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Self-handicapping

self-handicapping allows us to __, self-handicapping examples
Self-handicapping is a cognitive strategy by which people avoid effort in the hopes of keeping potential failure from hurting self-esteem It was first theorized by Edward E Jones and Steven Berglas, according to whom self-handicaps are obstacles created, or claimed, by the individual in anticipation of failing performance

Self-handicapping can be seen as a method of preserving self-esteem but it can also be used for self-enhancement and to manage the impressions of others This conservation or augmentation of self-esteem is due to changes in causal attributions or the attributions for success and failure that self-handicapping affords There are two methods that people use to self-handicap: behavioral and claimed self-handicaps People withdraw effort or create obstacles to successes so they can maintain public and private self-images of competence

Self-handicapping is a widespread behavior amongst humans that has been observed in a variety of cultures and geographic areas For instance, students frequently participate in self-handicapping behavior to avoid feeling bad about themselves if they do not perform well in class Self-handicapping behavior has also been observed in the business world The effects of self-handicapping can be both large and small and found in virtually any environment wherein people are expected to perform

Contents

  • 1 Overview and relevance
    • 11 Individual differences
    • 12 Gender differences
  • 2 Major theoretical approaches
  • 3 Major empirical findings
  • 4 Applications
    • 41 Occurrence in sports
  • 5 Controversies
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

Overview and relevance

The first method people use to self-handicap is when they make a task harder for themselves in fear of not successfully completing that task, so that if they do in fact fail, they can simply place the blame on the obstacles rather than placing the blame on themselves This is known to researchers as behavioral handicapping, in which the individual actually creates obstacles to performance Examples of behavioral handicaps include alcohol consumption, the selection of unattainable goals, and refusal to practice a task or technique especially in sports and the fine arts

The second way that people self-handicap is by coming up with justifications for their potential failures, so that if they do not succeed in the task, they can point to their excuses as the reasons for their failures This is known as claimed self-handicapping, in which the individual merely states that an obstacle to performance exists Examples of claimed self-handicaps include declarations that one is experiencing physical symptoms

Self-handicapping behaviour allows individuals to externalize failures but internalize success, accepting credit for achievements but allowing excuses for failings An example of self-handicapping is the student who spends the night before an important exam partying rather than studying The student fears failing his exam and appearing incapable In partying the night before the exam the student has engaged in self-defeating behaviour and increased the likelihood of poor exam performance However, in the event of failure, the student can offer fatigue and a hangover, rather than lack of ability, as plausible explanations Furthermore, should the student receive positive feedback about his exam, his achievement is enhanced by the fact that he succeeded, despite the handicap

Individual differences

People differ in the extent to which they self-handicap and most research on individual differences has used the Self-Handicapping Scale SHS The SHS was developed as a means of measuring individuals' tendency to employ excuses or create handicaps as a means to protect one's self-esteem Research to date shows that SHS has adequate construct validity For example, individuals who score high on the SHS put in less effort and practice less when concerned about their ability to perform well in a given task They are also more likely than those rated low self-handicappers LSH to mention obstacles or external factors that may hinder their success, prior to performing

A number of characteristics have been related to self-handicapping eg hypochondriasis and research suggests that those more prone to self-handicapping may differ motivationally compared to those that do not rely on such defensive strategies For example, fear of failure, a heightened sensitivity to shame and embarrassment upon failure, motivates self-handicapping behavior Students who fear failure are more likely to adopt performance goals in the classroom or goals focused on the demonstration of competence or avoidance of demonstrating incompetence; goals that heighten one's sensitivity to failure

A student, for example, may approach course exams with the goal of not performing poorly as this would suggest a lack of ability To avoid ability attributions and the shame of failure, the student fails to adequately prepare for an exam While this may provide temporary relief, it renders one's ability conceptions more uncertain, resulting in further self-handicapping

Gender differences

While research suggests that claimed self-handicaps are used by men and women alike, several studies have reported significant differences While research assessing differences in reported self-handicapping have revealed no gender differences or greater self-handicapping among females, the vast majority of research suggests that males are more inclined to behaviourally self-handicap These differences are further explained by the different value men and women ascribe to the concept of effort

Major theoretical approaches

The root of research on the act of self-handicapping can be traced back to Adler’s studies about self-esteem In the late 1950s, Goffman and Heider published research concerning the manipulation of outward behavior for the purpose of impression management It was not until 30 years later that self-handicapping behavior was attributed to internal factors Until this point, self-handicapping only encompassed the usage of external factors, such as alcohol and drugs Self-handicapping is usually studied in an experimental setting, but is sometimes studied in an observational environment

Previous research has established that self-handicapping is motivated by uncertainty about one's ability or, more generally, anticipated threats to self-esteem Self-handicapping can be exacerbated by self-presentational concerns but also occurs in situations where such concerns are at a minimum

Major empirical findings

Experiments on self-handicapping have depicted the reasons why people self-handicap and the effects that it has on those people Self-handicapping has been observed in both laboratory and real world settings Studying the psychological and physical effects of self-handicapping has allowed researchers to witness the dramatic effects that it has on attitude and performance

Jones and Berglas gave people positive feedback following a problem-solving test, regardless of actual performance Half the participants had been given fairly easy problems, while the others were given difficult problems Participants were then given the choice between a "performance-enhancing drug" and a drug that would inhibit it Those participants who received the difficult problems were more likely to choose the impairing drug, and participants who faced easy problems were more likely to choose the enhancing drug It is argued that the participants presented with hard problems, believing that their success had been due to chance, chose the impairing drug because they were looking for an external attribution what might be called an "excuse" for expected poor performance in the future, as opposed to an internal attribution

More recent research finds that, generally, people are willing to use handicaps to protect their self-esteem eg, discounting failings but are more reluctant to employ them for self-enhancement eg, to further credit their success Rhodewalt, Morf, Hazlett, and Fairfield 1991 selected participants who scored high or low on the Self-Handicapping Scale SHS and who had high or low self-esteem They presented participants with a handicap and then with success or failure feedback and asked participants to make attributions for their performance The results showed that both self-protection and self-enhancement occurred, but only as a function of levels of self-esteem and the level of tendency to self-handicap Participants who were high self-handicappers, regardless of their level of self-esteem, used the handicap as a means of self-protection but only those participants with high self-esteem used the handicap to self-enhance

In a further study, Rhodewalt 1991 presented the handicap to only half of the participants and gave success and failure feedback The results provided evidence for self-protection but not for self-enhancement Participants in the failure feedback, handicap absent group, attributed their failures to their own lack of ability and reported lower self-esteem to the handicap-present, failure-feedback condition Furthermore, the handicap-present failure group reported levels of self-esteem equal to that of the successful group This evidence highlights the importance of self-handicaps in self-protection although it offers no support for the handicap acting to self-enhance

Another experiment, by Martin Seligman and colleagues, examined whether there was a correlation between explanatory styles and the performance of swimmers After being given false bad times on their preliminary events, the swimmers who justified their poor performance to themselves in a pessimistic way did worse on subsequent performances In contrast, the subsequent performances of those swimmers who had more optimistic attributions concerning their poor swimming times were not affected Those who had positive attributions were more likely to succeed after given false times because they were self-handicapping They attributed their failure to an external force rather than blaming themselves Therefore, their self-esteem remained intact, which led to their success in subsequent events This experiment demonstrates the positive effects that self-handicapping can have on an individual because when they attributed the failure to an external factor, they did not internalize the failure and let it psychologically affect them

Previous research has looked at the consequences of self-handicapping and have suggested that self-handicapping leads to a more positive mood at least in the short term or at least guards against a drop in positive mood after failure Thus, self-handicapping may serve as a means of regulating one's emotions in the course of protecting one's self-esteem However, based on past evidence that positive mood motivates self-protective attributions for success and failure and increases the avoidance of negative feedback, recent research has focused on mood as an antecedent to self-handicapping; expecting positive mood to increase self-handicapping behaviour Results have shown that people who are in positive mood are more likely to engage in self-handicapping, even at the cost of jeopardizing future performance

Research suggests that among those who self-handicap, self-imposed obstacles may relieve the pressure of a performance and allow one to become more engaged in a task While this may enhance performance in some situations for some individuals, in general, research indicates that self-handicapping is negatively associated with performance, self-regulated learning, persistence and intrinsic motivation Additional long-term costs of self-handicapping include worse health and well-being, more frequent negative moods and higher use of various substances

Zuckerman and Tsai assessed self-handicapping, well-being, and coping among college students on two occasions over several months Self-handicapping assessed on the first occasion predicted coping with problems by denial, blaming others and criticizing oneself as well as depression and somatic complaints Depression and somatic complaints also predicted subsequent self-handicapping Thus, the use of self-handicapping may lead to not only uncertainty as to one's ability but also ill-being, which in turn may lead to further reliance on self-handicapping

Applications

If people believe that they are going to fail, they create obstacles and excuses to justify their failures There are many real world applications for this concept For example, if people predict they are going to perform poorly on tasks, they create obstacles, such as taking drugs and consuming alcohol, so that they feel that they have diverted the blame from themselves if they actually do fail In addition, another way that people self-handicap is by creating already-made excuses just in case they fail For example, if a student feels that he is going to perform badly on a test, then he might make up an excuse for his potential failure, such as telling his friends that he does not feel well the morning of the test

Occurrence in sports

Previous research has suggested that because in Physical Education PE students are required to overtly display their physical abilities and incompetence could be readily observed by others, PE is an ideal setting to observe self-handicapping Because of its prevalence in the sporting world, self-handicapping behaviour has become of interest to sports psychologists who are interested in increasing sports performance Recent research has examined the relationship between behavioural and claimed self-handicaps and athletic performance as well as the effects self-handicapping has on anxiety and fear of failure before Athletic Performance

Controversies

One controversy was revealed in a study done at the University of Wyoming Previous research indicated a negative correlation between self-handicapping behaviors and boosting one’s self-esteem; it was also shown that people who focus on the positive attributes of themselves are less likely to self-handicap This study, however, demonstrates that this claim is only partially accurate because the reduction of self-handicapping is only apparent in an area unrelated to the present self-esteem risk As a result, the attempt to protect self-esteem becomes a detriment to future success in that area

See also

  • Psychology portal
  • Attributional bias
  • Defensive pessimism
  • Learned helplessness
  • Outline of self
  • Self-defeating personality disorder
  • Self-perception theory
  • Self-serving bias
  • Setting up to fail

References

  1. ^ a b Kolditz, T A; Arkin, R M 1982 "An impression management interpretation of the self-handicapping strategy" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43: 492–502 doi:101037/0022-3514433492 
  2. ^ a b c d e Jones, E E; Berglas, S 1978 "Control of attributions about the self through self-handicapping strategies: The appeal of alcohol and the role of underachievement" Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 4: 200–206 doi:101177/014616727800400205 
  3. ^ a b Feick, DL, & Rhodewalt, F 1997 The Double-Edged Sword of Self-Handicapping: Discounting, Augmentation, and the Protection and Enhancement of Self-Esteem Motivation and Emotion, Vol 21, No 2
  4. ^ a b c Rhodewalt, F, & Vohs, K D 2005 Defensive strategies, motivation, and the self In A Elliot & C Dweck Eds Handbook of competence and motivationpp 548-565 New York: Guilford Press
  5. ^ Leary, M R; Shepperd, J A 1986 "Behavioral self-handicaps versus self-reported handicaps: A conceptual note" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51: 1265–1268 doi:101037/0022-35145161265 
  6. ^ Bordini, EJ; Tucker, JA; Vuchinich, RE; Rudd, EJ 1986 "Alcohol consumption as a self-handicapping strategy in women" Journal of Abnormal Psychology 95: 346–349 doi:101037/0021-843x954346 
  7. ^ Tucker, Jalie A; Vuchinich, Rudy E; Sobell, Mark B 1981 "Alcohol Consumption as a Self-Handicapping Strategy" Journal of Abnormal Psychology 90 3: 220–230 CiteSeerX 10113807268 doi:101037/0021-843x903220 
  8. ^ Greenberg, J 1985 "Unattainable goal choice as a self-handicapping strategy" Journal of Applied Social Psychology 15: 140–152 doi:101111/j1559-18161985tb02340x 
  9. ^ a b Harris, RN; Snyder, CR 1986 "The role of uncertain self-esteem in self-handicapping" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 51: 451–458 doi:101037/0022-3514512451 
  10. ^ a b Smith, TW; Snyder, CR; Perkins, SC 1983 "The self-serving function of hypochondriacal complaints: Physical symptoms as self-handicapping strategies" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 44: 787–797 doi:101037/0022-3514444787 
  11. ^ a b c Rhodewalt, F 1990 Self-handicappers: Individual differences in the preference for anticipatory self-protective acts In R Higgins, C R Snyder, & S Berglas Self-handicapping: The paradox that isn't New York: Plenum Press
  12. ^ Jones, E E, & Rhodewalt, F 1982 The Self-Handicapping Scale Unpublished manuscript
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Rhodewalt, F; Fairfield, M 1991 "Claimed self-handicaps and the self-handicapper: On the relation of reductions in intended effort to performance" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 25: 402–417 doi:101016/0092-65669190030-t 
  14. ^ a b Hirt, E R; Deppe, R K; Gordon, L J 1991 "Self-reported versus behavioral self-handicapping: Empirical evidence for a theoretical distinction" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61: 981–991 doi:101037/0022-3514616981 
  15. ^ Strube, M J 1986 "An analysis of the Self-Handicapping Scale" Basic and Applied Social Psychology 7: 211–224 doi:101207/s15324834basp0703_4 
  16. ^ a b Rhodewalt, F; Hill, S K 1995 "Self-handicapping in the classroom: The effects of claimed self-handicaps on responses to academic failure" Basic and Applied Social Psychology 17: 397–416 
  17. ^ McGregor, H A; Elliot, A J 2005 "The shame of failure: Examining the link between fear of failure and shame" Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31: 218–231 doi:101177/0146167204271420 
  18. ^ Chen, L H; Chen, M; Lin, M; Kee, Y; Shui, S 2009 "Fear of failure and self-handicapping in college physical education" Psychological Reports 105: 707–713 doi:102466/pr01053707-713 
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  21. ^ Elliot, A J; McGregor, H A 2001 "A 2 x 2 achievement goal framework" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80: 501–519 doi:101037/0022-3514803501 
  22. ^ Arkin, R M, & Oleson, K C 1998 Self-handicapping In J M Darley & J Cooper eds, Attribution and social interaction: The legacy of Edward E Jones pp 313-371 Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
  23. ^ Rhodewalt, F; Davison, J 1986 "Self-handicapping and subsequent performance: Role of outcome valence and attributional certainty" Basic and Applied Social Psychology 7: 307–322 doi:101207/s15324834basp0704_5 
  24. ^ McCrea, SM; Hirt, ER; Milner, BJ 2008 "She works hard for the money: Valuing effort underlies gender differences in behavioral self-handicapping" Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44: 292–311 doi:101016/jjesp200705006 
  25. ^ Snyder, C R, & Smith, T W 1982 Symptoms as self-handicapping strategies: The virtues of old wine in a new bottle In G Weary & H L Mirels Eds, Integrations of clinical and social psychology pp 104-127 New York: Oxford University Press
  26. ^ a b c d Rhodewalt, F; Morf, C; Hazlett, S; Fairfield, M 1991 "Self-handicapping: The role of discounting and augmentation in the preservation of self-esteem" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61: 121–131 
  27. ^ a b Seligman, Martin EP; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Thornton, Nort; Thornton, Karen Moe 1990 "Explanatory Style as a Mechanism of Disappointing Athletic Performance" Psychological Science 1 2: 143–146 doi:101111/j1467-92801990tb00084x ISSN 0956-7976 
  28. ^ McCrea, S M; Hirt, E R 2001 "The Role of Ability Judgments in Self-Handicapping" Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 27 10: 1378–1389 doi:101177/01461672012710013 ISSN 0146-1672 
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  33. ^ Trope, Y, Ferguson, M, & Ragunanthan, R 2001 Mood as a resource in processing self-relevant information In J P Forgas Ed, Handbook of affect and social cognition Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum
  34. ^ Alter, A L; Forgas, J P 2007 "On being happy but fearing failure: The effects of mood on self-handicapping strategies" Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43: 947–954 doi:101016/jjesp200607009 
  35. ^ Deppe, R K; Harackiewicz, J M 1996 "Self-handicapping and intrinsic motivation: Buffering intrinsic motivation from the threat of failure" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70: 868–876 doi:101037/0022-3514704868 
  36. ^ Weiner, Bernard; Sierad, Jack 1975 "Misattribution for failure and enhancement of achievement strivings" Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 31 3: 415–421 doi:101037/h0076510 ISSN 0022-3514 
  37. ^ Martin, A J; Marsh, H W; Debus, R L 2003 "Self-handicapping and defensive pessimism: A model of self-protection from a longitudinal perspective" Contemporary Educational Psychology 28: 1–36 doi:101016/s0361-476x0200008-5 
  38. ^ Ommundsen, Y 2001 "Self-handicapping strategies in physical education classes:The influence of implicit theories of the nature of ability and achievement goal orientations" Psychology of Sport and Exercise 2 3: 139–156 doi:101016/s1469-02920000019-4 
  39. ^ a b Chen, L H; Chen, M Y; Lin, M S; Kee, Y H; Kuo, C F; Shui, S H 2008 "Implicit theory of athletic ability and self-handicapping in college students" Psychological Reports 103: 476–484 doi:102466/pr01036476-484 
  40. ^ Coudevylle, G, Martin Ginis, K, & Famose, J-P in press Determinants of self-handicapping strategies in sport and their effects on athletic performance Social Behavior and Personality International Journal Toronto, Ont
  41. ^ "Psychology & Psychiatry Journal" 2011 Social Psychology; Study Data from University of Wyoming Update Knowledge of Social Psychology

External links

  • PsychWiki: Self-Handicapping
  • New York Times: Some Protect the Ego by Working on their Excuses Early

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    29.10.2014


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