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Semantic network

semantic network, semantic network example
A semantic network, or frame network, is a network that represents semantic relations between concepts This is often used as a form of knowledge representation It is a directed or undirected graph consisting of vertices, which represent concepts, and edges, which represent semantic relations between concepts

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Basics of semantic networks
  • 3 Examples
    • 31 Semantic Net in Lisp
    • 32 WordNet
    • 33 Other examples
  • 4 Software tools
  • 5 See also
    • 51 Other examples
  • 6 References
  • 7 Further reading
  • 8 External links

History

Example of a semantic network

"Semantic Nets" were first invented for computers by Richard H Richens of the Cambridge Language Research Unit in 1956 as an "interlingua" for machine translation of natural languages

They were independently developed by Robert F Simmons, Sheldon Klein, Karen McConologue, M Ross Quillian and others at System Development Corporation in the early 1960s as part of the SYNTHEX project It later featured prominently in the work of Allan M Collins and Quillian eg, Collins and Quillian; Collins and Loftus Quillian

In the late 1980s, two Netherlands universities, Groningen and Twente, jointly began a project called Knowledge Graphs, which are semantic networks but with the added constraint that edges are restricted to be from a limited set of possible relations, to facilitate algebras on the graph In the subsequent decades, the distinction between semantic networks and knowledge graphs was blurred In 2012, Google gave their knowledge graph the name Knowledge Graph

Basics of semantic networks

A semantic network is used when one has knowledge that is best understood as a set of concepts that are related to one another

Most semantic networks are cognitively based They also consist of arcs and nodes which can be organized into a taxonomic hierarchy Semantic networks contributed ideas of spreading activation, inheritance, and nodes as proto-objects

Examples

Semantic Net in Lisp

Using an association list

defun database 'canaryis-a bird color yellow size smallpenguin is-a bird movement swimbirdis-a vertebrate has-part wings reproduction egg-laying

You would use the "assoc" function with a key of "canary" to extract all the information about the "canary" type

WordNet

Main article:WordNet

An example of a semantic network is WordNet, a lexical database of English It groups English words into sets of synonyms called synsets, provides short, general definitions, and records the various semantic relations between these synonym sets Some of the most common semantic relations defined are meronymy A is part of B, ie B has A as a part of itself, holonymy B is part of A, ie A has B as a part of itself, hyponymy or troponymy A is subordinate of B; A is kind of B, hypernymy A is superordinate of B, synonymy A denotes the same as B and antonymy A denotes the opposite of B

WordNet properties have been studied from a network theory perspective and compared to other semantic networks created from Roget's Thesaurus and word association tasks From this perspective the three of them are a small world structure

Other examples

It is also possible to represent logical descriptions using semantic networks such as the existential graphs of Charles Sanders Peirce or the related conceptual graphs of John F Sowa These have expressive power equal to or exceeding standard first-order predicate logic Unlike WordNet or other lexical or browsing networks, semantic networks using these representations can be used for reliable automated logical deduction Some automated reasoners exploit the graph-theoretic features of the networks during processing

Other examples of semantic networks are Gellish models Gellish English with its Gellish English dictionary, is a formal language that is defined as a network of relations between concepts and names of concepts Gellish English is a formal subset of natural English, just as Gellish Dutch is a formal subset of Dutch, whereas multiple languages share the same concepts Other Gellish networks consist of knowledge models and information models that are expressed in the Gellish language A Gellish network is a network of binary relations between things Each relation in the network is an expression of a fact that is classified by a relation type Each relation type itself is a concept that is defined in the Gellish language dictionary Each related thing is either a concept or an individual thing that is classified by a concept The definitions of concepts are created in the form of definition models definition networks that together form a Gellish Dictionary A Gellish network can be documented in a Gellish database and is computer interpretable

SciCrunch is a collaboratively edited knowledge base for scientific resources It provides unambiguous identifiers Research Resource IDentifiers or RRIDs for software, lab tools etc and it also provides options to create links between RRIDs and from communities

Another example of semantic networks, based on category theory, is ologs Here each type is an object, representing a set of things, and each arrow is a morphism, representing a function Commutative diagrams also are prescribed to constrain the semantics

In the social sciences people sometimes use the term semantic network to refer to co-occurrence networks The basic idea is that words that co-occur in a unit of text, eg a sentence, are semantically related to one another Ties based on co-occurrence can then be used to construct semantic networks

Software tools

There are also elaborate types of semantic networks connected with corresponding sets of software tools used for lexical knowledge engineering, like the Semantic Network Processing System SNePS of Stuart C Shapiro or the MultiNet paradigm of Hermann Helbig, especially suited for the semantic representation of natural language expressions and used in several NLP applications

Semantic networks are used in specialized information retrieval tasks, such as plagiarism detection They provide information on hierarchical relations in order to employ semantic compression to reduce language diversity and enable the system to match word meanings, independently from sets of words used

See also

  • Abstract semantic graph
  • Chunking psychology
  • Network diagram
  • Ontology information science
  • Repertory grid
  • Semantic lexicon
  • Semantic neural network
  • SemEval - an ongoing series of evaluations of computational semantic analysis systems
  • Sparse distributed memory
  • Taxonomy general
  • Unified Medical Language System UMLS
  • Word-sense disambiguation WSD

Other examples

  • Cognition Network Technology
  • Lexipedia
  • Open Mind Common Sense OMCS
  • SNOMED CT
  • Universal Networking Language UNL

References

  1. ^ a b John F Sowa 1987 "Semantic Networks" In Stuart C Shapiro Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence Retrieved 2008-04-29 
  2. ^ Robert F Simmons 1963 "Synthetic language behavior" Data Processing Management 5 12:11–18 
  3. ^ Quillian, R A notation for representing conceptual information:An application to semantics and mechanical English para- phrasing SP-1395, System Development Corporation, Santa Monica, 1963
  4. ^ Allan M Collins; M R Quillian 1969 "Retrieval time from semantic memory" Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior 8 2:240–247 doi:101016/S0022-53716980069-1 
  5. ^ Allan M Collins; M Ross Quillian 1970 "Does category size affect categorization time" Journal of verbal learning and verbal behavior 9 4:432–438 doi:101016/S0022-53717080084-6 
  6. ^ Allan M Collins; Elizabeth F Loftus 1975 "A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing" Psychological Review 82:407–428 doi:101037/0033-295x826407 
  7. ^ Quillian, M R 1967 Word concepts:A theory and simulation of some basic semantic capabilities Behavioral Science, 125, 410-430
  8. ^ Quillian, M R 1968 Semantic memory Semantic information processing, 227–270
  9. ^ Quillian, M R 1969 "The teachable language comprehender:a simulation program and theory of language" Communications of the ACM 12 8:459–476 doi:101145/363196363214 
  10. ^ Quillian, R Semantic Memory Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1966
  11. ^ Van de Riet, R P 1992 Linguistic Instruments in Knowledge Engineering PDF Elsevier Science Publishers p 98 ISBN 0444883940 
  12. ^ Hulpus, Ioana; Prangnawarat, Narumol 2015 "Path-Based Semantic Relatedness on Linked Data and Its Use to Word and Entity Disambiguation" The Semantic Web - ISWC 2015:14th International Semantic Web Conference, Bethlehem, PA, USA, October 11-15, 2015, Proceedings, Part 1 International Semantic Web Conference 2015 Springer International Publishing p 444 
  13. ^ McCusker, James P; Chastain, Katherine April 2016 "What is a Knowledge Graph" authoreacom Retrieved 15 June 2016 usagehas evolved 
  14. ^ Swigger, Kathleen "Semanticppt" Retrieved 23 March 2011 
  15. ^ Steyvers, M; Tenenbaum, JB 2005 "The Large-Scale Structure of Semantic Networks:Statistical Analyses and a Model of Semantic Growth" Cognitive Science 29 1:41–78 doi:101207/s15516709cog2901_3 
  16. ^ Wouter Van Atteveldt 2008 Semantic Network Analysis:Techniques for Extracting, Representing, and Querying Media Content BookSurge Publishing 
  17. ^ Stuart C Shapiro
  18. ^ Hermann Helbig

Further reading

  • Allen, J and A Frisch 1982 "What's in a Semantic Network" In:Proceedings of the 20th annual meeting of ACL, Toronto, pp 19–27
  • John F Sowa, Alexander Borgida 1991 Principles of Semantic Networks:Explorations in the Representation of Knowledge

External links

  • "Semantic Networks" by John F Sowa
  • "Semantic Link Network" by Hai Zhuge

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