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Semantic reasoner

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A semantic reasoner, reasoning engine, rules engine, or simply a reasoner, is a piece of software able to infer logical consequences from a set of asserted facts or axioms The notion of a semantic reasoner generalizes that of an inference engine, by providing a richer set of mechanisms to work with The inference rules are commonly specified by means of an ontology language, and often a description logic language Many reasoners use first-order predicate logic to perform reasoning; inference commonly proceeds by forward chaining and backward chaining There are also examples of probabilistic reasoners, including Pei Wang's non-axiomatic reasoning system, and probabilistic logic networks


  • 1 List of semantic reasoners
    • 11 Commercial software
    • 12 Free to use Closed Source
    • 13 Free software open source
    • 14 Applications that contain reasoners
  • 2 See also
  • 3 References
  • 4 External links

List of semantic reasoners

Existing semantic reasoners and related software:

Commercial software

  • Bossam software, an RETE-based rule engine with native supports for reasoning over OWL ontologies, SWRL rules, and RuleML rules
  • RacerPro

Free to use Closed Source

  • Cyc inference engine, a forward and backward chaining inference engine with numerous specialized modules for high-order logic ResearchCyc OpenCyc
  • KAON2 is an infrastructure for managing OWL-DL, SWRL, and F-Logic ontologies
  • Internet Business Logic software—A reasoner designed for end-user app authors Automatically generates and runs complex networked SQL queries Explains the results in English at the end-user level

Free software open source

  • Cwm, a forward-chaining reasoner used for querying, checking, transforming and filtering information Its core language is RDF, extended to include rules, and it uses RDF/XML or N3 serializations as required CWM, W3C software license
  • Drools, a forward-chaining inference-based rules engine which uses an enhanced implementation of the Rete algorithm Drools, Apache license 20
  • FaCT++ Reasoner, a tableaux-based reasoner for expressive Description Logics DL, covering OWL and OWL 2 but lacking support for key constraints and some datatypes Written in C++ LGPL
  • Flora-2, an object-oriented, rule-based knowledge-representation and reasoning system Flora-2, Apache 20
  • Gandalf, open-source decision rules engine on PHP GPL
  • Prova, a semantic-web rule engine which supports data integration via SPARQL queries and type systems RDFS, OWL ontologies as type system Prova, GNU GPL v2, commercial option available
  • Pellet, OWL 2 DL reasoner AGPL, commercial option available
  • HermiT, OWL 2 DL reasoner LGPL
  • ELK, OWL 2 EL reasoner Apache 2
  • CEL, OWL 2 EL reasoner Apache 2
  • jcel, OWL 2 EL reasoner LGPL / Apache 2
  • RACER, OWL 2 DL reasoner BSD-3
  • Jena framework, an open-source semantic-web framework for Java which includes a number of different semantic-reasoning modules Apache Jena, Apache License 20
  • RDFSharp, an open source semantic web framework for NET which includes a semantic extension implementing RDFS/OWL-DL/custom rule-based reasoning RDFSharp, Apache License 20

Applications that contain reasoners

  • Apache Marmotta includes a rule-based reasoner in its KiWi triple store
  • dot15926 Editor—Ontology management framework initially designed for engineering ontology standard ISO 15926 Allows Python rule scripting and pattern-based data analysis Supports extensions

See also

  • Software portal
  • Business rules engine
  • Expert systems
  • Doxastic logic
  • Method of analytic tableaux
  • Logic Programming


  1. ^ Wang, Pei "Grounded on Experience Semantics for intelligence, Tech report 96" http://wwwcogsciindianaedu/ CRCC Retrieved 13 April 2015  External link in |website= help
  2. ^ Goertzel, Ben; Iklé, Matthew; Goertzel, Izabela Freire; Heljakka, Ari 2008 Probabilistic Logic Networks: A Comprehensive Framework for Uncertain Inference Springer Science & Business Media p 42 ISBN 9780387768724 

External links

  • OWL 2 Reasoners listed on W3C SW Working Group homepage
  • SPARQL Query Language for RDF
  • Introduction to Description Logics DL course by Enrico Franconi, Faculty of Computer Science, Free University of Bolzano, Italy
  • Inference using OWL 20 Semantics by Craig Trim IBM
  • Marko Luther, Thorsten Liebig, Sebastian Böhm, Olaf Noppens: Who the Heck Is the Father of Bob ESWC 2009: 66-80
  • Jurgen Bock, Peter Haase, Qiu Ji, Raphael Volz Benchmarking OWL Reasoners In ARea2008 - Workshop on Advancing Reasoning on the Web: Scalability and Commonsense June 2008
  • Tom Gardiner, Ian Horrocks, Dmitry Tsarkov Automated Benchmarking of Description Logic Reasoners Description Logics Workshop 2006
  • OpenRuleBench Senlin Liang, Paul Fodor, Hui Wan, Michael Kifer OpenRuleBench: An Analysis of the Performance of Rule Engines 2009 Latest benchmarks at OpenRuleBench website

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