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Single UNIX Specification

single unix specifications, single unix specification sheet
The Single UNIX Specification SUS is the collective name of a family of standards for computer operating systems, compliance with which is required to qualify for using the "UNIX" trademark The core specifications of the SUS are developed and maintained by the Austin Group, which is a joint working group of IEEE, ISO JTC 1 SC22 and The Open Group If an operating system is submitted to The Open Group for certification, and passes conformance tests, then it is termed to be compliant with a UNIX standard such as UNIX 98 or UNIX 03

Very few BSD and Linux-based operating systems are submitted for compliance with the Single UNIX Specification, although system developers generally aim for compliance with POSIX standards, which form the core of the Single UNIX Specification

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 1980s: Motivation
    • 12 1988: POSIX
    • 13 1990s: Spec 1170
    • 14 1997: Single UNIX Specification version 2
    • 15 2001: POSIX:2001, Single UNIX Specification version 3
    • 16 2004: POSIX:2004
    • 17 2008: POSIX:2008
  • 2 Specification
  • 3 Marks for compliant systems
  • 4 Compliance
    • 41 Currently Registered UNIX systems
      • 411 AIX
      • 412 EulerOS
      • 413 HP-UX
      • 414 Inspur K-UX
      • 415 macOS
      • 416 Solaris
      • 417 z/OS
    • 42 Previously Registered UNIX systems
      • 421 Reliant UNIX
      • 422 Xinuos
      • 423 Tru64 UNIX
      • 424 Other
    • 43 Non-registered Unix-like systems
  • 5 See also
  • 6 Notes
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

Historyedit

1980s: Motivationedit

The SUS emerged from a mid-1980s project to standardize operating system interfaces for software designed for variants of the Unix operating system The need for standardization arose because enterprises using computers wanted to be able to develop programs that could be used on the computer systems of different manufacturers without reimplementing the programs Unix was selected as the basis for a standard system interface partly because it was manufacturer-neutral

1988: POSIXedit

In 1988, these standards became IEEE 1003 also registered as ISO/IEC 9945, or POSIX, which loosely stands for Portable Operating System Interface

1990s: Spec 1170edit

In the early 1990s, a separate effort known as the Common API Specification or Spec 1170 was initiated by several major vendors, who formed the COSE alliance in the wake of the Unix wars This specification became more popular because it was available at no cost, whereas the IEEE charged a substantial fee for access to the POSIX specification Management over these specifications was assigned to X/Open who also received the Unix trademark from Novell in 1993 Unix International UI merged into Open Software Foundation OSF in 1994 only to merge with X/Open to form The Open Group in 1996

1997: Single UNIX Specification version 2edit

In 1997, the Open Group released the Single UNIX Specification Version 212

This specification consisted of:

  • the Base Definitions, Issue 5,
  • the System Interfaces and Headers, Issue 5,
  • the Commands and Utilities, Issue 5,
  • the Networking Services, Issue 5,
  • the X/Open Curses, Issue 4, Version 2,

and was at the core of the UNIX 98 brand3

2001: POSIX:2001, Single UNIX Specification version 3edit

Beginning in 1998, a joint working group known as the Austin Group began to develop the combined standard that would be known as the Single UNIX Specification Version 3 and as POSIX:2001 formally: IEEE Std 10031-2001 It was released on January 30, 20024

This standard consisted of:

  • the Base Definitions, Issue 6,
  • the System Interfaces and Headers, Issue 6,
  • the Commands and Utilities, Issue 6,

and is at the core of the UNIX 03 brand5

2004: POSIX:2004edit

In 2004, a new edition of the POSIX:2001 standard was released, incorporating two technical corrigenda It is called POSIX:2004 formally: IEEE Std 10031-200467

2008: POSIX:2008edit

In December 2008, the Austin Group published a new major revision, known as POSIX:2008 formally: IEEE Std 10031-20088910 This is the core of the Single UNIX Specification, Version 4 SUSv411

This standard consists of:

  • the Base Definitions, Issue 7,
  • the System Interfaces and Headers, Issue 7,
  • the Commands and Utilities, Issue 7

Specificationedit

SUSv3 totals some 3700 pages, which are thematically divided into four main parts:

  • Base Definitions XBD - a list of definitions and conventions used in the specifications and a list of C header files which must be provided by compliant systems 84 header files in total are provided
  • Shell and Utilities XCU - a list of utilities and a description of the shell, sh 160 utilities in total are specified
  • System Interfaces XSH - contains the specification of various functions which are implemented as system calls or library functions 1123 system interfaces in total are specified
  • Rationale XRAT - the explanation behind the standard

The standard user command line and scripting interface is the POSIX shell, an extension of the Bourne Shell based on an early version of the Korn Shell Other user-level programs, services and utilities include awk, echo, ed, vi, and hundreds of others Required program-level services include basic I/O file, terminal, and network services A test suite accompanies the standard It is called PCTS or the POSIX Certification Test Suite

Additionally, SUS includes CURSES XCURSES specification, which specifies 372 functions and 3 header files All in all, SUSv3 specifies 1742 interfaces

Note that a system need not include source code derived in any way from AT&T Unix to meet the specification For instance, IBM OS/390, now z/OS, qualifies as a "Unix" despite having no code in commoncitation needed

Marks for compliant systemsedit

There are two official marks for conforming systems

  • UNIX 98 - the mark for systems conforming to version 2 of the SUS partial compliance
  • UNIX 03 - the mark for systems conforming to version 3 of the SUS full compliance

Older UNIX standards superseded

  • UNIX 93 completely superseded
  • UNIX 95 compliance still acceptable for some simpler software subsystems

Complianceedit

Product Vendor Architecture UNIX 03 UNIX 98 UNIX 95 UNIX 93
AIX IBM Corporation PowerPC Yes Yes No No
FTX Cemprus LLC PA-RISC No No No Yes
EulerOS Huawei x86-64 Yes No No No
HP-UX Hewlett-Packard Company IA-64, PA-RISC Yes No Yes No
IRIX Silicon Graphics, Inc MIPS No No Yes No
K-UX Inspur x86-64 Yes No No No
macOS formerly OS X Apple x86-64 Yes No No No
OpenServer Xinuos IA-32 No No No Yes
Solaris Oracle Corporation IA-32, x86-64, SPARC Yes Yes No No
Tru64 UNIX Digital Equipment Corporation Alpha No Yes No No
UnixWare Xinuos IA-32 No No Yes No
z/OS USS IBM Corporation z/Architecture No No Yes No

Currently Registered UNIX systemsedit

AIXedit

AIX 5L V52 with some updates, AIX 5L V53 and AIX 61, are registered as UNIX 03 compliant AIX 5L V52 is registered as UNIX 98 compliant

EulerOSedit

EulerOS 20 for the x86-64 architecture were certified as UNIX 03 compliant 12The UNIX 03 conformance statement shows that the standard C compiler is from the GNU Compiler Collection gcc, and that the system is a Linux distribution of the Red Hat family13

HP-UXedit

HP-UX 11i V3 Release B1131 is registered as UNIX 03 compliant Previous releases are registered as UNIX 9514

HP-UX 11i features also provide partial conformance to the UNIX 98 specification15

Inspur K-UXedit

Inspur K-UX 20 and 30 for the x86-64 architecture were certified as UNIX 03 compliant1617 The UNIX 03 conformance statement for Inspur K-UX 20 and 30 shows that the standard C compiler is from the GNU Compiler Collection gcc, and that the system is a Linux distribution of the Red Hat family18

macOSedit

Apple's macOS previously known as OS X is a UNIX 03 registered product,19 first becoming registered with Mac OS X 105 "Leopard" on October 26, 2007 when run on Macs with Intel processors2021 All newer versions of macOS except Mac OS X 107 "Lion" have been registered22

Solarisedit

Solaris 11 complies with the Single UNIX Specification23 Solaris 10 is registered as UNIX 03 compliant on 32-bit and 64-bit x86 X86-64 and SPARC systems Solaris 8 and 9 are registered as UNIX 98 compliant on 32-bit x86 and SPARC systems; 64-bit x86 systems are not supported

Solaris 251 was also registered as UNIX 95 compliant on the PReP PowerPC platform in 1996, but the product was withdrawn before more than a few dozen copies had been sold24

z/OSedit

IBM z/OS 12 and higher is registered as UNIX 95 compliant z/OS 19, released on September 28, 2007, and subsequent releases "better align" with UNIX 0325

Previously Registered UNIX systemsedit

Reliant UNIXedit

The last Reliant UNIX versions were registered as UNIX 95 compliant XPG4 hard branding

Xinuosedit

UnixWare 713 is registered as UNIX 95 compliant SCO OpenServer 5 is registered as UNIX 93 compliant

Tru64 UNIXedit

Tru64 UNIX V51A and later are registered as UNIX 98 compliant

Otheredit

Other operating systems registered as UNIX 95 or UNIX 93 compliant:

  • NCR UNIX SVR4
  • NEC UX/4800
  • SGI IRIX 6526

Non-registered Unix-like systemsedit

Developers and vendors of Unix-like operating systems such as Linux, FreeBSD, and MINIX, typically do not certify their distributions and do not install full POSIX utilities by default2728 Sometimes, SUS compliance can be improved by installing additional packages, but very few Linux systems can be configured to be completely conformant

Darwin, the open source subset of macOS, has behavior that can be set to comply with UNIX 0329

FreeBSD previously had a "C99 and POSIX Conformance Project" which aimed for compliance with a subset of the Single UNIX Specification, and documentation where there were differences30

The FreeBSD C99 & POSIX® Conformance Project aims to implement all requirements of the ISO 9899:1999 C99 and IEEE 10031-2001 POSIX standards In cases where aspects of these standards cannot be followed, those aspects will be documented in the c997 or posix7 manuals It is also an aim of this project to implement regression tests to ensure correctness whenever possible

For Linux, the Linux Standard Base was formed in 2001 as an attempt to standardize the internal structures of Linux-based systems for increased compatibility It is based on the POSIX specifications, the Single UNIX Specification, and other open standards, and also extends them in several areas; but there are some conflicts between the LSB and The POSIX standards31 However, although these standards are commonly accepted, few Linux distributions actually go through certification as LSB compliant32

See alsoedit

  • Unix wars
  • Functional specification
  • UNIX manual
  • Open system computing
  • Open standard
  • POSIX

Notesedit

  • Andrew Josey 2004-10-28 "Single UNIX Specification Frequently Asked Questions" 19 

Referencesedit

  1. ^ http://wwwopengrouporg/onlinepubs/7990989775/
  2. ^ "The Open Group Announces Enhanced Single UNIX Specification" Press release The Open Group March 12, 1997 Retrieved 2009-07-26 
  3. ^ http://wwwopengrouporg/openbrand/register/xxm0htm
  4. ^ "The Open Group announces completion of the joint revision to POSIX and the Single UNIX Specification" Press release The Open Group January 30, 2002 Retrieved 2009-07-26 
  5. ^ http://wwwopengrouporg/openbrand/register/xym0htm
  6. ^ http://wwwopengrouporg/onlinepubs/009695399/
  7. ^ "IEEE Std 10031, 2004 Edition" Retrieved 2009-07-26 
  8. ^ http://wwwopengrouporg/onlinepubs/9699919799/
  9. ^ "Base Specifications, Issue 7" The Open Group Retrieved 2009-07-26 
  10. ^ "The Austin Common Standards Revision Group" The Open Group Retrieved 2009-07-26 
  11. ^ Single UNIX Specification Version 4
  12. ^ "Huawei KunLun EulerOS 20 Operating System Passes UNIX Certification" Huawei Retrieved 2016-10-29 
  13. ^ Peng Shen "Huawei Conformance Statement: Commands and Utilities V4" The Open Group Retrieved 2016-10-29 
  14. ^ "UNIX 2003 Standard Profile conformance" Hewlett Packard Retrieved 2014-07-22 
  15. ^ "HP-UX Software Transition Kit" Hewlett Packard Retrieved 2014-07-22 
  16. ^ "The Open Brand Register of Certified Products" The Open Group 2014-05-29 Retrieved 2014-05-29 
  17. ^ Xie Ruohong "Inspur Conformance Statement" The Open Group Retrieved 2015-12-08 
  18. ^ Xie Ruohong "Inspur Conformance Statement: Commands and Utilities V4" The Open Group Retrieved 2015-12-08 
  19. ^ http://imagesapplecom/macosx/docs/OSX_for_UNIX_Users_TB_July2011pdf
  20. ^ "Mac OS X Leopard - Technology - UNIX" Leopard Technology Overview Apple Inc Archived from the original on 2007-08-23 Retrieved 2007-06-11 Leopard is now an Open Brand UNIX 03 Registered Product, conforming to the SUSv3 and POSIX 10031 specifications for the C API, Shell Utilities, and Threads 
  21. ^ The Open Group "Mac OS X Version 105 Leopard on Intel-based Macintosh computers certification" Retrieved 2007-06-12 
  22. ^ http://wwwopengrouporg/openbrand/register/applehtm
  23. ^ http://wwwopengrouporg/openbrand/register/brand3585htm
  24. ^ Solaris 251
  25. ^ "Preview: IBM z/OS V19 advanced infrastructure solutions for your business needs" PDF IBM February 6, 2007 pp 4, 15 Retrieved 2007-06-11 
  26. ^ The Open Group "Register of Certified Products" Retrieved 2009-12-20 
  27. ^ For example pax and sccs are usually not installed on Linux, as they are not commonly used
  28. ^ Ubuntu bug tracker: No UNIX compatible pax implementation
  29. ^ http://developerapplecom/documentation/Darwin/Reference/Manpages/man5/compat5html
  30. ^ "FreeBSD C99 and POSIX conformance project" FreeBSD Project Archived from the original on December 23, 2013 
  31. ^ "ISO/IEC TR 24715:2006 - Information technology -- Programming languages, their environments and system software interfaces -- Technical Report on the Conflicts between the ISO/IEC 9945 POSIX and the Linux Standard Base ISO/IEC 23360" Retrieved 2011-10-15 
  32. ^ "Certified Products Product Directory" The Linux Foundation Retrieved 2015-12-09 

External linksedit

  • About:
    • The Single UNIX Specification
    • The Open Group's UNIX Certification Program
  • Single UNIX Specifications:
    • Text of the Single UNIX Specification, version 2
    • Text of the Single UNIX Specification, version 3 = POSIX:2001, 2004 edition
    • Text of the Single UNIX Specification, version 4 = POSIX:2008, 2016 Edition
  • The Portable Application Standards Committee
  • Register of products certified for the UNIX and other Open Group brands
  • Unix-Wars Living Internet
  • Unix Standards Eric S Raymond, The Art of Unix Programming
  • AIX Commands, Tools, Scripts and Explanations

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