Tue . 19 Aug 2019
TR | RU | UK | KK | BE |


self-organization in nonequilibrium systems, self-organization
Self-organization, also called spontaneous order in the social sciences, is a process where some form of overall order arises from local interactions between parts of an initially disordered system The process is spontaneous, not needing control by any external agent It is often triggered by random fluctuations, amplified by positive feedback The resulting organization is wholly decentralized, distributed over all the components of the system As such, the organization is typically robust and able to survive or self-repair substantial perturbation Chaos theory discusses self-organization in terms of islands of predictability in a sea of chaotic unpredictability

Self-organization occurs in many physical, chemical, biological, robotic, and cognitive systems Examples can be found in crystallization, thermal convection of fluids, chemical oscillation, animal swarming, and artificial and biological neural networks


  • 1 Overview
  • 2 Principles
  • 3 History
  • 4 By field
    • 41 Physics
    • 42 Chemistry
    • 43 Biology
    • 44 Computer science
    • 45 Cybernetics
    • 46 Human society
    • 47 In learning
    • 48 Traffic flow
    • 49 In linguistics
  • 5 Criticism
  • 6 See also
  • 7 Notes
  • 8 References
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links


Self-organization is realized in the physics of non-equilibrium processes, and in chemical reactions, where it is often described as self-assembly The concept has proven useful in biology, from molecular to ecosystem level Cited examples of self-organizing behaviour also appear in the literature of many other disciplines, both in the natural sciences and in the social sciences such as economics or anthropology Self-organization has also been observed in mathematical systems such as cellular automata Self-organization is not to be confused with the related concept of emergence

Self-organization relies on three basic ingredients:

  1. strong dynamical non-linearity, often though not necessarily involving positive and negative feedback
  2. balance of exploitation and exploration
  3. multiple interactions


The cybernetician William Ross Ashby formulated the original principle of self-organization in 1947 It states that any deterministic dynamic system automatically evolves towards a state of equilibrium that can be described in terms of an attractor in a basin of surrounding states Once there, the further evolution of the system is constrained to remain in the attractor This constraint implies a form of mutual dependency or coordination between its constituent components or subsystems In Ashby's terms, each subsystem has adapted to the environment formed by all other subsystems

The cybernetician Heinz von Foerster formulated the principle of "order from noise" in 1960 It notes that self-organization is facilitated by random perturbations "noise" that let the system explore a variety of states in its state space This increases the chance that the system will arrive into the basin of a "strong" or "deep" attractor, from which it then quickly enters the attractor itself The thermodynamicist Ilya Prigogine formulated a similar principle as "order through fluctuations" or "order out of chaos" It is applied in the method of simulated annealing for problem solving and machine learning


Further information: Spontaneous order

The idea that the dynamics of a system can lead to an increase in its organization has a long history The ancient atomists such as Lucretius believed that a designing intelligence is unnecessary to create order in nature, arguing that given enough time and space and matter, order emerges by itself

The philosopher René Descartes presents it hypothetically in the fifth part of his Discourse on Method He elaborated on the idea in his unpublished work The World

Beginning with the 18th century, natural scientists sought to understand the "universal laws of form" in order to explain the observed forms of living organisms Because of its association with Lamarckism, their ideas fell into disrepute until the early 20th century, when D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson attempted to revive them

Sadi Carnot and Rudolf Clausius discovered the Second Law of Thermodynamics in the 19th century It states that total entropy, sometimes understood as disorder, will always increase over time in an isolated system This means that a system cannot spontaneously increase its order, without an external relationship that decreases order elsewhere in the system eg through consuming the low-entropy energy of a battery and diffusing high-entropy heat

The term "self-organizing" was used by Immanuel Kant in his Critique of Judgment, where he argued that teleology is a meaningful concept only if there exists such an entity whose parts or "organs" are simultaneously ends and means Such a system of organs must be able to behave as if it has a mind of its own, that is, it is capable of governing itself

The term "self-organizing" was introduced to contemporary science in 1947 by the psychiatrist and engineer W Ross Ashby It was taken up by the cyberneticians Heinz von Foerster, Gordon Pask, Stafford Beer, and von Foerster organized a conference on "The Principles of Self-Organization" at the University of Illinois' Allerton Park in June, 1960 which led to a series of conferences on Self-Organizing Systems Norbert Wiener took up the idea in the second edition of his Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine 1961

Self-organization as a word and concept was used by those associated with general systems theory in the 1960s, but did not become commonplace in the scientific literature until its adoption by physicists and researchers in the field of complex systems in the 1970s and 1980s After Ilya Prigogine's 1977 Nobel Prize, the thermodynamic concept of self-organization received public attention, and scientific researchers started to migrate from the cybernetic view to the thermodynamic view

By field

Convection cells in a gravity field


The many self-organizing phenomena in physics include phase transitions and spontaneous symmetry breaking such as spontaneous magnetization and crystal growth in classical physics, and the laser, superconductivity and Bose–Einstein condensation in quantum physics It is found in self-organized criticality in dynamical systems, in tribology, in spin foam systems, and in loop quantum gravity


The DNA structure shown schematically at left self-assembles into the structure at right

Self-organization in chemistry includes molecular self-assembly, reaction-diffusion systems and oscillating reactions, autocatalytic networks, liquid crystals, grid complexes, colloidal crystals, self-assembled monolayers, micelles, microphase separation of block copolymers, and Langmuir-Blodgett films


Birds flocking, an example of self-organization in biology Further information: Biological organisation

Self-organization in biology can be observed in spontaneous folding of proteins and other biomacromolecules, formation of lipid bilayer membranes, pattern formation and morphogenesis in developmental biology, the coordination of human movement, social behaviour in insects bees, ants, termites, and mammals, flocking behaviour in birds and fish

The mathematical biologist Stuart Kauffman and other structuralists have suggested that self-organization may play roles alongside natural selection in three areas of evolutionary biology, namely population dynamics, molecular evolution, and morphogenesis However, this does not take into account the essential role of energy in driving biochemical reactions in cells The systems of reactions in any cell are self-catalyzing but not simply self-organizing as they are thermodynamically open systems relying on a continuous input of energy Self-organization is not an alternative to natural selection, but it constrains what evolution can do and provides mechanisms such as the self-assembly of membranes which evolution then exploits

Computer science

Phenomena from mathematics and computer science such as cellular automata, random graphs, and some instances of evolutionary computation and artificial life exhibit features of self-organization In swarm robotics, self-organization is used to produce emergent behavior In particular the theory of random graphs has been used as a justification for self-organization as a general principle of complex systems In the field of multi-agent systems, understanding how to engineer systems that are capable of presenting self-organized behavior is an active research area Optimization algorithms can be considered self-organizing because they aim to find the optimal solution to a problem If the solution is considered as a state of the iterative system, the optimal solution is the selected, converged structure of the system Self-organizing networks include small-world networks and scale-free networks These emerge from bottom-up interactions, unlike top-down hierarchical networks within organizations, which are not self-organizing Cloud computing systems have been argued to be inherently self-organising, but while they have some autonomy, they are not self-managing as they do not have the goal of reducing their own complexity


Main article: Self-organization in cybernetics

Norbert Wiener regarded the automatic serial identification of a black box and its subsequent reproduction as self-organization in cybernetics The importance of phase locking or the "attraction of frequencies", as he called it, is discussed in the 2nd edition of his Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine K Eric Drexler sees self-replication as a key step in nano and universal assembly By contrast, the four concurrently connected galvanometers of W Ross Ashby's Homeostat hunt, when perturbed, to converge on one of many possible stable states Ashby used his state counting measure of variety to describe stable states and produced the "Good Regulator" theorem which requires internal models for self-organized endurance and stability eg Nyquist stability criterion Warren McCulloch proposed "Redundancy of Potential Command" as characteristic of the organization of the brain and human nervous system and the necessary condition for self-organization Heinz von Foerster proposed Redundancy, R=1 − H/Hmax, where H is entropy In essence this states that unused potential communication bandwidth is a measure of self-organization

In the 1970s Stafford Beer considered self-organization necessary for autonomy in persisting and living systems Using Variety analyses he applied his neurophysiologically derived recursive Viable System Model to management It consists of five parts: the monitoring of performance of the survival processes 1, their management by recursive application of regulation 2, homeostatic operational control 3 and development 4 which produce maintenance of identity 5 under environmental perturbation Focus is prioritized by an alerting "algedonic loop" feedback: a sensitivity to both pain and pleasure produced from under-performance or over-performance relative to a standard capability

In the 1990s Gordon Pask argued that von Foerster's H and Hmax were not independent, but interacted via countably infinite recursive concurrent spin processes which he called concepts His strict definition of concept "a procedure to bring about a relation" permitted his theorem "Like concepts repel, unlike concepts attract" to state a general spin-based principle of self-organization His edict, an exclusion principle, "There are No Doppelgangers" means no two concepts can be the same After sufficient time, all concepts attract and coalesce as pink noise The theory applies to all organizationally closed or homeostatic processes that produce enduring and coherent products which evolve, learn and adapt

Human society

Social self-organization in international drug routes Main article: Spontaneous order

The self-organizing behaviour of social animals and the self-organization of simple mathematical structures both suggest that self-organization should be expected in human society Tell-tale signs of self-organization are usually statistical properties shared with self-organizing physical systems Examples such as critical mass, herd behaviour, groupthink and others, abound in sociology, economics, behavioral finance and anthropology

In social theory, the concept of self-referentiality has been introduced as a sociological application of self-organization theory by Niklas Luhmann 1984 For Luhmann the elements of a social system are self-producing communications, ie a communication produces further communications and hence a social system can reproduce itself as long as there is dynamic communication For Luhmann human beings are sensors in the environment of the system Luhmann developed an evolutionary theory of Society and its subsystems, using functional analyses and systems theory

In economics, a market economy is sometimes said to be self-organizing Paul Krugman has written on the role that market self-organization plays in the business cycle in his book "The Self Organizing Economy" Friedrich Hayek coined the term catallaxy to describe a "self-organizing system of voluntary co-operation", in regards to the spontaneous order of the free market economy Neo-classical economists hold that imposing central planning usually makes the self-organized economic system less efficient On the other end of the spectrum, economists consider that market failures are so significant that self-organization produces bad results and that the state should direct production and pricing Most economists adopt an intermediate position and recommend a mixture of market economy and command economy characteristics sometimes called a mixed economy When applied to economics, the concept of self-organization can quickly become ideologically imbued

In learning

Enabling others to "learn how to learn" is often taken to mean instructing them how to submit to being taught Self-organised learning SOL denies that "the expert knows best" or that there is ever "the one best method", insisting instead on "the construction of personally significant, relevant and viable meaning" to be tested experientially by the learner This may be collaborative, and more rewarding personally It is seen as a lifelong process, not limited to specific learning environments home, school, university or under the control of authorities such as parents and professors It needs to be tested, and intermittently revised, through the personal experience of the learner It need not be restricted by either consciousness or language Fritjof Capra argued that it is poorly recognised within psychology and education It may be related to cybernetics as it involves a negative feedback control loop, or to systems theory It can be conducted as a learning conversation or dialogue between learners or within one person

Traffic flow

Main article: Three-phase traffic theory

The self-organizing behavior of drivers in traffic flow determines almost all the spatiotemporal behavior of traffic, such as traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck, highway capacity, and the emergence of moving traffic jams In 1996–2002 these complex self-organizing effects were explained by Boris Kerner's three-phase traffic theory

In linguistics

Order appears spontaneously in the evolution of language as individual and population behaviour interacts with biological evolution


Heinz Pagels, in a 1985 review of Ilya Prigogine and Isabelle Stengers's book Order Out of Chaos in Physics Today, appeals to authority:

In theology, Thomas Aquinas 1225–1274 in his Summa Theologica assumes a teleological created universe in rejecting the idea that something can be a self-sufficient cause of its own organization:

See also

  • Autopoiesis
  • Autowave
  • Self-organized criticality control
  • Free energy principle
  • Information theory


  1. ^ For related history, see Aram Vartanian, Diderot and Descartes


  1. ^ Betzler, S B; Wisnet, A; Breitbach, B; Mitterbauer, C; Weickert, J; Schmidt-Mende, L; Scheu, C 2014 "Template-free synthesis of novel, highly-ordered 3D hierarchical Nb3O7OH superstructures with semiconductive and photoactive properties" Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2 30: 12005 doi:101039/C4TA02202E 
  2. ^ Glansdorff, P, Prigogine, I 1971 Thermodynamic Theory of Structure, Stability and Fluctuations, Wiley-Interscience, London ISBN 0-471-30280-5
  3. ^ a b Witzany G 2014 Biological Self-Organization International Journal of Signs and Semiotic Systems 3: 1-11
  4. ^ Compare: Camazine, Scott 2003 Self-organization in Biological Systems Princeton studies in complexity reprint ed Princeton University Press ISBN 9780691116242 Retrieved 2016-04-05 
  5. ^ Ilachinski, Andrew 2001 Cellular Automata: A Discrete Universe World Scientific p 247 ISBN 9789812381835 We have already seen ample evidence for what is arguably the single most impressive general property of CA, namely their capacity for self-organization 
  6. ^ Feltz, Bernard; et al 2006 Self-organization and Emergence in Life Sciences p 1 ISBN 978-1-402-03916-4  CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al link
  7. ^ Bonabeau, Eric; Dorigo, Marco and Theraulaz, Guy 1999 Swarm intelligence: from natural to artificial systems pp 9–11 ISBN 0195131592  CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  8. ^ a b c Ashby, W R 1947 "Principles of the Self-Organizing Dynamic System" The Journal of General Psychology 37 2: 125–8 doi:101080/0022130919479918144 PMID 20270223 
  9. ^ Ashby, W R 1962 "Principles of the self-organizing system", pp 255–278 in Principles of Self-Organization Heinz von Foerster and George W Zopf, Jr eds US Office of Naval Research
  10. ^ Von Foerster, H 1960 "On self-organizing systems and their environments", pp 31–50 in Self-organizing systems MC Yovits and S Cameron eds, Pergamon Press, London
  11. ^ Nicolis, G and Prigogine, I 1977 Self-organization in nonequilibrium systems: From dissipative structures to order through fluctuations Wiley, New York
  12. ^ Prigogine, I and Stengers, I 1984 Order out of chaos: Man's new dialogue with nature Bantam Books
  13. ^ Ahmed, Furqan; Tirkkonen, Olav January 2016 "Applied Soft Computing" Applied Soft Computing 38: 762–770 doi:101016/jasoc201510028 
  14. ^ Palmer, Ada October 2014 Reading Lucretius in the Renaissance Harvard University Press ISBN 978-0-674-72557-7 Ada Palmer explores how Renaissance readers, such as Machiavelli, Pomponio Leto, and Montaigne, actually ingested and disseminated Lucretius, and shows how ideas of emergent order and natural selection, so critical to our current thinking, became embedded in Europe’s intellectual landscape before the seventeenth century 
  15. ^ Ruse, Michael 2013 "17 From Organicism to Mechanism-and Halfway Back" In Henning, Brian G; Scarfe, Adam Beyond Mechanism: Putting Life Back Into Biology Lexington Books p 419 
  16. ^ Carnot, S 1824/1986 Reflections on the motive power of fire, Manchester University Press, Manchester UK, ISBN 0-7190-1741-6
  17. ^ Clausius, R 1850 "Ueber Die Bewegende Kraft Der Wärme Und Die Gesetze, Welche Sich Daraus Für Die Wärmelehre Selbst Ableiten Lassen" Annalen der Physik 79: 368–397, 500–524 Bibcode:1850AnP155500C doi:101002/andp18501550403 Retrieved 26 June 2012  Translated into English: Clausius, R July 1851 "On the Moving Force of Heat, and the Laws regarding the Nature of Heat itself which are deducible therefrom" London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science 4th 2 VIII: 1–21; 102–119 Retrieved 26 June 2012 
  18. ^ a b German Aesthetic CUP Archive pp 64– GGKEY:TFTHBB91ZH2 
  19. ^ Asaro, P 2007 "Heinz von Foerster and the Bio-Computing Movements of the 1960s" in Albert Müller and Karl H Müller eds An Unfinished Revolution Heinz von Foerster and the Biological Computer Laboratory BCL 1958–1976 Vienna, Austria: Edition Echoraum
  20. ^ As an indication of the increasing importance of this concept, when queried with the keyword self-organ, Dissertation Abstracts finds nothing before 1954, and only four entries before 1970 There were 17 in the years 1971–1980; 126 in 1981–1990; and 593 in 1991–2000
  21. ^ a b Biel, R; Mu-Jeong Kho November 2009 "The Issue of Energy within a Dialectical Approach to the Regulationist Problematique" PDF Recherches & Régulation Working Papers, RR Série ID 2009-1, Association Recherche & Régulation http://theorie-regulationorg: 1–21 Retrieved 2013-11-09  External link in |publisher= help
  22. ^ Zeiger, H J and Kelley, P L 1991 "Lasers", pp 614–619 in The Encyclopedia of Physics, Second Edition, edited by Lerner, R and Trigg, G, VCH Publishers
  23. ^ Ansari M H 2004 Self-organized theory in quantum gravity arxivorg
  24. ^ Strong, M 2004 "Protein Nanomachines" PLoS Biology 2 3: e73–e74 doi:101371/journalpbio0020073 PMC 368168 PMID 15024422 
  25. ^ Lehn, J-M 1988 "Perspectives in Supramolecular Chemistry-From Molecular Recognition towards Molecular Information Processing and Self-Organization" Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 27 11: 89–121 doi:101002/anie198800891 
  26. ^ Bray, William C 1921 "A periodic reaction in homogeneous solution and its relation to catalysis" Journal of the American Chemical Society 43 6: 1262 doi:101021/ja01439a007 
  27. ^ Rego, JA; Harvey, Jamie AA; MacKinnon, Andrew L; Gatdula, Elysse January 2010 "Asymmetric synthesis of a highly soluble 'trimeric' analogue of the chiral nematic liquid crystal twist agent Merck S1011" PDF Liquid Crystals 37 1: 37–43 doi:101080/02678290903359291 
  28. ^ Love; et al 2005 "Self-Assembled Monolayers of Thiolates on Metals as a Form of Nanotechnology" Chem Rev 105 4: 1103–1170 doi:101021/cr0300789 PMID 15826011 
  29. ^ Barlow, SM; Raval R 2003 "Complex organic molecules at metal surfaces: bonding, organisation and chirality" Surface Science report 50 6–8: 201–341 Bibcode:2003SurSR50201B doi:101016/S0167-57290300015-3 
  30. ^ Ritu, Harneet 2016 "Large Area Fabrication of Semiconducting Phosphorene by Langmuir-Blodgett Assembly" Sci Rep 6: 34095 doi:101038/srep34095 
  31. ^ Camazine, Deneubourg, Franks, Sneyd, Theraulaz, Bonabeau, Self-Organization in Biological Systems, Princeton University Press, 2003 ISBN 0-691-11624-5 --ISBN 0-691-01211-3 pbk p 8
  32. ^ Bonabeau, Eric; et al May 1997 "Self-organization in social insects" Trends in Ecology & Evolution 12 5: 188–193 doi:101016/S0169-53479701048-3  CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al link
  33. ^ Couzin, Iain D; Krause, Jens 2003 "Self-Organization and Collective Behavior in Vertebrates" PDF Advances in the Study of Behavior 32: 1–75 
  34. ^ Fox, Ronald F December 1993 "Review of Stuart Kauffman, The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution" Biophys J 65 6: 2698–2699 PMC 1226010 
  35. ^ Goodwin, Brian 2009 Ruse, Michael; Travis, Joseph, eds Beyond the Darwinian Paradigm: Understanding Biological Forms Evolution: The First Four Billion Years Harvard University Press 
  36. ^ Johnson, Brian R; Lam, Sheung Kwam 2010 "Self-organization, Natural Selection, and Evolution: Cellular Hardware and Genetic Software" BioScience 60 11: 879–885 doi:101525/bio201060114 
  37. ^ Serugendo, Giovanna Di Marzo; et al June 2005 "Self-organization in multi-agent systems" Knowledge Engineering Review 20 2: 165–189 doi:101017/S0269888905000494  CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al link
  38. ^ Yang, X S; Deb, S; Loomes, M; Karamanoglu, M 2013 "A framework for self-tuning optimization algorithm" Neural Computing and Applications 23 7–8: 2051 doi:101007/s00521-013-1498-4 
  39. ^ X S Yang 2014 Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms, Elsevier
  40. ^ Watts, Duncan J; Strogatz, Steven H June 1998 "Collective dynamics of 'small-world' networks" Nature 393: 440–442 doi:101038/30918 
  41. ^ Clauset, Aaron; Cosma Rohilla Shalizi; M E J Newman 2007-06-07 "Power-law distributions in empirical data" SIAM Review arXiv:07061062 Bibcode:2009SIAMR51661C doi:101137/070710111 
  42. ^ Zhang, Q, Cheng, L, and Boutaba, R 2010 "Cloud computing: state-of-the-art and research challenges" PDF Journal of Internet Services and Applications 1 1: 7 doi:101007/s13174-010-0007-6  CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  43. ^ Marinescu, D C; Paya, A; Morrison, J P; Healy, P 2013 "An auction-driven self-organising cloud delivery model" arXiv:13122998  
  44. ^ Lynn; et al 2016 "CLOUDLIGHTNING: A Framework for a Self-organising and Self-managing Heterogeneous Cloud" Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science: 333 doi:105220/0005921503330338 ISBN 978-989-758-182-3  CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al link
  45. ^ Wiener, Norbert 1962 "The mathematics of self-organising systems" Recent developments in information and decision processes, Macmillan, N Y and Chapter X in Cybernetics, or control and communication in the animal and the machine, The MIT Press
  46. ^ Cybernetics, or control and communication in the animal and the machine, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and Wiley, NY, 1948 2nd Edition 1962 "Chapter X "Brain Waves and Self-Organizing Systems"pp 201–202
  47. ^ Ashby, William Ross 1952 Design for a Brain, Chapter 5 Chapman & Hall
  48. ^ Ashby, William Ross 1956 An Introduction to Cybernetics, Part Two Chapman & Hall
  49. ^ Conant, R C; Ashby, W R 1970 "Every good regulator of a system must be a model of that system" PDF Int J Systems Sci 1 2: 89–97 doi:101080/00207727008920220 
  50. ^ Embodiments of Mind MIT Press 1965"
  51. ^ von Foerster, Heinz; Pask, Gordon 1961 "A Predictive Model for Self-Organizing Systems, Part I" Cybernetica 3: 258–300 
  52. ^ von Foerster, Heinz; Pask, Gordon 1961 "A Predictive Model for Self-Organizing Systems, Part II" Cybernetica 4: 20–55 
  53. ^ "Brain of the Firm" Alan Lane 1972; see also Viable System Model in "Beyond Dispute", and Stafford Beer 1994 "Redundancy of Potential Command" pp 157–158
  54. ^ a b Pask, Gordon 1996 "Heinz von Foerster's Self-Organisation, the Progenitor of Conversation and Interaction Theories" PDF Systems Research 13 3: 349–362 doi:101002/sici1099-173519960913:3<349::aid-sres103>33co;2-7 
  55. ^ a b Pask, G 1973 Conversation, Cognition and Learning A Cybernetic Theory and Methodology Elsevier
  56. ^ Green, N 2001 "On Gordon Pask" Kybernetes 30 5/6: 673 doi:101108/03684920110391913 
  57. ^ Pask, Gordon 1993 Interactions of Actors IA, Theory and Some Applications
  58. ^ Interactive models for self organization and biological systems Center for Models of Life, Niels Bohr Institute, Denmark
  59. ^ Luhmann, Niklas 1995 Social Systems Stanford, California: Stanford University Press ISBN 0804726256 p 410
  60. ^ Krugman, P 1995 The Self Organizing Economy Blackwell Publishers ISBN 1557866996
  61. ^ Hayek, F 1976 Law, Legislation and Liberty, Volume 2: The Mirage of Social Justice University of Chicago Press
  62. ^ Marshall, A 2002 The Unity of Nature, Chapter 5 Imperial College Press ISBN 1860943306
  63. ^ RogersC 1969 Freedom to Learn Merrill
  64. ^ Feynman, R P 1987 Elementary Particles and the Laws of Physics The Dyrac 1997 Memorial Lecture Cambridge University Press ISBN 9780521658621
  65. ^ Harri-Augstein E S and Thomas L F 1991Learning Conversations: The SOL way to personal and organizational growth Routledge
  66. ^ Illich I 1971 A Celebration of Awareness Penguin Books
  67. ^ Harri-Augstein E S 2000 The University of Learning in transformation
  68. ^ Schumacher, E F 1997 This I Believe and Other Essays Resurgence Book ISBN 1870098668
  69. ^ Revans R W 1982 The Origins and Growth of Action Learning Chartwell-Bratt, Bromley
  70. ^ Thomas LF and Harri-Augstein S 1993 "On Becoming a Learning Organisation" in Report of a 7 year Action Research Project with the Royal Mail Business CSHL Monograph
  71. ^ Rogers CR 1971 On Becoming a Person Constable, London
  72. ^ Prigogyne I & Sengers I 1985 Order out of Chaos Flamingo Paperbacks London
  73. ^ Capra F 1989 Uncommon Wisdom Flamingo Paperbacks London
  74. ^ Bohm D 1994 Thought as a System Routledge
  75. ^ Maslow, A H 1964 Religions, values, and peak-experiences, Columbus: Ohio State University Press
  76. ^ Conversational Science Thomas LF and Harri-Augstein ES 1985
  77. ^ Boris S Kerner, "Experimental Features of Self-Organization in Traffic Flow", Physical Review Letters, 81, 3797–3400 1998
  78. ^ De Boer, Bart 2011 Gibson, Kathleen R; Tallerman, Maggie, eds Self‐organization and language evolution The Oxford Handbook of Language Evolution Oxford  CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link
  79. ^ Pagels, H R January 1, 1985 "Is the irreversibility we see a fundamental property of nature" PDF Physics Today: 97–99 
  80. ^ Article 3 Whether God exists newadventorg

Further reading

  • W Ross Ashby 1966, Design for a Brain, Chapman & Hall, 2nd edition
  • Amoroso, Richard 2005 The Fundamental Limit and Origin of Complexity in Biological Systems
  • Per Bak 1996, How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality, Copernicus Books
  • Philip Ball 1999, The Self-Made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature, Oxford University Press
  • Stafford Beer, Self-organization as autonomy: Brain of the Firm 2nd edition Wiley 1981 and Beyond Dispute Wiley 1994
  • A Bejan 2000, Shape and Structure, from Engineering to Nature, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 324 pp
  • Mark Buchanan 2002, Nexus: Small Worlds and the Groundbreaking Theory of Networks W W Norton & Company
  • Scott Camazine, Jean-Louis Deneubourg, Nigel R Franks, James Sneyd, Guy Theraulaz, & Eric Bonabeau 2001 Self-Organization in Biological Systems, Princeton Univ Press
  • Falko Dressler 2007, Self-Organization in Sensor and Actor Networks, Wiley & Sons
  • Manfred Eigen and Peter Schuster 1979, The Hypercycle: A principle of natural self-organization, Springer
  • Myrna Estep 2003, A Theory of Immediate Awareness: Self-Organization and Adaptation in Natural Intelligence, Kluwer Academic Publishers
  • Myrna L Estep 2006, Self-Organizing Natural Intelligence: Issues of Knowing, Meaning, and Complexity, Springer-Verlag
  • J Doyne Farmer et al editors 1986, "Evolution, Games, and Learning: Models for Adaptation in Machines and Nature", in: Physica D, Vol 22
  • Carlos Gershenson and Francis Heylighen 2003 "When Can we Call a System Self-organizing" In Banzhaf, W, T Christaller, P Dittrich, J T Kim, and J Ziegler, Advances in Artificial Life, 7th European Conference, ECAL 2003, Dortmund, Germany, pp 606–614 LNAI 2801 Springer
  • Hermann Haken 1983 Synergetics: An Introduction Nonequilibrium Phase Transition and Self-Organization in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Third Revised and Enlarged Edition, Springer-Verlag
  • FA Hayek Law, Legislation and Liberty, RKP, UK
  • Francis Heylighen 2001: "The Science of Self-organization and Adaptivity"
  • Arthur Iberall 2016, Homeokinetics: The Basics, Strong Voices Publishing, Medfield, Massachusetts
  • Henrik Jeldtoft Jensen 1998, Self-Organized Criticality: Emergent Complex Behaviour in Physical and Biological Systems, Cambridge Lecture Notes in Physics 10, Cambridge University Press
  • Steven Berlin Johnson 2001, Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities, and Software
  • Stuart Kauffman 1995, At Home in the Universe, Oxford University Press
  • Stuart Kauffman 1993, Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution Oxford University Press
  • J A Scott Kelso 1995, Dynamic Patterns: The self-organization of brain and behavior, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • J A Scott Kelso & David A Engstrom 2006, "The Complementary Nature", The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • Alex Kentsis 2004, Self-organization of biological systems: Protein folding and supramolecular assembly, PhD Thesis, New York University
  • EVKrishnamurthy2009", Multiset of Agents in a Network for Simulation of Complex Systems", in "Recent advances in Nonlinear Dynamics and synchronization, ,NDS-1 -Theory and applications, Springer Verlag, New York,2009 Eds KKyamakya et al
  • Paul Krugman 1996, The Self-Organizing Economy, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Oxford: Blackwell Publishers
  • Elizabeth McMillan 2004 "Complexity, Organizations and Change"
  • Marshall, A 2002 The Unity of Nature, Imperial College Press: London esp chapter 5
  • Müller, J-A, Lemke, F 2000, Self-Organizing Data Mining
  • Gregoire Nicolis and Ilya Prigogine 1977 Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems, Wiley
  • Heinz Pagels 1988, The Dreams of Reason: The Computer and the Rise of the Sciences of Complexity, Simon & Schuster
  • Gordon Pask 1961, The cybernetics of evolutionary processes and of self organizing systems, 3rd International Congress on Cybernetics, Namur, Association Internationale de Cybernetique
  • Christian Prehofer ea 2005, "Self-Organization in Communication Networks: Principles and Design Paradigms", in: IEEE Communications Magazine, July 2005
  • Mitchell Resnick 1994, Turtles, Termites and Traffic Jams: Explorations in Massively Parallel Microworlds, Complex Adaptive Systems series, MIT Press
  • Lee Smolin 1997, The Life of the Cosmos Oxford University Press
  • Ricard V Solé and Brian C Goodwin 2001, Signs of Life: How Complexity Pervades Biology, Basic Books
  • Ricard V Solé and Jordi Bascompte 2006, Selforganization in Complex Ecosystems, Princeton U Press
  • Harry Soodak and Arthur Iberall 1978, Homeokinetics: A Physical Science for Complex Systems, Science 201:579-582
  • Steven Strogatz 2004, Sync: The Emerging Science of Spontaneous Order, Theia
  • D'Arcy Thompson 1917, On Growth and Form, Cambridge University Press, 1992 Dover Publications edition
  • Tom De Wolf, Tom Holvoet 2005, Emergence Versus Self-Organisation: Different Concepts but Promising When Combined, In Engineering Self Organising Systems: Methodologies and Applications, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 3464, pp 1–15
  • K Yee 2003, "Ownership and Trade from Evolutionary Games", International Review of Law and Economics, 232, 183–197
  • Louise B Young 2002, The Unfinished Universe
  • Mikhail Prokopenko ed 2008, Advances in Applied Self-organizing Systems, Springer
  • Alfred Hübler 2009, "Digital wires," Complexity, 145,7–9,
  • Rüdiger H Jung 2010, Self-organization In: Helmut K Anheier, Stefan Toepler, Regina List editors: International Encyclopedia of Civil Society Springer Science + Business Media LLC, New York 2010, ISBN 978-0-387-93996-4, p 1364–1370

External links

  • Hermann Haken ed "Self-organization" Scholarpedia 
  • Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Göttingen
  • PDF file on self-organized common law with references
  • An entry on self-organization at the Principia Cybernetica site
  • The Science of Self-organization and Adaptivity, a review paper by Francis Heylighen
  • The Self-Organizing Systems SOS FAQ by Chris Lucas, from the USENET newsgroup comptheoryself-orgsys
  • David Griffeath, Primordial Soup Kitchen graphics, papers
  • nlinAO, nonlinear preprint archive, electronic preprints in adaptation and self-organizing systems
  • Structure and Dynamics of Organic Nanostructures
  • Metal organic coordination networks of oligopyridines and Cu on graphite
  • Selforganization in complex networks The Complex Systems Lab, Barcelona
  • Computational Mechanics Group at the Santa Fe Institute
  • "Organisation must grow" 1939 W Ross Ashby journal page 759, from The W Ross Ashby Digital Archive
  • Cosma Shalizi's notebook on self-organization from 2003-06-20, used under the GFDL with permission from author
  • Connectivism:SelfOrganization
  • UCLA Human Complex Systems Program
  • "Interactions of Actors IA, Theory and Some Applications" 1993 Gordon Pask's theory of learning, evolution and self-organization in draft
  • The Cybernetics Society
  • Scott Camazine's webpage on self-organization in biological systems
  • Mikhail Prokopenko's page on Information-driven Self-organisation IDSO
  • Lakeside Labs Self-Organizing Networked Systems A platform for science and technology, Klagenfurt, Austria
  • Watch 32 discordant metronomes synch up all by themselves theatlanticcom

self-organization, self-organization in a perceptual network, self-organization in chemistry, self-organization in computer architecture, self-organization in nonequilibrium systems, self-organization meaning, self-organization of dynamic systems example, self-organization system, self-organization theory, self-organizational skills

Self-organization Information about


  • user icon

    Self-organization beatiful post thanks!


Self-organization viewing the topic.
Self-organization what, Self-organization who, Self-organization explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

Random Posts

The San Francisco Examiner

The San Francisco Examiner

The San Francisco Examiner is a longtime daily newspaper distributed in and around San Francisco, Ca...
Frederator Films

Frederator Films

Frederator Films is an animation studio founded by Fred Seibert as part of Frederator Studios, with ...
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck

John Hasbrouck Van Vleck

John Hasbrouck Van Vleck March 13, 1899 – October 27, 1980 was an American physicist and mathematici...
Christian Lacroix

Christian Lacroix

Christian Marie Marc Lacroix French pronunciation: ​kʁistjɑ̃ lakʁwa; born 16 May 1951 is a Fren...

Random Posts (searchxengine.com)

Umudova, Nargiz Mamedaga Kyzy

Umudova, Nargiz Mamedaga Kyzy

Nargiz Umudova Azerb Nåğárgiz Umudova; born June 20, 1989, Baku, USSR - Azerbaijan chess player, gra
ATR 42

ATR 42

ATR 42 is a passenger twin-engine turboprop aircraft for medium-haul flights. Manufacturer - French-
Thirteenth tale

Thirteenth tale

novel Author: Diane Setterfield Original language: English Date of writing: 2006 Date of firs
Bolshakovo (Chelyabinsk region)

Bolshakovo (Chelyabinsk region)

Bolshakovo is a village in the Chebarkulsky district of the Chelyabinsk region of Russia. It is a pa