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Shimane Prefecture

shimane prefecture, shimane prefecture map
Shimane Prefecture 島根県, Shimane-ken is a prefecture of Japan located in the Chūgoku region on the main Honshu island1 The capital is Matsue2 It is the second least populous prefecture in Japan, after its eastern neighbor Tottori The prefecture has an area elongated from east to west facing the Chūgoku Mountain Range on the south side and to the Sea of Japan on the north side It is divided into the Izumo Region in the East, the Iwami Region in the West and the Oki Region, a small group of islands off the northern coast Most of the cities are near the shoreline of the Sea of Japan Izumo Taisha in Izumo City is one of the oldest Shinto shrines in Japan

The Oki Islands in the Sea of Japan are also part of Shimane Prefecture, which also claims to have jurisdiction over the South Korea-controlled island of Liancourt Rocks Korean: Dokdo獨島, Japanese: Takeshima竹島

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Early history
    • 12 Middle Ages
    • 13 Modern Age
  • 2 Geography
    • 21 Cities
    • 22 Towns and villages
    • 23 Mergers
  • 3 Climate
  • 4 Transportation
    • 41 Airports
    • 42 Rail
    • 43 Roads
      • 431 General Roads
      • 432 Highways
    • 44 Ferry/High Speed Boats
  • 5 Economy
    • 51 Companies based in Shimane
      • 511 Manufacturing
      • 512 Financial
      • 513 Others
    • 52 Major factories
  • 6 Demographics
    • 61 Population by age
  • 7 Culture
    • 71 Cultural Assets
    • 72 Languages Dialects
    • 73 Universities in Shimane Prefecture
  • 8 Tourism
  • 9 Prefectural symbols
  • 10 See also
  • 11 Notes
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

Historyedit

Matsue Castle

Early historyedit

See also: Historic Sites of Shimane Prefecture and Old provinces of Japan

The history of Shimane starts with Japanese mythology The Shinto god Ōkuninushi was believed to live in Izumo, an old province in Shimane Izumo Shrine, which is in the city of Izumo, honors the god3 At that time, the current Shimane prefecture was divided into three parts: Iwami, Izumo, and Oki4 That lasted until the abolition of the han system took place in 1871 During the Nara period, Kakinomoto no Hitomaro read a poem on Shimane's nature when he was sent as the Royal governor5

Later on in the Kamakura period, Kamakura Shogunate forced emperors Gotoba and Godaigo into exile in Oki Emperor Godaigo later escaped away from Oki and began rallying supporters against the shogunate, which succeeded6

Middle Agesedit

During the Muromachi period, Izumo and Oki were controlled by the Kyogoku clan However, after the Ōnin War, the Amago clan expanded power based in Gassantoda Castle and the Masuda clan dominated Iwami province The Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine was located between Amago territory and Masuda territory, so there were many battles between these clans for the silver However, in 1566 Mori Motonari conquered Izumo, Iwami, and Oki6 After over 30 years of Mori control, in 1600 Horio Yoshiharu entered Izumo and Oki as the result of Battle of Sekigahara, which Mori lost Following the change, Horio Yoshiharu decided to move to build Matsue Castle instead of Gassan-Toda, and soon after Yoshiharu's death the castle was completed Later in 1638, the grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Matsudaira Naomasa became the ruler because the Horio clan had no heir, and his family ruled until the abolition of the han system

The Iwami area was split into three regions: the mining district, under the direct control of the Shogunate, the Hamada clan region, and the Tsuwano clan region The Iwami Ginzan, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site produced silver and was one of the nation's largest silver mine by the early 17th century The Hamada clan was on the shogunate's side in the Meiji Restoration, and the castle was burned down The Tsuwano clan, despite then being ruled by the Matsudaira, was on the emperor's side in the restoration7

Modern Ageedit

In 1871, the abolition of the han system placed the old Shimane and Hamada Provinces in the current area of Shimane Prefecture Later that year, Oki became part of Tottori In 1876, Hamada Prefecture was merged into the Shimane Prefecture Also, Tottori Prefecture was added in the same year However, five years later, in 1881, the current portion of Tottori Prefecture was separated and the current border was formed7

Geographyedit

Shimane Prefecture is situated on the Sea of Japan side of the Chugoku region Because of its mountainous landscape, rice farming is done mostly in the Izumo plain where the city of Izumo is located8 Another major landform is the Shimane peninsula The peninsula is located across the Sea of Japan from Izumo to Sakaiminato, which is located in Tottori prefecture Also, the peninsula created two sea water lakes, Lake Shinji and Nakaumi The island of Daikon is located in Nakaumi Off the main island of Honshū, the island of Oki is in Shimane prefecture as well The island itself is in the Daisen-Oki National Park8 Shimane also claims the use of Liancourt Rocks, over which they are in dispute with South Korea9

As of 1 April 2012, 6% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely Daisen-Oki National Park; Hiba-Dōgo-Taishaku and Nishi-Chūgoku Sanchi Quasi-National Parks; and eleven Prefectural Natural Parks10

Most major cities are located either on the seaside, or along a river8

Citiesedit

Map of Shimane Prefecture Cape Hinomisaki near Izumo

Eight cities are located in Shimane Prefecture, the largest being Matsue, the capital, and the smallest being Gōtsu The cities Masuda, Unnan, Yasugi, and Gōtsu had a slight population increase due to the mergers in the early 2000s11

Towns and villagesedit

These are the towns and villages of each district The number of towns and villages greatly decreased during the mergers However, they hold about one-third of the prefecture's population11

Mergersedit

Main article: List of mergers in Shimane Prefecture
April 1976 January 2011 January 2012
Izumo Region Matsue City Old System Matsue City New System Matsue City
August 1, 2011 Merger with Higashiizumo Town
Yatsuka District Kashima Town
Shimane Town
Mihonoseki Town
Yakumo Village
Tamayu Town
Shinji Town
Yatsuka Town
Higashiizumo Town
Yasugi City Old System Yasugi City New System Yasugi City
Nogi District Hirose Town
Hakuta Town
Nita District Yokota Town Okuizumo Town
Nita Town
Izumo City Old System Izumo City New System Izumo City
October 1, 2011 Merger with Hikawa Town
Hirata City
Hikawa District Taisha Town
Koryo Town
Taki Town
Sada Town
Hikawa Town
Ōhara District Daitō Town Unnan City
Kamo Town
Kisuki Town
Iishi District Mitoya Town
Kakeya Town
Yoshida Village
Tonbara Town Iinan Town
Akagi Town
Iwami Region Ōda City Old System Ōda City New System Ōda City
Nima District Yunotsu Town
Nima Town
Gōtsu City Old System Gōtsu City New System Gōtsu City
Ōchi District Sakurae Town
Ōchi Town Misato Town
Daiwa Village
Iwami Town Ōnan Town
Mizuho Town
Hasumi Village
Kawamoto Town
Hamada City Old System Hamada City New System Hamada City
Naka District Asahi Town
Kanagi Town
Misumi Town
Yasaka Village
Masuda City Old System Masuda City New System Masuda City
Mino District Mito Town
Hikimi Town
Kanoashi District Tsuwano Town Old System Tsuwano Town New System Tsuwano Town
Nichihara Town
Muikaichi Town Yoshika Town
Kakinoki Village
Oki Region Oki District Saigō Town Okinoshima Town
Fuse Village
Goka Village
Tsuma Village
Nishinoshima Town
Ama Town
Chibu Village

Climateedit

The prefecture has a sub-tropical climate Winter is cloudy with a little snow, and summer is humid The average annual temperature is 146 degrees Celsius It rains almost every day in the rainy season, from June to mid-July The highest average monthly temperature occurs in August with 263 degrees Celsius The average annual precipitation is 1799 millimeters, higher than Tokyo's 1467 mm and Obihiro with 920 mm11

Shimane Prefecture Yearly Averages by Region(Statistics Period:1971 - 2000、Source:Japanese Meteorological Agency: Statistical Climate Information)
Average Year
(Month)
Oki Izumo Coastal Izumo Inland
Okinoshima
Saigo  
Okinoshima
Saigo Cape
Ama   Matsue
Kashima 
Matsue  Hikawa  Izumo  Okuizumo
Yokota 
 Unnan
Kakeya 
 Iinan
Akana 
Average
Temperature
Warmest Month 256
Aug
258
Aug
256
Aug
263
Aug
258
Aug
240
Aug
245
Aug
234
Aug
Coldest Month 39
Feb
45
Feb
44
Feb
42
Jan
45
Feb
07
Feb
23
Feb
04
Jan, Feb
Rainfall
mm
Heaviest Month 2116
Sept
2270
July
2180
Sept
2405
July
2362
July
2342
July
2571
July
2822
July
Driest Month 1104
Oct
964
Feb
1047
April
1145
April
963
Feb
1034
April
1207
April
1165
Oct
Average Year
(Month)
Iwami Coastal Iwami Inland
 Ōda   Hamada Masuda  Masuda City
Takatsu 
 Kawamoto  Ōnan
Hamada City
Yasaka 
 Tsuwano  Yoshika  Yoshika
Muikaichi 
Average
Temperature
Warmest Month 265
Aug
262
Aug
268
Aug
242
Aug
239
Aug
236
Aug
257
Aug
245
Aug
Coldest Month 49
Jan, Feb
58
Feb
54
Jan, Feb
27
Jan
08
Jan
15
Jan
30
Jan
19
Jan
Rainfall
mm
Heaviest Month 2463
July
2577
July
2239
June
2602
July
2606
July
3400
July
2856
July
3374
June
Driest Month 983
Feb
909
Feb
879
Feb
1125
Feb
1092
Nov
1304
April
997
Dec
768
Dec

Transportationedit

Airportsedit

Izumo Airport terminal

Three airports serve Shimane The Izumo Airport located in Izumo is the largest airport in the prefecture in terms of passengers, which has regular flights to Haneda Airport, Osaka Airport, Fukuoka Airport, and Oki Airport The Iwami Airport has two flights each day to Haneda and Osaka and 2 arrivals Oki Airport has scheduled flights to Osaka and Izumo Airports12

  • Izumo Airport
  • Iwami Airport
  • Oki Airport

Railedit

JR West and Ichibata Electric Railway serves the prefecture in terms of rail transportation The Sanin Main Line goes through the prefecture on the Sea of Japan side going into major cities such as Matsue and Izumo13 Izumoshi and Matsue stations are the major stops in the prefecture The Kisuki line, which forks from Shinji Station on the Sanin Line, connects with the Geibi Line in Hiroshima Prefecture, cutting into the Chūgoku Mountains13 Ichibata Electric Railway serve the Shimane peninsula from Dentetsu-Izumoshi Station and Izumo Taisha-mae Station to Matsue Shinjiko-Onsen Station14

JR West has three Limited Express trains to Shimane, which are Super Matsukaze, Super Oki, and Yakumo15

  • West Japan Railway Company
    • Sanin Main Line
    • Sankō Line
    • Kisuki Line
    • Yamaguchi Line
  • Ichibata Electric Railway
    • Kita-Matsue Line
    • Taisha Line

Roadsedit

General Roadsedit

  • Japan National Route 9
    • Izumo Bypass
    • Gōtsu Road
  • Japan National Route 54
  • Japan National Route 180
  • Japan National Route 184
  • Japan National Route 186
  • Japan National Route 187
  • Japan National Route 191
  • Japan National Route 261
  • Japan National Route 314
  • Japan National Route 375
  • Japan National Route 431
  • Japan National Route 432
  • Japan National Route 485
  • Japan National Route 488

Highwaysedit

The four expressways in the prefecture connect major cities with other prefectures The Matsue expressway connects Matsue with Unnan and Yonago in Tottori prefecture Hamada Expressway forks from the Chugoku Expressway at Kita-Hiroshima and stretches to Hamada8

  • Sanin Expressway
  • Matsue Expressway
  • Hamada Expressway
  • Chūgoku Expressway

Ferry/High Speed Boatsedit

  • Oki Kisen

Economyedit

In Shimane, the largest employer is the retail industry, employing over 60,000 workers The supermarket, Mishimaya, and the hardware store, Juntendo, are examples of companies based in Shimane The manufacturing industry has the second number of employees with 49,000 workers The retail industry has over 12,000 locations within the prefecture, the most of any industry

29% of the total industry income in the Prefecture is from the service industry, which includes retailers The manufacturing makes up 13% of the total industry income

Companies based in Shimaneedit

Manufacturingedit

  • Izumo Murata Manufacturing
  • Shimane Fujitsu
  • Mitsubishi Agricultural Machinery

Financialedit

  • The Shimane Bank
  • The San-in Godo Bank

Othersedit

  • Network Applied Communication Laboratory
  • Mishimaya
  • Juntendo
  • Ichibata Electric Railway

Major factoriesedit

  • Hitachi Metals

Demographicsedit

One-third of the prefecture's population is concentrated in the Izumo-Matsue area Otherwise, over two-thirds of the population is on the coastline The reason is that the Chugoku mountains make the land inland harder to inhabit The capital, Matsue, has the smallest population out of all the 47 prefectural capitals Shimane has also the largest percentage of the elderly11 The province had an estimated 743 centenarians per million inhabitants in September 2010, the highest ratio in Japan, overtaking Okinawa Prefecture 667 centenarians per million16

Population by ageedit

Total Population in age groups
2007 Estimated Population
Unit:Thousands

Age Population
0 - 4 30
5 - 9 33
10 - 14 35
15 - 19 37
20 - 24 32
25 - 29 38
30 - 34 44
35 - 39 41
40 - 44 38
45 - 49 44
50 - 54 51
55 - 59 66
60 - 64 44
65 - 69 45
70 - 74 50
75 - 79 45
80 and over 64

Population in gender
2007 Estimated population
Unit:Thousands

Male Age Female
15 0 - 4 15
17 5 - 9 16
18 10 - 14 17
19 15 - 19 18
16 20 - 24 16
19 25 - 29 19
22 30 - 34 22
20 35 - 39 20
19 40 - 44 19
22 45 - 49 22
26 50 - 54 25
34 55 - 59 32
22 60 - 64 23
20 65 - 69 24
22 70 - 74 28
19 75 - 79 26
20 80 and over 44
  • Source:Graph 10/Prefectures Age(In Age groups), Gender divided population-Total Population
    Ministry of Internal Affairs Statistics Bureau
Comparison of Population Distribution between Shimane and Japanese National Average Population Distribution by Age and Sex in Shimane
■Shimane
■Japan average
■Male
■Female
1970 773,575
1975 768,886
1980 784,795
1985 794,629
1990 781,021
1995 771,441
2000 761,503
2005 742,223
2010 716,354
2010 Census, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications - Statistics Department


Cultureedit

Cultural Assetsedit

Nima Sand Museum in Oda World Cultural Heritage
  • The Historic Remains of Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine and its Cultural Background Ōda City
National Treasures
  • Izumo-taisha Main Shrine Izumo City
  • Kamosu Shrine Main Shrine Matsue City
  • Toiletry case with autumn field and deer design Izumo-taisha
  • Armour Laced with white thread Hinomisaki Shrine
  • Bronze bells from the Kamo-Iwakura site Unearthed bronze bell-shaped vessel Unnan City
  • Kojindani Ruins Unearthed ruins Izumo City
Important Traditional Building Preservation Area
  • Ōmori Ōda City
  • Yunotsu Ōda City

Languages Dialectsedit

  • Unpaku dialect Izumo dialect, Oki dialect, etc
  • Iwami dialect

Universities in Shimane Prefectureedit

  • Shimane University, Matsue and Izumo National university17
  • The University of Shimane, Hamada Prefectural university18

Tourismedit

  • Shimane Vogel Park
  • Matsue Castle
  • Adachi Museum of Art
  • Aquas Aquarium
  • Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine
  • Izumo-taisha
  • Izumo Province
  • Shimane Art Museum
  • Iwami Art Museum
  • Mt Sanbe
  • Tamatsukuri Onsen
Garden of the Adachi Museum of Art in Yasugi

Prefectural symbolsedit

The prefectural flower is the mountain peony On the island of Daikonjima, they were grown from at least the 18th century19

See alsoedit

  • Lafcadio Hearn

Notesedit

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric 2005 "Shimane Province" in Japan Encyclopedia, p 859, p 859, at Google Books; "Chūgoku" at p 127, p 127, at Google Books
  2. ^ Nussbaum, "Matsue" at p 617, p 617, at Google Books
  3. ^ Izumo Shrine website
  4. ^ Nussbaum, "Provinces and prefectures" at p 780, p 780, at Google Books
  5. ^ Shimane Prefecture introduction
  6. ^ a b 古川清行 Furukawa Kiyoyuki 2003 スーパー日本史 Super Nihon-shi 講談社 Kōdansha ISBN 4-06-204594-X 
  7. ^ a b History of Shimane Prefecture
  8. ^ a b c d 新編 中学校社会科地図 Updated Social studies map for Junior High school 帝国書院 Teikoku Shoin 2007 ISBN 4-8071-4091-4 
  9. ^ Liancourt Rocks
  10. ^ "General overview of area figures for Natural Parks by prefecture" PDF Ministry of the Environment 1 April 2012 Retrieved 10 August 2014 
  11. ^ a b c d 考える社会科地図 Kangaeru Shakaika Chizu 四谷大塚出版 Yotsuya-Ōtsuka Shuppan 2005 p 113 
  12. ^ Flight schedule of Oki Airport
  13. ^ a b Route map for JR West
  14. ^ Route map of Ichibata Electric Railway
  15. ^ JR West website on limited express trains
  16. ^ Japan Times “Centenarians to Hit Record 44,000” The Japan Times, Sept 15, 2010 Okinawa Prefecture also had the largest loss of young and middle-aged population during the Pacific War
  17. ^ Shimane University
  18. ^ University of Shimane
  19. ^ Symbols of Shimane Prefecture: From Shimane Prefecture website

Referencesedit

  • Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth 2005 Japan encyclopedia Cambridge: Harvard University Press ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128

External linksedit

  • Official homepage of Shimane Prefecture
  • Shimane JET Programme participants homepage
  • National Archives of Japan Shimane map 1891
  • Adachi Museum of Art
  • Sightseeing In Shimane

Coordinates: 35°13′N 132°40′E / 35217°N 132667°E / 35217; 132667

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