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Semiconductor characterization techniques

semiconductor characterization techniques in literature, semiconductor characterization techniques for nanotechnology
The purpose of this article is to summarize the methods used to experimentally characterize a semiconductor material or device PN junction, Schottky diode, etc Some examples of semiconductor quantities that could be characterized include depletion width, carrier concentration, optical generation and recombination rate, carrier lifetimes, defect concentration, trap states, etc

These quantities fall into three categories when it comes to characterization methods: 1 Electrical Characterization 2 Optical Characterization 3 Physical/Chemical Characterization


  • 1 Electrical Characterization Techniques
  • 2 Optical Characterization
  • 3 Physical/Chemical Characterization
  • 4 Future Characterization Methods
  • 5 References

Electrical Characterization Techniques

Electrical Characterization can be used to determine resistivity, carrier concentration, mobility, contact resistance, barrier height, depletion width, oxide charge, interface states, carrier lifetimes, and deep level impurities

Two-Point Probe, Four-Point Probe, Differential Hall Effect, Capacitance-Voltage Profiling, DLTS, Electron beam-induced current, and DLCP

Optical Characterization

Optical Characterization may include microscopy, ellipsometry, photoluminescence, transmission spectroscopy, absorption spectroscopy, raman spectroscopy, reflectance modulation, cathodoluminescence, to name a few

Physical/Chemical Characterization

Electron Beam Techniques - SEM, TEM, AES, EMP, EELS

Ion Beam Techniques - Sputtering, SIMS, RBS

X-Ray Techniques - XRF, XPS, XRD, X-ray topography Neutron Activation Analysis NAA Chemical Etching

Future Characterization Methods

Many of these techniques have been perfected for silicon making it the most studied semiconductor material This is a result of silicon's affordability and prominent use in computing As other fields such as power electronics, LED devices, photovoltaics, etc begin to come of age, characterization of a variety of alternative materials will continue to increase including organics Many of the existing characterization methods will need to be adapted to accommodate the peculiarities of these new materials


Schroder, Dieter K Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization 3rd Ed John Wiley and Sons, Inc Hoboken, New Jersey, 2006

McGuire, Gary E Characterization of Semiconductor Materials: Principles and Methods Vol 1 Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, New Jersey, 1989

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