Tue . 20 Jul 2020
TR | RU | UK | KK | BE |

Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky

sergey prokudin-gorsky, sergei prokudin-gorsky photographs
Sergey Mikhaylovich Prokudin-Gorsky Russian: Серге́й Миха́йлович Проку́дин-Го́рский,  listen ; August 30 OS August 18 1863 – September 27, 1944 was a Russian chemist and photographer He is best known for his pioneering work in color photography of early 20th-century Russia1


  • 1 Biography
    • 11 Early life
    • 12 Marriage and career in photography
    • 13 Later life and death
  • 2 Photography technique
    • 21 Three-color principle
    • 22 Early practitioners
    • 23 Equipment
    • 24 Exposures
    • 25 Other processes
  • 3 Documentary of the Russian Empire
  • 4 Digital color rendering
  • 5 Gallery
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links


Early lifeedit

Prokudin-Gorsky was born in the ancestral estate of Funikova Gora, in what is now Kirzhachsky District, Vladimir Oblast His parents were of the Russian nobility, and the family had a long military history2 They moved to Saint Petersburg, where Prokudin-Gorsky enrolled in Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology to study chemistry under Dmitri Mendeleev He also studied music and painting at the Imperial Academy of Arts

Marriage and career in photographyedit

In 1890, Prokudin-Gorsky married Anna Aleksandrovna Lavrova, and later the couple had two sons, Mikhail and Dmitri, and a daughter, Ekaterina3 Anna was the daughter of the Russian industrialist Aleksandr Stepanovich Lavrov, an active member in the Imperial Russian Technical Society IRTS3 Prokudin-Gorsky subsequently became the director of the executive board of Lavrov's metal works near Saint Petersburg and remained so until the October Revolution He also joined Russia's oldest photographic society, the photography section of the IRTS, presenting papers and lecturing on the science of photography4 In 1901, he established a photography studio and laboratory in Saint Petersburg In 1902, he traveled to Berlin and spent six weeks studying color sensitization and three-color photography with photochemistry professor Adolf Miethe, the most advanced practitioner in Germany at that time5 Throughout the years, Prokudin-Gorsky's photographic work, publications and slide shows to other scientists and photographers in Russia, Germany and France earned him praise,3 and in 1906 he was elected the president of the IRTS photography section and editor of Russia's main photography journal, the Fotograf-Liubitel4

Lithograph print of Leo Tolstoy in front of Prokudin-Gorsky's camera in Yasnaya Polyana, 1908

Perhaps Prokudin-Gorsky's best-known work during his lifetime was his color portrait of Leo Tolstoy,6 which was reproduced in various publications, on postcards, and as larger prints for framing37 The fame from this photo and his earlier photos of Russia's nature and monuments earned him invitations to show his work to the Russian Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich and Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna in 1908, and to Tsar Nicholas II and his family in 19094 The Tsar enjoyed the demonstration, and, with his blessing, Prokudin-Gorsky got the permission and funding to document Russia in color8 In the course of ten years, he was to make a collection of 10,000 photos9 Prokudin-Gorsky considered the project his life's work and continued his photographic journeys through Russia until after the October Revolution3 He was appointed to a new professorship under the new regime, but he left the country in August 191810 He still pursued scientific work in color photography, published papers in English photography journals and, together with his colleague S O Maksimovich, obtained patents in Germany, England, France and Italy3

Later life and deathedit

In 1920, Prokudin-Gorsky remarried and had a daughter with his assistant Maria Fedorovna née Schedrimo The family finally settled in Paris in 1922, reuniting with his first wife and children4 Prokudin-Gorsky set up a photo studio there together with his three adult children, naming it after his fourth child, Elka In the 1930s, the elderly Prokudin-Gorsky continued with lectures showing his photographs of Russia to young Russians in France, but stopped commercial work and left the studio to his children, who named it Gorsky Frères He died in Paris on September 27, 1944, a month after the Liberation of Paris He is buried in the Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois Russian Cemetery3

Photography techniqueedit

Three-color principleedit

Crop from Alleia Hamerops showing the red, green and blue color channels as well as the composite image

The method of color photography used by Prokudin-Gorsky was first suggested by James Clerk Maxwell in 1855 and demonstrated in 1861, but good results were not possible with the photographic materials available at that time In imitation of the way a normal human eye senses color, the visible spectrum of colors was divided into three channels of information by capturing it in the form of three black-and-white photographs, one taken through a red filter, one through a green filter, and one through a blue filter The resulting three photographs could either be projected through filters of the same colors and exactly superimposed on a screen, synthesizing the original range of color additively; viewed as an additive color image by one person at a time through an optical device known generically as a chromoscope or photochromoscope, which contained colored filters and transparent reflectors that visually combined the three into one full-color image; or used to make photographic or mechanical prints in the complementary colors cyan, magenta and yellow, which, when superimposed, reconstituted the color subtractively11

Early practitionersedit

The first person to widely demonstrate good results by this method was Frederic E Ives, whose "Kromskop" system of viewers, projectors and camera equipment was commercially available from 1897 until about 1907 Only the viewers and ready-made triple photographs for use in them sold in any significant quantity Still life arrangements, unpopulated landscapes and oil paintings were the typical subject matter, but a few examples of color portraiture from life were also offered Several Kromskop color views of the aftermath of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire, apparently never issued commercially, have recently come to light

Another very notable practitioner was Adolf Miethe, with whom Prokudin-Gorsky studied in Germany in 19025 Miethe was a photochemist who greatly improved the panchromatic characteristics of the black-and-white photographic materials suitable for use with this method of color photography He presented projected color photographs to the German Imperial Family in 1902 and was exhibiting them to the general public in 1903,5 when they also began to appear in periodicals and books Miethe took the first known aerial color photographs, from a hot air balloon, in 1906


Photographic plates, which had the light-sensitive emulsion coated on a thin sheet of glass, were normally used instead of flexible film, both because a general transition from glass plates to plastic film was still in progress and because glass provided the best dimensional stability for three images intended to match up perfectly when they were later combined

An ordinary camera could be used to take the three pictures, by reloading it and changing filters between exposures, but pioneering color photographers usually built or bought special cameras that made the procedure less awkward and time-consuming One of the two main types used beam splitters to produce three separate images in the camera, making all three exposures at the same time and from the same viewpoint Although a camera of this type was ideal in theory, such cameras were optically complicated and delicate, and liable to get out of adjustment Some designs were also subject to optical phenomena that could cause noticeably uneven color or other defects in the results The other, more robust type was an essentially ordinary camera with a special sliding holder for the plates and filters that allowed each in turn to be efficiently shifted into position for exposure—an operation sometimes partly or even entirely automated with a pneumatic mechanism or spring-powered motor11

When the three color-filtered photographs were not taken at the same time, anything in the scene that did not hold steady during the entire operation would exhibit colored "fringes" around its edges in the resulting color image If it moved continuously across the scene, three separate strongly-colored "ghost" images could result Such color artifacts are plainly visible in ordinary color composites of many of Prokudin-Gorsky's photographs, but special digital image processing software was used to artificially remove them, whenever possible, from the composites of all 1,902 of the images commissioned by the Library of Congress in 200412 The altered versions have proliferated online and older or third-party versions showing these tell-tale peculiarities are increasingly scarce13

Adolf Miethe designed a high-quality, sequential-exposure color camera, which was manufactured by Bermpohl and became available commercially in 1903 Prokudin-Gorsky published an illustration of it in Fotograf-Liubitel in 1906 The most common model used a single oblong plate 9 cm wide by 24 cm high, the same format as Prokudin-Gorsky's surviving negatives, and it photographed the images in unconventional blue-green-red sequence, which is also a characteristic of Prokudin-Gorsky's negatives if the usual upside-down image in a camera and gravity-compliant downward shiftings of his plates are assumed14 An inventor as well as a photographer, Prokudin-Gorsky patented an optical system for cameras of the simultaneous-exposure type,15 and it is often claimed or implied that he invented, or at least built, the camera used for his Russian Empire project No definite written or photographic documentation of his field equipment is known to exist, only the evidence inherent in the photographs themselves, and no rationale has been suggested for going to the trouble and expense of building a functionally identical copy of a Miethe-Bermpohl camera instead of simply buying one

Miethe and Bermpohl also produced a matching three-color projector and a chromoscope The Goerz optical company made a differently configured and more powerful three-color projector for Miethe It, too, was commercially available16


The required exposure time depended on the lighting conditions, the sensitivity of the photographic plate, and the camera lens aperture used In a letter to Leo Tolstoy requesting a portrait sitting, Prokudin-Gorsky described the exposure as taking one to three seconds, but later, when recollecting his time with Tolstoy, he described a six-second exposure on a sunny day717 Blaise Agüera y Arcas studied one landscape view, photographed in broad daylight but showing a clear, well-defined moon, and used the moon's movement to estimate that the whole procedure of three filtered exposures and two repositionings of the camera's plate holder had taken over a minute12 The lens aperture Prokudin-Gorsky chose to use greatly affected the exposure time required A small aperture is often used for landscape photography because it allows objects at various distances to all be sharply imaged at the same time, while the use of a large aperture is common for portraiture and plainly evident in the Tolstoy portrait All other factors being equal, if for example a 16-second exposure was required when using a 1/4-inch-diameter aperture, an exposure of only 1 second would suffice with a 1-inch aperture

Other processesedit

Prokudin-Gorsky was also acquainted with the use of Autochrome color plates, which did not require a special camera or projector He was one of the favored few the Lumière Brothers introduced to their new product in 1906, the year before it went into commercial production18 Autochrome plates were expensive and not sensitive enough for casual "snapshots" with a hand-held camera, but their use was simple and in expert hands they were capable of producing excellent results They made color photography truly practical for advanced amateurs and led some pioneering users of color separation cameras to abandon their methods as outmoded, but Prokudin-Gorsky was not won over No Autochromes by Prokudin-Gorsky are known to survive

Although photographic color prints of the images were difficult to make at the time and slide show lectures consumed much of the time Prokudin-Gorsky used to demonstrate his work, photomechanical color prints of some were published in journals and books, and his studio issued some, most notably the Tolstoy portrait, as postcards and large photogravures4 Many of the original prints published by his studio still survive19

Prokudin-Gorsky's own inventions, some of them collaborative, led to the granting of numerous patents, most issued during the years of his voluntary exile and not directly related to the body of work on which his fame now rests Some concern processes for making subtractive color transparencies, which do not require any special projection or viewing equipment Examples of these were preserved by Prokudin-Gorsky's family and have recently appeared online20 Most of his patents relate to the production of natural-color motion pictures, a potentially lucrative application that attracted the attention of many inventors in the field of color photography during the 1910s and 1920s

Documentary of the Russian Empireedit

Around 1905, Prokudin-Gorsky envisioned and formulated a plan to use the emerging technological advances that had been made in color photography to document the Russian Empire systematically Through such an ambitious project, his ultimate goal was to educate the schoolchildren of Russia with his "optical color projections" of the vast and diverse history, culture, and modernization of the empire21

Outfitted with a specially equipped railroad-car darkroom provided by Tsar Nicholas II and in possession of two permits that granted him access to restricted areas and cooperation from the empire's bureaucracy, Prokudin-Gorsky documented the Russian Empire around 1909 through 1915 He conducted many illustrated lectures of his work His photographs offer a vivid portrait of a lost world—the Russian Empire on the eve of World War I and the coming Russian Revolution His subjects ranged from the medieval churches and monasteries of old Russia, to the railroads and factories of an emerging industrial power, to the daily life and work of Russia's diverse population2223

It has been estimated from Prokudin-Gorsky's personal inventory that before leaving Russia, he had about 3500 negatives24 Upon leaving the country and exporting all his photographic material, about half of the photos were confiscated by Russian authorities for containing material they deemed strategically sensitive for war-time Russia4 According to Prokudin-Gorsky's notes, the photos left behind were not of interest to the general public24 Some of Prokudin-Gorsky's negatives were given away,25 and some he hid on his departure26 Outside the Library of Congress collection, none has yet been found24

By the time of Prokudin-Gorsky's death, the tsar and his family had long since been executed during the Russian Revolution, and Communist rule had been established over what was once the Russian Empire The surviving boxes of photo albums and fragile glass plates the negatives were recorded on were finally stored in the basement of a Parisian apartment building, and the family was worried about them getting damaged The United States Library of Congress purchased the material from Prokudin-Gorsky's heirs in 1948 for $3500–$5000 on the initiative of a researcher inquiring into their whereabouts24 The library counted 1,902 negatives and 710 album prints without corresponding negatives in the collection27

Digital color renderingedit

Simple, unretouched color composite of Alim Khan, emir of Bukhara, 1911 At right, the original triple negative on glass, shown here in positive form Prokudin-Gorsky photographed the upper, middle and lower images through blue, green and red filters "Digichromatography" version

Due to the very specialized and labor-intensive processes required to make photographic color prints from the negatives, only about a hundred of the images were used in exhibits, books and scholarly articles during the half-century after the Library of Congress acquired them4 Their widest exposure was in the 1980 coffee table book Photographs for the Tsar: The Pioneering Color Photography of Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii Commissioned by Tsar Nicholas II,28 in which the color images are combined yellow, magenta and cyan ink-on-paper halftones mass-produced with a multicolor printing press in the usual way29

It was only with the advent of digital image processing that multiple images could be quickly and easily combined into one30 The Library of Congress undertook a project in 2000 to make digital scans of all the photographic material received from Prokudin-Gorsky's heirs and contracted with the photographer Walter Frankhauser to combine the monochrome negatives into color images31 He created 122 color renderings using a method he called digichromatography and commented that each image took him around six to seven hours to align, clean and color-correct32 In 2001, the Library of Congress produced an exhibition from these, The Empire That Was Russia: The Prokudin-Gorskii Photographic Record Recreated33 The photographs have since been the subject of many other exhibitions in the area where Prokudin-Gorsky took his photos343536373839

In 2004, the Library of Congress contracted with computer scientist Blaise Agüera y Arcas to produce an automated color composite of each of the 1,902 negatives from the high-resolution digital images of the glass-plate negatives He applied algorithms to compensate for the differences between the exposures and prepared color composites of all the negatives in the collection12 As the library offers the high-resolution images of the negatives freely on the Internet, many others have since created their own color representations of the photos,40 and they have become a favorite testbed for computer scientists41


Some of Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky's photographs, digitally processed, made available by the Library of Congress

See alsoedit

  • Albert Kahn, a patron of photography who funded photographers to travel around the world recording color images and cine film of diverse ethnic societies between 1909 and 1931
  • Ansel Adams, American black and white photographer who was commissioned by a number of organizations to document the American West


  1. ^ Photographer to the Tsar: Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii Library of Congress Retrieved 13 August 2006
  2. ^ Tatarnikova, Annette 2006-06-16 "Tsarskiy fotograf" in Russian 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Garanina, Svetlana 2003 "Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorsky Biography" PDF 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Adamson, Jeremy; Zinkham, Helena 2002 "The Prokudin-Gorskii Legacy: Color Photographs of the Russian Empire, 1905-1915" PDF Comma International Council on Archives 3–4 Archives and Archival Issues of Russia: 107–143 ISBN 3-598-01357-4 
  5. ^ a b c The chronology at Prokudin-Gorskyorg accessed 26 September 2012 reports six weeks of study with Miethe in 1902 Other accounts give the year as 1889, but a primary source for that extremely early date is not apparent and it does not accord with the circa 1889 biographical details of either man The major English-language source reporting 1889 Adamson and Zinkham, p 108 describes Miethe as "A brilliant young professor at the Charlottenburg Technische Hochschule" and states footnote, same page that "While in Berlin, Prokudin-Gorskii is said to have given technical courses in photochemistry and spectrum analysis at the Technische Hochschule", which evidences confusion of the facts somewhere along the line: biographies of Miethe all agree that he, not Prokudin-Gorsky, was the professor of photochemistry and spectroanalysis at the Königlich Technischen Hochschule Royal Technical University in Berlin, a post he accepted by invitation in 1899 after the sudden death 17 December 1898 of its previous longtime occupant, Hermann Wilhelm Vogel, the discoverer of dye sensitization and himself a color photography experimenter It was apparently Miethe's first teaching position and the beginning of his involvement with color photography Until then he had been employed by optical firms such as Voigtländer but was already a notable author, journal editor and inventor in the field of black-and-white photography
  6. ^ Kington, Miles 2001-09-25 "What's the Russian for: Say Cheese" London: The Independent 2001-09-25 Retrieved 2010-05-23 
  7. ^ a b "Prokudin-Gorsky's Color Photographs of Tolstoy: in Tolstoy Studies Journal" University of Toronto 
  8. ^ Dikovitskaya, Margaret 2007 "Central Asia in Early Photographs: Russian Colonial Attitudes and Visual Culture" PDF  Slavic Eurasian Studies, no 14: Empire, Islam, and Politics in Central Eurasia Sapporo: Slavic Research Center
  9. ^ Garanina, S P 1999 "Delo Kantselyarii Soveta Ministrov o priobretenii v kaznoo kollektsii fotograficheskih snimkov dostoprimechatel'nostey Rossii S M Prokoodina-Gorskogo, 1910—1912 gg"  Fundamental Digital Library of Russian Literature and Folklore in Russian
  10. ^ "Interview with Orlando Figes, presenter of a BBC documentary about Gorsky" BBC Four 
  11. ^ a b Coe, Brian, Colour Photography: The First Hundred Years 1840-1940, Ash & Grant, 1978 Also published in the US, this excellent and amply-illustrated overview of the history of color photography before Kodachrome nevertheless, like other books on the subject, includes a few wrong dates and repeats entrenched but demonstrably erroneous conventional wisdom about the color sensitivity of pre-1906 photographic materials
  12. ^ a b c Blaise Agüera y Arcas September 28, 2004 "Reconstructing Prokudin-Gorskii's Color Photography in Software" Library of Congress Archived from the original on 2012-03-22  Regarding exposure times, although the author states Figure 1 that "each exposure" in the example appears to have taken "upward of 20 seconds", it is plain from the animated pair of images that, as is more clearly expressed at the start of the same sentence, most of the moon's motion occurred between the exposures; the actual exposures account for only a minor fraction of that time Various causes for an unusual delay or atypically slow operation of the camera's plate-shifting mechanism may be imagined The moon is effectively invisible in the blue-filtered exposure, in which the sky appears as if white, so the author must necessarily be extrapolating a total time based on the other two exposures
  13. ^ Simple "warts and all" color composites of all the Library of Congress plates are available at Prokudin-Gorskyorg accessed 26 September 2012, often accompanied by cleaned-up versions with only overall adjustments to color balance and contrast and manual retouching to remove spots or repair damage, traditional procedures not usually regarded as crossing over the line into historical revisionism
  14. ^ Professor Dr Miethe's Dreifarben-Camera retrieved 12 October 2012 features several photographs of the 9 x 24 cm model and a more detailed description of its operation, along with an abundance of related information The Miethe-Bermpohl Dreifarbenkamera "three-color camera" should not be confused with the much later Bermpohl Naturfarbenkamera "natural color camera", a very different "one-shot" type that simultaneously exposed three separate plates and was manufactured from 1929 until circa 1950
  15. ^ British patent 185,161, issued in 1922, and US patent 1,456,427, issued in 1923
  16. ^ Wagner, Jens 2006 "Die additive Dreifarbenfotografie nach Adolf Miethe" Text in German only The Bermpohl chromoscope and projector are shown in contemporary line engravings on pages 22 and 23 of the first section of this scholarly thesis A Miethe-Bermpohl camera and a Miethe-Goerz projector are shown in detailed photographs on pages 1 through 7 of the color illustration section Examples of Miethe's color photographs, some possibly as early as 1902, can be found in the same section
  17. ^ Garanina, S 1970 "LNTolstoy na tsvyetnom foto" Nauka i Zhizn in Russian
  18. ^ Prokudin-Gorskyorg chronology Retrieved 26 September 2012 "October 13, 1906: At a meeting of the 5th section of the Imperial Russian Technological Society, Prokudin-Gorsky reports on his trip to the Lumière Brothers in Lyons, manufacturers of photographic plates, and demonstrates slides he had made using the Autochrome method"
  19. ^ "Spisok 416: naslyediye S M Prokoodina-Gorskogo" Hrami Rossii in Russian
  20. ^ Prokudin-Gorskyorg forum page 10 retrieved 26 September 2012, text in Russian only shows twenty different examples All are apparently glass-bound lantern slides, with at least one in the 325-inch-square British standard format Some were made from negatives now in the Library of Congress, some from lost negatives previously known only from the albums of small black-and-white prints Prokudin-Gorsky routinely made from one of the three elements Some are still life arrangements of unknown provenance, possibly from the 1920s, and two are circa 1935 portraits of his children He appears to have used at least two different processes In one category of specimens, all except the cyan layer has badly faded, typically contracting and splitting as well This indicates both the use of unstable dyes and an assemblage of layers somewhat like that in the circa 1900 Sanger-Shepherd process, in which a stable cyan-toned image in an emulsion on glass was laminated with magenta and yellow dye images on very thin sheets of chemically unstable celluloid The splitting is evocative of an earlier Lumière process that incorporated alternating layers of dissimilar materials Another category of specimens shows neither drastic differential fading nor splitting One slide in this latter category bears a labelthat explicitly credits a Prokudin-Gorsky process The basic principle involved had been patented by Louis Ducos du Hauron in 1868 Other inventors later patented an array of specific implementations, variations and improvements, but though it sometimes produced excellent results, this kind of process was just too expensively labor-intensive to be practical for the commercial production of color slides
  21. ^ Dennis, Nadia Tsvyeta ooshyedshyego mira in Russian
  22. ^ a b "The Prokudin-Gorskii Photographic Record Recreated: The Empire That Was Russia - Ethnic Diversity" Library of Congress Retrieved 10 May 2013 
  23. ^ "The Prokudin-Gorskii Photographic Record Recreated: The Empire That Was Russia - Exhibition Home" Library of Congress Retrieved 10 May 2013 
  24. ^ a b c d Minachin, Victor 2003 "The Splendors of Russia Collection" in the Library of Congress "Restavrator-M" Restoration Center
  25. ^ Kostinsky, Alexander 2005-01-11 Rossiya nachala XX vyeka v fotografiyah Syergyeya Prokoodina-Gorskogo i tsifroviye tyehnologii Radio Svoboda in Russian
  26. ^ Muir, Robin 2001-06-24 "By appointment to the tsar" The Independent on Sunday pp 24–25 Tantalisingly, he hid a dozen or so color plates of the Romanovs but never disclosed where most likely in St Petersburg They may yet surface 
  27. ^ Robb, Andrew May 2001 "Albums, Photos, Glass Plate Negatives" Conservation Corner - Library of Congress Information Bulletin, May 2001 - Vol 60, No 5
  28. ^ Allshouse, Robert H, ed 1980 Photographs for the Tsar: The Pioneering Color Photography of Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii Commissioned by Tsar Nicholas II London: Sidgwick & Jackson ISBN 0-283-98678-6 
  29. ^ Goldsmith, Arthur 1980 In Photographs for the Tsar London: Sidgwick & Jackson
  30. ^ Hubička, Jan 2008 Modern reproductions of photographs by Prokudin-Gorskij
  31. ^ Digitizing the Collection Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Online Catalog - Prokudin-Gorskii Collection
  32. ^ Austen, Ian 2001-06-14 "Colors of a Lost Empire Are Reborn, Digitally" The New York Times
  33. ^ All Exhibitions at the Library of Congress
  34. ^ Library of Congress Exhibition of Russian Photographs Opens in St Petersburg on April 12, 2003 Library of Congress
  35. ^ Osipov, Georgy 2003 "Miracles of the Tsar's Photographer" at the Wayback Machine archived November 12, 2003 The New Times
  36. ^ Teterin, Igor 2005-06-03 "Kakoy ti bila, Rossiya!" at the Wayback Machine archived November 21, 2007 Pärnu Express in Russian
  37. ^ "Rossiya: vzglyad chyeryez stolyetiye" at the Wayback Machine archived November 21, 2007 Pärnu Express, 28042006 in Russian
  38. ^ "Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorsky A Selection from the Collection 'The Splendors of Russia in Natural Color'—Color Photographs from the Years 1905–1916'" Šechtl & Voseček Museum of Photography, 2006
  39. ^ "Exhibition of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii’s at TBC Bank Places History in Full Color" US Embassy Georgia, January 18, 2007
  40. ^ "Color Photography Method" Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Online Catalog - Prokudin-Gorskii Collection
  41. ^ Girvan, Ray 2005 "The color of the past" Scientific Computing World, July/August 2005
  42. ^ "Tipy Dagestana" Library of Congress Retrieved 10 May 2013 

External linksedit

  • Illustrated biography of S M Prokudin-Gorsky 2011
  • Biography and Photo collection of Prokudin-Gorskii at Runiversru
  • One hundred of Prokudin-Gorsky's colour images in one pdf - from the Spektator Magazine
  • The Empire That Was Russia: The Prokudin-Gorskii Photographic Record Recreated – Library of Congress exhibit
  • Russia in Bloom Цвет Нации - 2013 documentary by Leonid Parfenov with English subtitles
  • Prokudin-Gorskii site at the Museums of Russia – Federal Agency on Press and Mass Communications
  • Russian database with all the Prokudin-Gorskii photos, including those not yet restored
  • Site with all the photos in high as well as medium resolution
  • +60 restorated images by Alex Gridenko using digichromatography
  • The Russian empire reveals its true colours in London

sergei prokudin-gorsky photographs, sergey prokudin-gorsky, sergey prokudin-gorsky library of congress, sergey prokudin-gorsky photos, sergey prokudin-gorsky tolstoy

Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky Information about

Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky

  • user icon

    Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky beatiful post thanks!


Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky
Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky
Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky viewing the topic.
Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky what, Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky who, Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

Random Posts

La Porte, Indiana

La Porte, Indiana

La Porte French for "The Door" is a city in LaPorte County, Indiana, United States, of which it is t...
Fernando Montes de Oca Fencing Hall

Fernando Montes de Oca Fencing Hall

The Fernando Montes de Oca Fencing Hall is an indoor sports venue located in the Magdalena Mixhuca S...
My Everything (The Grace song)

My Everything (The Grace song)

"My Everything" was Grace's 3rd single under the SM Entertainment, released on November 6, 2006 Unli...
Turkish Straits

Turkish Straits

The Turkish Straits Turkish: Türk Boğazları are a series of internationally significant waterways in...