Mon . 19 Aug 2019
TR | RU | UK | KK | BE |

Serbian historiography

serbian historiography define, serbian historiography of the american
Serbian historiography Serbian: Srpska istoriografija refers to the historiography methodology of history studies of the Serb people since the founding of Serbian statehood The development can be divided into four main stages: traditional historiography, Ruvarac's critical school, Communist–Marxist legacy, and the renewed Serbian national movement1


  • 1 Modern Serbian historiography
    • 11 Post communist Serbian historiography 1980s-present
  • 2 Themes
    • 21 Byzantium
    • 22 Vlachs
    • 23 Croats: Catholicisation
    • 24 Medieval Bosnian Church
    • 25 Bosniaks: Origins and conversion to Islam
    • 26 Sandžak
    • 27 Spread of Islam in Serbia and Balkans
    • 28 The Patriarchate of Peć
    • 29 Independence struggle from Ottoman Empire
    • 210 The Mountain Wreath
    • 211 Greater Serbia and Pan-Slavism
    • 212 Macedonians: Ethnogenesis
    • 213 Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and World War One
    • 214 Interwar Yugoslavia and Yugoslavism
    • 215 Chetniks
    • 216 World War Two Serbian population casualties
    • 217 Ustaša and Independent State of Croatia
    • 218 The Holocaust
    • 219 The Vatican and Catholicism
    • 220 Battle of Kosovo
    • 221 The Great Migration
    • 222 Albanian presence in Balkans and Kosovo
    • 223 Balli Kombëtar and Bujan conference
    • 224 Communist Albania
    • 225 Western Powers
    • 226 Ethnic conflict and Minorities
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References
  • 5 Sources
  • 6 Further reading

Modern Serbian historiographyedit

Jovan Rajić 1726–1801 was the forerunner to modern Serbian historiography,2 and has been compared to the importance of Nikolay Karamzin to Russian historiography3 The foundations of Serbian ecclesiastical historiography were laid by Bishop Nikodim Milaš 1845–19154 Ilarion Ruvarac 1832–1905 is regarded the founder of the critical school of Serbian historiography56 Ruvarac's school clashed with that of Panta Srećković 1834–19037 Serbian historiography was mostly focused on national issues during the Society of Serbian Scholarship and Serbian Learned Society 1841–18868

Serbian ecclesiastical historiography has coincided with nationalist perspectives contained within secular Serbian historiography4 Orthodox Church tradition and early Serbian historiography through folk poetry based upon the Battle of Kosovo assisted in overcoming gaps and linking the old with the then new Serbian state910 The nation and religion were closely connected within nationalist Serbian history in the early 19th century11 Patriotic historiography viewed the Serbs as liberators from foreign oppression of their South Slavic brothers in the Balkan Wars and World War I Serbian nationalists claim that in Communist historiography, Serbs were transformed into oppressors, the Chetniks of World War II branded as collaborationist as the Ustaše, and the massacres of Serbs were downplayed12 In post-WW2 Yugoslavia, Serbian historians claimed that histories of individual peoples no longer existed after unification in contrast to Slovene and Croat historians who claimed otherwise13 From the 1950s onward intellectual activities came less under state control and by the 1960s debates about the Second World reappeared culminating with more works in the 1980s14

Post communist Serbian historiography 1980s-presentedit

See also: Serbian nationalism, Yugoslav Wars, and Propaganda during the Yugoslav Wars

Throughout the post war era, though Tito denounced nationalist sentiments in historiography, those trends continued with Croat and Serbian academics at times accusing each other of misrepresenting each other's histories, especially in relation to the Croat-Nazi alliance15 Communist historiography was challenged in the 1980s and a rehabilitation of Serbian nationalism by Serbian historians began1617 Historians and other members of the intelligentsia belonging to the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts SANU and the Writers Association played a significant role in the explanation of the new historical narrative181920 The process of writing a "new Serbian history" paralleled alongside the emerging ethno-nationalist mobilisation of Serbs with the objective of reorganising the Yugoslav federation17 Four factors and sources that influenced the "new history" include:17

  1. Serbian ethno-nationalist ideology
  2. Nationalism that originated from Church historiography and the Orthodox Church
  3. Serbian émigré propaganda and myths
  4. Genocide and Holocaust studies due to Serbs identifying with Jews as crimes against Serbs were viewed alongside the Holocaust as being equivalent

Using ideas and concepts from Holocaust historiography, Serbian historians alongside church leaders applied it to World War Two Yugoslavia and equated the Serbs with Jews and Croats with Nazi Germans21 In relation to World War Two Serb casualties, during the Milošević era Serbian historians and the regime saw it as important to secure support from prominent Yugoslav Jewish individuals and organisations regarding the idea relating to a common Serbian-Jewish martyrdom22 As such, a few Yugoslav Jews gave their assistance for the new Serbian historiography22 In the 1980s, Serbian historians produced many works about the forced conversion during World War Two of Serbs to Catholicism in Ustaša Croatia23 These debates between historians openly became nationalistic and also entered the wider media16 Historians in Belgrade during the 1980s who had close government connections often went on television during the evenings to discuss invented or real details about the Ustaša genocide against Serbs during World War Two24 These discussions had the effect of being theoretical deductions that served as a precursor for the eventual ethno-demographic engineering that took place in Croatia24 During this time some well known Serbian historians such as Vasilije Krestić and Milorad Ekmečić were at the vanguard of the nationalist movement25 In 1986, Vasilije Krestić alongside historian Radovan Samardžić were members of a commission that later drafted the Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts which referred to a "genocide" being committed against Serbs by Albanians and Croats in Yugoslavia2526

During the 1980s and 1990s, the main focus of nationalist history was Kosovo27 Serbian academics such as Dušan Bataković obtained generous support for publishing nationalist works which were translated into other languages and other Serbian historians Dimitrije Bogdanović, Radovan Samardžić and Atanasije Urošević also produced similar works on Kosovo27 Though some Serb historians did not promote nationalistic views, the practice of history within Serbia has been influenced by limitations placed upon it from state-sponsored nationalism27 The focus of research for Serbian historians has been restricted to the Serbian experience of life under "the Turks" and only a few Serb historians can read Ottoman documents27 As such, Hapsburg documents have been used though Serbian historians sideline the corpus of local and important evidence based in Ottoman documents when compiling national history28

Works from Serbian historians and ethnographers that were academically obsolete and politically biased aiming to justify Serb expansionism were republished a century later with some works going for a second edition in the 1990s29 These works were praised by Serb historians because they viewed them as almost being primary sources due to their archaic style and closeness to the described events and hence promoted their republishing during the 1990s29 Whereas the works and ideas of these 19th and early 20th century nationalistically oriented Serbian historians were expanded upon by writers on the Serbian literary scene during the 1990s30 When the wars broke out during the 1990s, most Serbian historians focused on suffering that Serbs had undergone in previous conflicts to emphasize past Serbian victimisation, ethnic cleansing of Serbs and sexual assaults against Serbian women31 Serbian historians defended the actions of the regime during the dissolution of Yugoslavia18

Few Serbian scholars have critically engaged with literature of Serbian historiography that is based heavily on myth32 Of those that have include historian Miodrag Popović who stated that Serbian history in the Ottoman Empire is separate from myths contained in Serbian folk poetry33 Popović added that myths about the "Turkish yoke" and "slavery under the Turks" were a product of later times meant to mobilize Serbians during the nation-state building process which is why the myth contains so much anti-Islamic and anti-Turkish views33 Serbian historiography in contemporary times still remains politically sensitive34 The fall of the Milošević regime 2000 heralded divisions within the intelligentsia about coming to terms with the recent wartime past and moral responsibility in Serbia35 Amongst liberal historians their efforts have been concentrated on refuting nationalist discourses prominent in media and public views and the failure of embracing modernity by Serbian society35 Their views about the dissolution of Yugoslavia are based upon the wider polarization and mass debate contained in Serbian public debate regarding the past and as replies to nationalist discourses of historians affiliated with the nationalist-patriotic group35


Serbian historiography 19th century - present has through its historians developed various histriographical positions, views and conclusions on subjects and topics that relates to the study of Serbian history and the Serb people Of those are:


In Serbian historiography there is a divergence of positions regarding Byzantine cultural influence on Serbia with some Serbian historians supporting the view that there was and others seeing it as being minimal36


Serbian historians have contended that Vlachs in Dalmatia during the early Middle Ages were thoroughly Slavonicised and hence to be really Serbs37

Croats: Catholicisationedit

The rivalry between Prince Branimir ruled 879–887 who chose Catholic Rome over Orthodox Constantinople and Duke Sedeslav ruled 878–879 who favoured Constantinople ended in execution of the latter by the former38 In Serbian church historiography, Sedeslav is viewed as a martyr of the Orthodox church and Branimir's rise to power is interpreted as disastrous that divided two Slavic peoples who both until that time leaned toward the Orthodox church38 King Zvonimir ruled 1075–1089 a figure who consolidated Catholicism and rejected Orthodoxy in Croatia is viewed by Serbian Church historians as an enemy of the Orthodox Christian religion38

Medieval Bosnian Churchedit

Serbian historians contend that the medieval Bosnian Church was part of the Orthodox church and not heretical39

Bosniaks: Origins and conversion to Islamedit

Serbian historiography emphasizes an Orthodox Serbian origin for the Bosniaks who are interpreted as relinquishing ties to that ethno-religious heritage after converting to Islam and later denying it by refusing to accept a Serbian identity4041 While the battle of Kosovo 1389 against Muslim Ottoman forces has been taken out of its context within Serbian historiography42 That event has been utilized by placing it within the wider Serbian political objective of vilifying Bosnian Muslims by associating their conversion to Islam with the identity of the Ottoman invader42 Bosnian Muslims within the bulk of Serbian nationalist historiography are presented as the descendants of the mentally ill, lazy, slaves, greedy landlords, prisoners, thieves, outcasts or as Serbs who confused and defeated chose to follow their enemies religion43


Differing from a Bosnian nationalist perspective, nationalist Serbian historians have asserted that Sandžak has 420,000 people of which 60% are Bosniaks and the region encompasses an area of 8,201 km244

Spread of Islam in Serbia and Balkansedit

Serbian historiography mythologized the emergence of Islam within the Balkans as the outcome of coercion and the devşirme system instead of it being a genuine and complex phenomenon4546

The Patriarchate of Pećedit

Serbian history often emphasizes that the Patriarchate of Peć was reestablished 1557 by Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, a grand vizier from Bosnia who by origin was of Orthodox Christian heritage and thus claimed as a Serb in Serbian history, while a relative of his became the first patriarch47

Independence struggle from Ottoman Empireedit

In some Serbian historiography, the Orthodox clergy is ascribed as having played a leading military and ideological role during the First Serbian Uprising 1804–181348 Adopting mainly the perspective of Eastern European traditions, Serbian historiography views the national struggle as having been attained through liberation from what has been referred to as "five centuries of" the "Turkish yoke"4950 Serbian historiography views the Serbs as being at the vanguard of protecting Balkan Christians51

The Mountain Wreathedit

The Mountain Wreath, a 19th-century poem written by Petar Petrović Njegoš containing a narrative about Slavic Muslims refusing to revert to Christianity followed up with their massacre is viewed within Serbian historiography as part of the ideology of national liberation from Ottoman rule52 Critical Serbian historiography views the event to be mythical as Montenegrin tribal customs did not allow for fellow clan members to be killed53

Greater Serbia and Pan-Slavismedit

Serbian historiography holds the view that Russians and Serbs have a special relationship expressed through Slavophilism and pan-Slavism and that both peoples are part of a larger Slavic "brotherhood"51 In the early 20th century, Serbian historiography in geography textbooks had a tendency to serving the political goal of Greater Serbia by viewing the bulk of Balkan Slavic lands as inhabited by Serbs, until the Yugoslav idea gradually shifted those views54

Patriotic Serbian historiography portrays the Serbs during the Balkan Wars 1912–1913 and World War One 1914–1918 as liberating fellow South Slavs from foreign oppressors55 Serbian historians have viewed the Balkan wars 1912–1913 as mainly a Serbian event of state expansion56 Regarding the post-World War One unification of Montenegro with Serbia, Serbian alongside Montenegrin historians attempted to critically analyze the events though were hampered by political concerns and ideological bias of the Yugoslav era57 Only in recent times have a few Serbian and Montenegrin historians with less ideological baggage attempted to engage with the events57

Macedonians: Ethnogenesisedit

Serbian historians assert that during the period of the Balkan Wars, a Macedonian nation was nonexistent and that local Slavs were either Serbian or Bulgarian5859

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and World War Oneedit

The assassin Gavrilo Princip who in Sarajevo 1914 killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand is viewed by Serbian historians as a Serbian hero60

A majority of Serbian historians view Austria-Hungary and Germany Central Powers as instigating the First World War while the actions of Mlada Bosna are presented as being autonomous and not dependent on Serbian government circles61 The role of the Russian Empire and the position it took on the eve of war is portrayed favorably within Serbian historiography61

Interwar Yugoslavia and Yugoslavismedit

Some Serbian historians are of the view that the ideology of Yugoslavism and the creation of the banovinas diminished Serbian identity62 Others Serbian historians have suggested the opposite in that the banovinas strengthened Yugoslavia by making Serbs the dominant group within 6 of them62 The actions of Serbs within interwar Yugoslavia are portrayed in nationalist Serbian historiography as defensive and to safeguard the state from Croatian secessionism that is blamed for state's unstable interwar parliamentary system63


Chetniks along with the Ustaša were vilified by Tito era historiography within Yugoslavia64 In the 1980s, Serbian historians initiated the process of reexamining the narrative of how World War Two was told in Yugoslavia which was accompanied by the rehabilitation of Chetnik leader Draža Mihailović6566 Monographs relating to Mihailović and the Chetnik movement were produced by some younger historians who were ideologically close to it toward the end of the 1990s67 Being preoccupied with the era, Serbian historians have looked to vindicate Chetnik history by portraying Chetniks as righteous freedom fighters battling the Nazis while removing from history books the ambiguous alliances with the Italians and Germans68646970 Whereas the crimes committed by Chetniks against Croats and Muslims in Serbian historiography are overall "cloaked in silence"71

World War Two Serbian population casualtiesedit

The topic of World War Two Serbian population casualties has been strongly debated since the conclusion of World War Two7273 Within Serbian historiography, documenting Nazi and Ustaša crimes against the Roma, Jews and Serbs was undertaken as a priority71 For Serbian historians, the Independent State of Croatia was responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of Serbs throughout rural areas and in concentration camps such as Jasenovac7273 During the 1980s and 1990s, the issue of World War Two civilian casualties were contested and subject to manipulation between Croats and Serbs147475 Serbian historians alongside politicians exaggerated often the figures of those killed at Jasenovac to spread fear among the wider Serbian populace during the breakup of Yugoslavia75

Ustaša and Independent State of Croatiaedit

Historiography within Tito's Yugoslavia had presented the Ustaša Independent State of Croatia NDH as an imposition of Nazi invaders and a deviation within the history of the Croats17 By the middle of the 1980s this portrayal was challenged by Serbian historians17 They contended that the Independent State of Croatia was a well organised entity that inflicted genocide upon the Serbs that had been in the making for several centuries in Croatia17

The Holocaustedit

During the Milošević era, Serbian history was falsified to obscure the role Serbian collaborators Milan Nedić and Dimitrije Ljotić played in cleansing Serbia's Jewish community, killing them in the country or deporting them to Eastern European concentration camps22

The Vatican and Catholicismedit

During the 1980s, the Vatican became a focus for Serbian historiography76 The popes were depicted as anti-Serbian, as being intrinsic to the demise of interwar Yugoslavia and taking part in the genocide against Serbians within the pro-Axis Independent State of Croatia76 The new Serbian historiography of the 1980s of which secular and church historians contributed highlighted the role that religion played in being as the main source of Serbian-Croatian enmities17 The Catholic Church was portrayed as the main carrier of hatred that inspired the idea of genocide against the Serbs during World War Two17 In the works of Serbian historians, the Vatican is linked to a recurring Croatian plot to destroy Serbia14 Using analogies from the Vatican's historic role in the Balkans, Serbian historians asserted that the Vatican did not understand the implications of the Muslim-Albanian awakening in Kosovo and other parts of Yugoslavia76

Battle of Kosovoedit

In Serbian historiography Prince Lazar, a figure who assembled Serb forces at the battle of Kosovo to fight the Ottomans is portrayed as a blessed martyr77 Amidst the Kosovo Battle anniversary of the late 1980s, two Serbian historians independently concluded after critical historiographical analysis that Vuk Branković during the Kosovo battle was not a traitor and this finding is considered an important milestone for Serbian historiography78 Of the Serbian historians who have accepted Serbian mythology, the battle of Kosovo is viewed as the main battle overriding all other battles and for some of them it is viewed as a historical idea assisting the nation to connect with a real historical past798081 Serbian historians until the late 1940s were still portraying the Kosovo battle as a "victory" of the Serbs over the Ottoman Turks82 Serbian historiography contends that from the Battle of Kosovo 1389 onward, Serbians have undergone centuries of oppression by the Muslim-Ottoman Empire and they have fought to restore their medieval Serbian empire8384 The Kosovo myth still influences Serbian historiography as Serbian martyrdom and suffering alongside conflict and incompatibility between Christianity and Islam are emphasized83 The battle of Kosovo is for Serbian historiography the historical event that legitimizes the claim of the Serbian character of Kosovo85

The Great Migrationedit

Serbs crossing the river for Austrian territory, 1690

Some Serbian historians contend that a document issued on 6 April 1690 by the Austrian emperor referred to an "invitation" for Serbs to resettle in Hungary86 Serbian settlement on the Pannonian plain is viewed within Serbian historiography as the outcome of a cataclysmic exodus from Kosovo that occurred in 1690 called the Great Migration Velika Seoba after Kosovan Serbs rebelled and joined incoming Hapsburg forces battling the Ottomans8788 Serbian historians regard the migration as being undertaken on a huge scale89

Albanian presence in Balkans and Kosovoedit

Serbian historians have often dealt with Albanian history in an narrowly nationalist approach90 Serbian historians dispute the argument that Albanians are the descendants of ancient Illyrians and being established in the region prior to the Slavs, while contending that the presence of Albanians in the Balkans starts from the 11th century91 The majority of contemporary Serbian historiography portrays a situation of conflictual relations between Serbians and Albanians after they converted to Islam83 Scholarship on Kosovo has also encompassed Ottoman provincial surveys that has revealed the 15th century ethnic composition of some Kosovo settlements, however like their Albanian counterparts, Serbian historians using these records have made much of them while proving little92 Serbian historiography does not support the Albanian argument that the progenitors of Kosovan Albanians were native to Kosovo93 Instead within Serbian historiography the presence of Kosovan Albanians and their eventual predominance in the region has been attributed by nationalist Serbian historians94 to a number of causes Of those either the arrival and northward spread of Albanians from Albania after the Ottoman conquest, the Austro-Ottoman war that led to the northward migration of Serbs in 1690 with replacement by Albanians and or the assimilation of local Serbians into Albanians93959697949899100 Serbian national history views the Albanian presence in Kosovo apart from being recent immigrants as one that strongly supported and reinforced Ottoman rule meant to dislodge Serbs and to enforce Muslim control88

Many Serbian historians reject that Albanian family clans during the Ottoman period assisted to safeguard and preserve Orthodox monasteries and churches in Kosovo101 Instead they contend that Albanians held imperial Ottoman military and administrative employment and were to blame as much as the Turks for the turmoil that forced many Serbs in 1690 and 1734 to migrate northward101

Balli Kombëtar and Bujan conferenceedit

Among Serbian historians focusing on World War Two, they interpret the Albanian Balli Kombëtar movement as either "anti-Yugoslav" or "counter revolutionary"102 While the Bujan Conference 1943 is viewed as contravening the anti-fascist struggle due to Albanian communists insisting on the allocation of Kosovo to Albania at the war's conclusion102 Though Tito was against such unification, in the 1980s Serbian historians held the Bujan meeting against him103

Communist Albaniaedit

Within Yugoslavia until the 1990s, Serbian historiography celebrated the aid given to Albania by Yugoslavia after the Second World War104

Western Powersedit

Serbian historiography holds the view that Western powers have always targeted Serbia51

Ethnic conflict and Minoritiesedit

From the first Serbian Uprising 1804 onward, Serb historians have viewed the Balkans as a region of perpetual ethnic conflicts of whom Balkan peoples have been anti-Serb for centuries105 Within Serbian historiography, "minority" groups have been portrayed as unreliable with "natural" tendencies for rebellion, treachery and deceit106 Within Serbian historiography references to Muslim treachery and Albanian irredentism were made that coincided with new campaigns to expel people from Macedonia and Kosovo to Turkey107

See alsoedit

  • Encyclopedia of Serbian Historiography 1997
  • Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts
  • Historiography of Albania


  1. ^ Woolf 2014, p 825
  2. ^ Lucian Boia 1 January 1989 Great Historians from Antiquity to 1800: An International Dictionary Greenwood Press p 343 ISBN 978-0-313-24517-6 
  3. ^ University of Colorado 1956 Journal of Central European Affairs 16 Boulder, Colorado: University of Colorado p 23 
  4. ^ a b Perica 2002, p 72
  5. ^ Serbian Studies 45 North American Society for Serbian Studies 1986 p 180 Among these historians he points out the significance of Jovan Rajic 1726–1801 and Ilarion Ruvarac 1832–1905 The former indeed "stood on the threshold between the enlightenment and the age of romanticism" and later, as the principal representative and founder of the critical school of Serbian historiography, took "the first relatively objective look at  
  6. ^ Matthew Anthony Fitzsimons; Alfred George Pundt; Charles E Nowell 1967 The development of historiography Kennikat Press p 348 Ruvarac 1832–1905 belonged to the rigidly scientific, relentlessly analytic school of historiography which held that the  the school of Ruvarac triumphed in the end, and by the early 1880's Serbian historiography was definitely founded in  
  7. ^ Philip Lawrence Harriman; Massimo Salvadori 1953 Contemporary Social Science Stackpole Company p 255 
  8. ^ Paul Stephenson 20 December 2010 The Byzantine World Routledge pp 482– ISBN 978-1-136-72787-0 
  9. ^ Velikonja, Mitja 2003 Religious separation and political intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina Texas A&M University Press p 95 ISBN 978-1-60344-724-9 
  10. ^ Bennett, Matthew 2004 "The Kosovo Liberation Army" In Bennett, Matthew; Latawski, Paul Exile armies Springer p 160 ISBN 978-0-230-52245-9 
  11. ^ Deringil, Selim 2012 Conversion and apostasy in the late Ottoman Empire Cambridge University Press p 6 ISBN 978-1-139-51048-6 
  12. ^ A Pavkovic 8 January 2016 The Fragmentation of Yugoslavia: Nationalism and War in the Balkans Springer pp 88– ISBN 978-0-230-28584-2 
  13. ^ Klemenčič, Matjaž; Žagar, Mitja 2004 The former Yugoslavia's diverse peoples: A reference sourcebook Abc-Clio p 99 ISBN 978-1-57607-294-3 
  14. ^ a b c Cox, John K 2002 The history of Serbia Greenwood Publishing Group p 118 ISBN 978-0-313-31290-8 
  15. ^ Kolander, Patricia 1999 ""Malevolent Partnership of Blatant Opportunism" Croat-German Relations, 1919–1941" In Bullivant, Keith; Giles, Geoffrey J; Pape, Walter Germany and Eastern Europe: Cultural identities and cultural differences Rodopi p 267 ISBN 978-90-420-0678-2 
  16. ^ a b Brunnbauer, Ulf 2011 "Historical Writing in the Balkans" In Woolf, Daniel; Schneider, Axel The Oxford History of Historical Writing: Volume 5: Historical Writing Since 1945 Oxford University Press p 364 ISBN 978-0-19-922599-6 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Perica 2002, p 147
  18. ^ a b Bieber & Galijaš 2016, p 117
  19. ^ Ramet 2002, p 19
  20. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P 2006 The three Yugoslavias: State-building and legitimation, 1918–2005 Indiana University Press p 322 ISBN 978-0-253-34656-8 
  21. ^ Perica 2002, p 150
  22. ^ a b c Perica 2002, p 151
  23. ^ Aleksov 2007, p 106
  24. ^ a b Stojanović 2011, p 221
  25. ^ a b Armour, Ian D 2014 Apple of Discord: The" Hungarian Factor" in Austro-Serbian Relations, 1867–1881 Purdue University Press pp xvii ISBN 978-1-55753-683-9 
  26. ^ Ramet 2002, pp 19–20
  27. ^ a b c d Anscombe 2006, p 761 "Even if some Serbian historians have not promoted a consciously nationalistic view, history as practised in Serbia has observed the constraints imposed by state-sponsored nationalism As suggested in Part I, nation-building states in former Ottoman territories have used their influence over education, support for and dissemination of research, and the media to draw implicit, and sometimes explicit, boundaries for acceptable historical interpretation Minor variations on the established narrative may be allowed, but even less overtly ideological historians remain chroniclers of the nation As in most other post-Ottoman states, few historians in Serbia are able to read Ottoman texts: the focus of their research is confined to Serbs and Serbian lands under 'the Turks' In the 1980s and 1990s, overtly nationalist Serbian scholars such as Dušan Bataković received the most generous support for the publication of their work 2 The focus of much of such nationalist history was Kosovo Footnote: 2 Bataković wrote a series of nationalist works on Kosovo, of which several The Kosovo Chronicles Belgrade, 1992 and Kosovo, la spirals de la haine Paris, 1993 have been translated into other languages Many similar works have not been translated: eg, Kosovo i Metohija u srpskoj istoriji, ed R Samardžic Belgrade, 1989; D Bogdanović, Knjiga o Kosovu Belgrade, 1985; and A Urošević, Etnički procesi na Kosovu tokom turske vladavine Belgrade, 1987"
  28. ^ Anscombe 2006, p 771 "Malcolm, like the historians of Serbia and Yugoslavia who ignore his findings, overlooks the most valuable indigenous evidence Unwillingness to consider Ottoman evidence when constructing national history is exemplified by the Serbian historians who commemorated the three-hundredth anniversary of the great migration by compiling a compendium of previously unpublished references to Serbs in contemporary documents, all of them Habsburg in origin and none of them Ottoman"
  29. ^ a b Aleksov 2007, p 96 "The works of these historians and ethnographers, while scholarly obsolete and politically biased in their aim to justify Serbian expansionism, have nevertheless been revived almost a century later, and many of them went to a second edition in the 1990s Serbian historians who praised them and advocated their reprinting in the 1990s treated them as if they were almost primary sources because of their archaic style and alleged proximity to events they described"
  30. ^ Hašimbegović, Elma; Gavrilović, Darko 2011 "Ethnogensis Myths" In Bosković, Aleksandar; Dević, Ana; Hašimbegović, Elma; Ljubojević, Ana; Velikonja, Mitja Political Myths in the Former Yugoslavia and Successor States Institute for Historical Justice and Reconciliation p 21 ISBN 978-90-8979-067-5 
  31. ^ Bokovoy, Melissa 2012 "Gender and Reframing of World War I in Serbia during the 1980s and 1990s" In Regulska, Joanna; Smith, Bonnie G Women and gender in postwar Europe: From cold war to European Union Routledge p 183 ISBN 978-1-136-45480-6 
  32. ^ Karić 2011, p 739 "In all fairness, it should be mentioned that there are a few Serbian scholars who have unmasked those works of Serbian historiography that relied heavily upon myth"
  33. ^ a b Karić 2011, p 739
  34. ^ Feldman, Matthew; Turda, Marius 2008 "'Clerical Fascism' in Interwar Europe: An introduction" In Feldman, Matthew; Turda, Marius; Georgescu, Tudor Clerical fascism in interwar Europe Routledge p 36 ISBN 978-1-317-96899-3 
  35. ^ a b c Bieber & Galijaš 2016, p 120
  36. ^ Mishkova, Diana 2015 "The afterlife of a Commonwealth: Narratives of Byzantium in the National Historiographies of Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania" In Daskalov, Roumen; Vezenkov, Alexander Entangled Histories of the Balkans-Volume Three: Shared Pasts, Disputed Legacies Brill p 200 ISBN 978-90-04-29036-5 
  37. ^ Judah, Tim 2000 The Serbs: History, myth, and the destruction of Yugoslavia Yale University Press p 11 ISBN 978-0-300-08507-5 
  38. ^ a b c Perica 2002, p 65
  39. ^ Bringa, Tone 1995 Being Muslim the Bosnian way: Identity and community in a central Bosnian village Princeton University Press p 15 ISBN 978-0-691-00175-3 
  40. ^ Bieber, Florian 2006 Post-War Bosnia: Ethnicity, Inequality and Public Sector Governance Palgrave Macmillan p 5 ISBN 978-0-230-50137-9 
  41. ^ Mekić, Sejad 2016 A Muslim Reformist in Communist Yugoslavia: The Life and Thought of Husein Đozo Routledge p 17 ISBN 978-0-230-50137-9 
  42. ^ a b Keles, Fethi 2008 "Bridging the macro with the micro in conflict analysis: Structural simplification as a heuristic device" In Fleishman, Rachel; O'Leary, Rosemary; Gerard, Catherine Pushing the Boundaries: New Frontiers in Conflict Resolution and Collaboration Emerald Group Publishing p 65 ISBN 978-1-84855-291-3 
  43. ^ Alibašić, Ahmet 2014 "Bosnia and Herzegovina" In Cesari, Jocelyne The Oxford Handbook of European Islam Oxford: Oxford University Press p 431 ISBN 978-0-19-102640-9 
  44. ^ Rüma, Inan 2013 "Turkish Foreign Policy towards the Balkans: Overestimated change within underestimated continuity" In Oktav, Özden Zeynep Turkey in the 21st century: Quest for a new foreign policy Ashgate Publishing p 146 ISBN 978-1-317-00598-8 
  45. ^ Ingrao, Charles W 2009 Confronting the Yugoslav Controversies: A Scholars' Initiative Purdue University Press p 110 ISBN 978-1-55753-533-7 
  46. ^ Aleksov 2007, p 100
  47. ^ Anscombe 2006, p 765 "Serbian history makes much of the fact that the re-establishment of the patriarchate of Peć in 1557 was attributable to Sokollu Mehmed Pasha, by origin an Orthodox Christian from Bosnia and thus claimed as a member of the nation in Serbian history, and grand vizier late in the reign of Sultan Suleyman I 'The Magnificent' and early in that of his successor, Selim II One of Mehmed's relatives became the first patriarch"
  48. ^ Lampe, John R 1995 "Nationalism in Former Yugoslavia" In Latawski, Paul Contemporary Nationalism in East Central Europe St Martin's Press p 147 ISBN 978-1-349-23809-5 
  49. ^ Omerika, Armina 2015 "Competing national Orientalisms: The cases of Belgrade and Sarajevo" In Kemper, Michael; Kalinovsky, Artemy M Reassessing Orientalism: Interlocking Orientologies During the Cold War Routledge p 154 ISBN 978-1-317-63670-0 
  50. ^ Spasić, Ivana 2015 "The trauma of Kosovo in Serbian national narratives" In Eyerman, Ronald; Alexander, Jeffrey C; Breese, Elizabeth Butler Narrating trauma: on the impact of collective suffering Routledge p 84 ISBN 978-1-317-25569-7 
  51. ^ a b c Gilberg, Trond 2000 ""Yugoslav" Nationalism at the End of the Twentieth Century" In Suryadinata, Leo Nationalism and globalization: East and West Institute of Southeast Asian Studies p 7 ISBN 978-981-230-073-7 
  52. ^ Karpat, Kemal H 2001 The politicization of Islam: Reconstructing identity, state, faith, and community in the late Ottoman state Oxford University Press p 179 ISBN 978-0-19-513618-0 
  53. ^ Vujačić, Veljko 2015 Nationalism, Myth, and the State in Russia and Serbia Cambridge University Press p 135 ISBN 978-1-107-07408-8 
  54. ^ Segesten, Anamaria Dutceac 2011 Myth, identity, and conflict: A comparative analysis of Romanian and Serbian textbooks Lexington Books p 48 ISBN 978-1-109-19838-6 
  55. ^ Pavković, Aleksandar 2000 The fragmentation of Yugoslavia: Nationalism and war in the Balkans Palgrave Macmillan p 88 ISBN 978-0-230-28584-2 
  56. ^ Troch, Pieter 2015 Nationalism and Yugoslavia: Education, Yugoslavism and the Balkans before World War II Pieter Troch p 91 ISBN 978-0-85773-768-7 
  57. ^ a b Pavlović, Srdja 2008 Balkan Anschluss: The annexation of Montenegro and the creation of the common South Slavic state Purdue University Press p 13 ISBN 978-1-55753-465-1 
  58. ^ Despot, Igor 2012 The Balkan Wars in the Eyes of the Warring Parties: Perceptions and Interpretations iUniverse p 243 ISBN 978-1-4759-4703-8 
  59. ^ Detrez, Raymond 2003 "The right to self determination and Secession in Yugoslavia: A Hornets Nest of Inconsistencies" In Coppieters, Bruno; Sakwa, Richard Contextualizing secession: Normative studies in comparative perspective Oxford University Press p 125 ISBN 978-0-19-925871-0 
  60. ^ Stojanović 2011, p 230
  61. ^ a b Petrovskaya, Oksana 2015 "The origins of the First World War in the modern historiography of Post Communist Eastern Europe" In Biagini, Antonello; Motta, Giovanna The First World War: Analysis and Interpretation, Volume 1 Cambridge Scholars Publishing p 37 ISBN 978-1-4438-8186-9 
  62. ^ a b Nielsen, Christian Axboe 2014 Making Yugoslavs: Identity in King Aleksandar's Yugoslavia University of Toronto Press p 107 ISBN 978-1-4426-2750-5 
  63. ^ Biondich, Mark 2008 "The historical legacy: The evolution of interwar Yugoslav Politics, 1918–1941" In Cohen, Lenard J; Dragović-Soso, Jasna State collapse in South-Eastern Europe: New perspectives on Yugoslavia's disintegration Purdue University Press p 45 ISBN 978-1-55753-460-6 
  64. ^ a b Ramet, Sabrina P 2005 Serbia since 1989: Politics and Society under Milopevic and After University of Washington Press p 129 ISBN 978-0-295-80207-7 
  65. ^ Emmert, Thomas; Ingrao, Charles 2013 Conflict in Southeastern Europe at the End of the Twentieth Century: A" Scholars' Initiative" Assesses Some of the Controversies Routledge p 42 ISBN 978-1-317-97016-3 
  66. ^ Drapac, Vesna 2014 "Catholic resistance and collaboration in the Second World War: From Master Narrative to Practical Application" In Rutar, Sabine Beyond the Balkans: Towards an Inclusive History of Southeastern Europe LIT Verlag p 282 ISBN 978-3-643-10658-2 
  67. ^ Stojanović, Dubravka 2011 Ramet, Sabrina; Listhaug, Ole, eds Serbia and the Serbs in World War Two Springer p 249 ISBN 978-0-230-34781-6 
  68. ^ MacDonald, David Bruce 2003 Balkan Holocausts: Serbian and Croatian victim centred propaganda and the war in Yugoslavia Manchester University Press p 138 ISBN 978-0-7190-6467-8 
  69. ^ Subotic, Jelena 2015 "The Mythologizing of Communist Violence" In Stan, Lavinia; Nedelsky, Nadya Post-communist Transitional Justice: Lessons from Twenty-five Years of Experience Cambridge University Press p 201 ISBN 978-1-107-06556-7 
  70. ^ Finney, Patrick 2010 "Land of Ghosts: Memories of War in the Balkans" In Buckley, John; Kassimeris, George The Ashgate research companion to modern warfare Routledge p 353 ISBN 978-1-4094-9953-4 
  71. ^ a b Bećirević 2014, p 46
  72. ^ a b Tomasevich, Jozo 2001 War and Revolution in Yugoslavia: 1941–1945 Stanford University Press p 718 ISBN 978-0-8047-7924-1 
  73. ^ a b Watson, Rubie S 1999 Memory, History and Opposition: Under State Socialism James Currey Publishers p 177 ISBN 978-0-85255-902-4 
  74. ^ Lukic, Reneo; Lynch, Allen 1996 Europe from the Balkans to the Urals: The disintegration of Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union Oxford University Press p 35 ISBN 978-0-19-829200-5 
  75. ^ a b Stone, Dan 2010 "Genocide and Memory" In Bloxham, Donald; Moses, A Dirk The Oxford handbook of Genocide Studies Oxford University Press p 109 ISBN 978-0-19-161361-6 
  76. ^ a b c Perica, Vjekoslav 2006 "The politics of ambivalence: Europeanization and the Serbian Orthodox Chruch" In Byrnes, Timothy A; Katzenstein, Peter J Religion in an expanding Europe Cambridge University Press p 181 ISBN 978-1-139-45094-2 
  77. ^ Galbreath, David J 2007 The organization for security and co-operation in Europe OSCE Routledge p 83 ISBN 978-1-134-13353-6 
  78. ^ Popov, Nebojša 2000 The road to war in Serbia: Trauma and catharsis Central European University Press p 205 ISBN 978-963-9116-56-6 
  79. ^ Karić 2011, p 739 "While for the Ottoman the battle of Kosovo was one among many battles, for Serbian historians who accepted Serbian mythology, this battle is the key battle, the battle of all battles"
  80. ^ Daskalovski, Židas 2003 "Claims to Kosovo: Nationalism and Self-determination" In Bieber, Florian; Daskalovski, Židas Understanding the war in Kosovo Psychology Press p 13 ISBN 978-0-7146-5391-4 
  81. ^ Fleming, Colin M 2016 Clausewitz's Timeless Trinity: A Framework For Modern War Routledge p 87 ISBN 978-1-317-16522-4 
  82. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P 1998 Eastern Europe: Politics, culture, and society since 1939 Indiana University Press p 173 ISBN 978-0-253-21256-6 
  83. ^ a b c Duijzings, Gerlachlus 2000 Religion and the politics of identity in Kosovo Hurst & Company pp 8–9 ISBN 978-1-85065-431-5 
  84. ^ Gort, Jerald D; Jansen, Henry; Vroom, Hendrik M 2002 Religion, conflict and reconciliation: Multifaith ideals and realities Rodopi p 345 ISBN 978-90-420-1166-3 
  85. ^ Hjärpe, Jan 2013 "Historiography and Islamic Vocabulary in War and Peace: A Memento for conflict resolution in the Muslim World" In Fry, Douglas P; Björkqvist, Kaj Cultural variation in conflict resolution: Alternatives to violence Psychology Press p 116 ISBN 978-1-135-80883-9 
  86. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P 2005 Thinking about Yugoslavia: Scholarly debates about the Yugoslav breakup and the wars in Bosnia and Kosovo Cambridge University Press p 206 ISBN 978-0-521-61690-4 
  87. ^ Anzulovic, Branimir 1999 Heavenly Serbia: From myth to genocide NYU Press p 70 ISBN 978-0-8147-0671-8 
  88. ^ a b Anscombe 2006, pp 769–770 "According to Serbian national history, Kosovo's Serbs rose up to join the advancing Habsburgs in the struggle to drive out the Ottomans When the Habsburg army withdrew, 37,000 Serbian families left with them, or fled ahead of the reconquering Ottoman horde, in answer to an 'invitation' from the Emperor Leopold I to settle in Hungary Their places in Kosovo were taken by Albanians, deported or encouraged to migrate from northern Albania by the Ottomans to ensure the permanent displacement of the rebellious Serbs Catholics among the Albanians soon converted to Islam and the settlers became staunch supporters of the Ottoman regime Thus, Kosovo's Albanians are relatively recent immigrants, settled by the state to displace Serbs and to buttress Muslim rule"
  89. ^ Malcolm, Noel 1998 Kosovo: A short history London: Macmillan p 140 ISBN 978-0-333-66612-8 
  90. ^ Magaš, Branka 1993 The destruction of Yugoslavia: Tracking the break-up 1980–92 Verso p 47 ISBN 978-0-86091-593-5 
  91. ^ Muhić, Maja 2011 "The paradox of the Solution: The impact of the Kosovo question on Macedonia" In Hudson, Robert; Bowman, Glenn After Yugoslavia: Identities and politics within the successor states Palgrave Macmillan p 81 ISBN 978-0-230-20131-6 
  92. ^ Anscombe 2006, p 785 "While the ethnic roots of some settlements can be determined from the Ottoman records, Serbian and Albanian historians have at times read too much into them in their running dispute over the ethnic history of early Ottoman Kosovo Their attempts to use early Ottoman provincial surveys tahrir defterleri to gauge the ethnic make-up of the population in the fifteenth century have proved little"
  93. ^ a b Banac, Ivo 1988 The national question in Yugoslavia: Origins, history, politics Cornell University Press pp 294–295 ISBN 978-0-8014-9493-2 
  94. ^ a b Janssens, Jelle 2015 State-building in Kosovo A plural policing perspective Maklu p 50 ISBN 978-90-466-0749-7 
  95. ^ Winnifrith, Tom 1992 Perspectives on Albania Springer p 8 ISBN 978-1-349-22050-2 
  96. ^ Pavlakovic, Vjeran; Ramet, Sabrina Petra 2004 "Albanian and Serb rivalry in Kosovo: Realist and universalist perspectives on sovereignty" In Bahcheli, Tozun; Bartmann, Barry; Srebrnik, Henry De facto states: The quest for sovereignty Routledge p 79 ISBN 978-1-135-77121-8 
  97. ^ Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian 2007 The Balkans: a post-communist history Routledge p 516 ISBN 978-1-134-58328-7 
  98. ^ Schwartz, Stephen 2000 Kosovo: Background to a war Anthem Press p 45 ISBN 978-1-898855-56-9 
  99. ^ Janjetović, Zoran 2000 "From Foe to Friend and back Albanians in Serbian History Textbooks 1918–2000" Balkanologie 4 1/2  para 7
  100. ^ Malcolm, Noel 2006 "Is it true that Albanians in Kosova are not Albanians, but descendants from Albanianized Serbs" In Di Lellio, Anna The case for Kosova: Passage to independence Anthem Press p 20 ISBN 978-0-85728-712-0 
  101. ^ a b Udovički, Jasminka 2000 "The bonds and the fault lines" In Udovički, Jasminka; Ridgeway, James Burn this house: The making and unmaking of Yugoslavia Duke University Press p 29 ISBN 978-0-8223-2590-1 
  102. ^ a b Ramet, Sabrina P 2001 Buckley, Mary; Cummings, Sally, eds Kosovo: Perceptions of war and its aftermath A&C Black p 32 ISBN 978-0-8264-5669-4 
  103. ^ Lampe, John R 2000 Yugoslavia as history: Twice there was a country Cambridge University Press p 228 ISBN 978-0-521-77401-7 
  104. ^ Çeku, Ethem 2015 Kosovo and Diplomacy since World War II: Yugoslavia, Albania and the Path to Kosovan Independence IBTauris p 42 ISBN 978-0-85773-953-7 
  105. ^ Karić 2011, p 738
  106. ^ Blumi, Isa 2012 Foundations of Modernity: Human Agency and the Imperial State Routledge p 190 ISBN 978-0-415-88464-8 
  107. ^ Blumi, Isa 2013 Ottoman refugees, 1878–1939: Migration in a Post-Imperial World A&C Black p 230 ISBN 978-1-4725-1538-4 


  • Aleksov, Bojan 2007 "Adamant and treacherous: Serbian historians on religious conversions" In Washburn, Dennis; Reinhart, Kevin Converting Cultures: Religion, Ideology and Transformations of Modernity Brill ISBN 978-90-04-15822-1 
  • Anscombe, Frederick 2006 "The Ottoman Empire in Recent International Politics - II: The Case of Kosovo" The International History Review 28 4: 758–793 
  • Bieber, Florian; Galijaš, Armina 2016 Debating the End of Yugoslavia Routledge ISBN 978-1-317-15424-2 
  • Bećirević, Edina 2014 Genocide on the Drina River Yale University Press ISBN 978-0-300-19258-2 
  • Karić, Enes 2011 "Islam in the Balkans" In El Hareir, Idris; Mbaye, Ravane The Spread of Islam Throughout the World UNESCO Publishing ISBN 978-92-3-104153-2 
  • Perica, Vjekoslav 2002 Balkan idols: Religion and nationalism in Yugoslav states Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-517429-8 
  • Ramet, Sabrina Petra 2002 Balkan Babel: The Disintegration Of Yugoslavia From The Death Of Tito To The Fall Of Milošević Westview Press ISBN 978-0-8133-3905-4 
  • Stojanović, Dubravka 2011 "Value changes in the interpretations of history in Serbia" In Listhaug, Ola Civic and uncivic values: Serbia in the post-Milošević era Central European University Press ISBN 978-963-9776-98-2 
  • Woolf, DR 2014 A Global Encyclopedia of Historical Writing Routledge pp 825– ISBN 978-1-134-81998-0 

Further readingedit

  • Sima M Ćirković; Rade Mihaljčić 1997 Encyclopedia of Serbian historiography Knowledge 
  • Mihaljčić, Rade; Ćirković, Sima, eds 1997 Енциклопедија српске историографије Belgrade 
  • Mile Bjelajac; Gordana Krivokapić-Jović 2011 Prilozi iz naučne kritike - srpska istoriografija i svet: uticaj jugoslovenske krize na stranu i domaću istoriografiju Institut za noviju istoriju Srbije ISBN 978-86-7005-093-8 
  • Veselinović, Rajko Srpska istoriografija u XVIII veku Serbian historiography in the 18th century 
  • Jovanović, Miroslav; Radić, Radivoj 2009 Криза историје: српска историографија и друштвени изазови краја 20 и почетка 21 века Удружење за друштвену историју ISBN 978-86-83227-27-3 
  • Мирјана Д Стефановић 2009 Лексикон српског просветитељства Службени Гласник ISBN 978-86-519-0203-4 
  • Pavić, Milorad 1983 Рађање нове српске књижевности: историја српске књижевности барока, класицизма и предромантизма Српска књижевна задруга 
  • Pavle Popović; Miroslav Pantić 2002 Književna kritika - književna istoriografija Zavod za udžbenike i nastavna sredstva 
  • Radojčić, Nikola 1929 Moderna srpska istoriografija 
  • Desnica, Gojko 1978 Istorija Srbije u delima književnih velikana, 1804–1907 Stara Pazova: Novinsko izdavačka ustanova Naša reč 
  • Aleksić, Dragan 2010 "Izdajnici ili rodoljubi Paralelna slika o kolaboraciji u srpskoj istoriografiji u zemlji i emigraciji" Istorija 20 veka 2: 163–174 
  • Györe, Zoltán 2006 "Serbian Historiography and the Modern State" Public power in Europe: studies in historical transformations Pisa: Edizioni Plus ISBN 88-8492-401-4 
  • Ković, Miloš 2012 "Imagining the Serbs revisionism in the recent historiography of nineteenth-century Serbian history" PDF Balcanica 43: 325–346 
  • Milićević, Nataša; Marković, Predrag 2007 "Srpska istoriografija u vreme tranzicije: Borba za legitimitet" Istorija 20 veka: 145–167 
  • Jovanović, Miroslav 2010 "Savremena srpska istoriografija: karakteristike i trendovi" Istorija 20 veka: 183–192 
  • Jovanović, Miroslav 2006 "Kriza i istorija: Društvena kriza i istorijska svest u Srbiji početkom 21 veka" Godišnjak za društvenu istoriju 1–3: 89–113 
  • Miljković, Maja 2000 "Beogradski istoriografski krugovi i problem racionalnog sagledavanja fenomena nacionalnog interesa na kraju 20 veka" Prilozi 29: 329–344 
  • Pavlović, M "Југословенско-српска историографија о Косову" Историја 20: 179–188 

serbian historiography define, serbian historiography example, serbian historiography of reconstruction, serbian historiography of the american

Serbian historiography Information about

Serbian historiography

  • user icon

    Serbian historiography beatiful post thanks!


Serbian historiography
Serbian historiography
Serbian historiography viewing the topic.
Serbian historiography what, Serbian historiography who, Serbian historiography explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

Random Posts

Amorphous metal

Amorphous metal

An amorphous metal also known as metallic glass or glassy metal is a solid metallic material, usuall...
Arthur Lake (bishop)

Arthur Lake (bishop)

Arthur Lake September 1569 – 4 May 1626 was Bishop of Bath and Wells and a translator of the King Ja...
John Hawkins (author)

John Hawkins (author)

Sir John Hawkins 29 March 1719 – 21 May 1789 was an English author and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson a...
McDonnell Douglas MD-12

McDonnell Douglas MD-12

The McDonnell Douglas MD-12 was an aircraft design study undertaken by the McDonnell Douglas company...

Random Posts (



Wargame (from the English. "Wargame" - Russian. "War game") - a kind of strategi
Entelop (district)

Entelop (district)

Antelope County is the county located in the state of Nebraska of the United States with a populatio
Arnheim, Karl Karlovich

Arnheim, Karl Karlovich

Karl Karlovich Arnheim 1840–1888 - Russian educator Brother of the Doctor of Medicine, one of the fi


Chertanka is a toponym in Russia: The Chertanka tributary of the Coma is a river in the Krasnoyarsk