red Dawn' Villains Switched from China to North Korea" Screen Rant Retrieved 1 June 2014 

External linksedit

  • Sinicization vs Manchuness by Xiaowei Zheng
  • Sinicization: at the crossing of three China regions, an ethnic minority becoming increasingly more Chinese: the Kam People, officially called Dong People in French/ Sinisation: à la limite de trois provinces de Chine, une minorité de plus en plus chinoise: les locuteurs kam, officiellement appelés Dong, Jean Berlie, Guy Trédaniel editor, Paris, France, published in 1998
  • Sinicization of the Kam Dong People, a China minority in French/ Sinisation d'une minorité de Chine, les Kam Dong, Jean Berlie, sn editor, published in 1994
  • Islam in China, Hui and Uyghurs: between modernization and sinicization, the study of the Hui and Uyghurs of China, Jean A Berlie, White Lotus Press editor, Bangkok, Thailand, published in 2004 ISBN 974-480-062-3, ISBN 978-974-480-062-6

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    Sinicization beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


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