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SCMaglev

scmaglev, scmaglev and railway park
The SCMaglev superconducting maglev formerly called the MLU is a magnetic levitation maglev railway system based on the principle of magnetic repulsion between the track and the cars The Central Japan Railway Company JR Central and the company's Railway Technical Research Institute developed the system123

On 21 April 2015, a manned seven-car L0 series SCMaglev train reached a speed of 603 km/h 375 mph, less than a week after the same train clocked 590 km/h 370 mph, breaking the previous land speed record for rail vehicles of 581 km/h 361 mph set by a JR Central MLX01 maglev train in December 20034

Contents

  • 1 Technology
  • 2 History
    • 21 Miyazaki test track
    • 22 Yamanashi maglev test line
  • 3 Commercial use
    • 31 Japan
    • 32 USA
    • 33 Australia
  • 4 Vehicles
  • 5 Records
    • 51 Manned records
    • 52 Unmanned records
    • 53 Relative passing speed records
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 Further reading
  • 9 External links

Technologyedit

MLX01 maglev train Superconducting magnet bogie Levitation and guidance coils See also: Maglev § Technology

The SCMaglev system uses an electrodynamic suspension EDS system Installed in the trains' bogies are superconducting magnets, and the guideways contain two sets of metal coils

The current levitation system utilizes a series of coils wound into a "figure 8" along both walls of the guideway These coils are also cross-connected underneath the track3


Levitation system

Guidance system

Propulsion system

As the train accelerates, the magnetic fields of its superconducting magnets induce a current into these coils due to the magnetic field induction effect If the train were centered with the coils, the electrical potential would be balanced and no currents would be induced However, as the train runs on rubber wheels at relatively low speeds, the magnetic fields are positioned below the center of the coils, causing the electrical potential to no longer be balanced This creates a reactive magnetic field opposing the superconducting magnet's pole in accordance with Lenz's law, and a pole above that attracts it Once the train reaches 150 km/h 93 mph, there is sufficient current flowing to lift the train 100 mm 4 in above the guideway3

These coils also generate guiding and stabilizing forces Because they are cross-connected underneath the guideway, if the train moves off-center, currents are induced into the connections that correct its positioning3

SCMaglev also utilizes a linear synchronous motor LSM propulsion system, which powers a second set of coils in the guideway

Historyedit

Japanese National Railways JNR began research on a linear propulsion railway system in 1962 with the goal of developing a train that could travel between Tokyo and Osaka in one hour Shortly after Brookhaven National Laboratory patented superconducting magnetic levitation technology in the United States in 1969, JNR announced development of the its own superconducting maglev SCMaglev system The railway made its first successful SCMaglev run on a short track at its Railway Technical Research Institute in 19725

Miyazaki test trackedit

In 1977, SCMaglev testing moved to a new 7 km test track in Hyūga, Miyazaki By 1980, the track was modified from a "reverse-T" shape to the "U" shape used today In April 1987, JNR was privatized, and Central Japan Railway Company JR Central took over SCMaglev development

In 1989, JR Central decided to build a better testing facility with tunnels, steeper gradients, and curves5 After the company moved maglev tests to the new facility, the company's Railway Technical Research Institute began to allow testing of ground effect trains, an alternate technology based on aerodynamic interaction between the train and the ground, at the Miyazaki Test Track in 1999citation needed

Yamanashi maglev test lineedit

See also: Chūō Shinkansen § Miyazaki and Yamanashi Test Tracks

Construction of the Yamanashi maglev test line began in 1990 The 184 km 114 mi "priority section" of the line in Tsuru, Yamanashi, opened in 1997 MLX01 trains were tested there from 1997 to fall 2011, when the facility was closed to extend the line to 428 km 266 mi and to upgrade it to commercial specifications6

Commercial useedit

Japanedit

In 2009, Japan's Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism decided that the SCMaglev system was ready for commercial operation In 2011, the ministry gave JR Central permission to operate the SCMaglev system on their planned Chūō Shinkansen linking Tokyo and Nagoya by 2027, and to Osaka by 2045 Construction is currently underway

USAedit

Since 2010, JR Central has promoted the SCMaglev system in international markets, particularly the Northeast Corridor of the United States1 In 2013, Prime Minister Shinzō Abe met with US President Barack Obama and offered to provide the first portion of the SC Maglev track free, a distance of approximately 40 miles7

Australiaedit

In late 2015, JR Central partnered with Mitsui and General Electric in Australia to form a joint venture named CLARA "Consolidated Land and Rail Australia" to provide a commercial funding model using private investors that could build the SC Maglev linking Sydney, Canberra and Melbourne, create 8 new self-sustaining inland cities linked to the high speed connection, and contribute to the community89

Vehiclesedit

ML100 preserved at the RTRI facility in Kokubunji, Tokyo, October 2015 ML500 1979 world speed record holder of 517 km/h 321 mph preserved at the RTRI facility in Kokubunji, Tokyo, October 2015 Similar model burned after a fire at Kyushu Test Track in 1979, leading to redesign as MLU series vehicles MLU001's superconducting magnet and a liquid helium tank on top of it JR–Maglev MLX01-1 at SCMaglev and Railway Park, Nagoya, April 2013 MLX01-3 preserved at the RTRI facility in Kokubunji, Tokyo, October 2015
  • 1972 – LSM200
  • 1972 – ML100
  • 1975 – ML100A
  • 1977 – ML500
  • 1979 – ML500R remodeled ML500
  • 1980 – MLU001
  • 1987 – MLU002
  • 1993 – MLU002N
  • 1995 – MLX01 MLX01-1, 11, 2
  • 1997 – MLX01 MLX01-3, 21, 12, 4
  • 2002 – MLX01 MLX01-901, 22
  • 2009 – MLX01 MLX01-901A, 22A: remodeled 901 and 22
  • 2013 – L0 Series Shinkansen
No Type Note Built
MLX01-1 Kōfu-end car with double-cusp head Displayed at the SCMaglev and Railway Park 1995
MLX01-11 Standard intermediate car
MLX01-2 Tokyo-end car with aero-wedge head
MLX01-3 Kōfu-end car with aero-wedge head Displayed at the Railway Technical Research Institute 1997
MLX01-21 Long intermediate car
MLX01-12 Standard intermediate car
MLX01-4 Tokyo-end car with double-cusp head
MLX01-901A Kōfu-end car with long head Remodeled and renamed from MLX01-901 in 2009 2002
MLX01-22A long intermediate car Remodeled and renamed from MLX01-22 in 2009

Recordsedit

Manned recordsedit

Speed km/h mph Train Type Location Date Comments
60 37 ML100 Maglev RTRI of JNR 1972
4008 2490 MLU001 Maglev Miyazaki Maglev Test Track February 1987 Two-car train set Former world speed record for maglev trains
3943 2450 MLU002 Maglev Miyazaki Maglev Test Track November 1989 Single-car
411 255 MLU002N Maglev Miyazaki Maglev Test Track February 1995 Single-car
531 330 MLX01 Maglev Yamanashi Maglev Test Line, Japan 12 December 1997 Three-car train set Former world speed record for maglev trains
552 343 MLX01 Maglev Yamanashi Maglev Test Line 14 April 1999 Five-car train set Former world speed record for maglev trains
581 361 MLX01 Maglev Yamanashi Maglev Test Line 2 December 2003 Three-car train set Former world speed record for all trains
590 367 L0 series Maglev Yamanashi Maglev Test Line 16 April 2015 Seven-car train set10 Former world speed record for all trains
603 375 L0 series Maglev Yamanashi Maglev Test Line 21 April 2015 Seven-car train set Current world speed record for all trains4

Unmanned recordsedit

Speed km/h mph Train Type Location Date Comments
504 3132 ML-500 Maglev Miyazaki Maglev Test Track 12 December 1979
517 3212 ML-500 Maglev Miyazaki Maglev Test Track 21 December 1979
3524 2190 MLU001 Maglev Miyazaki Maglev Test Track January 1986 Three-car train set
4053 2518 MLU001 Maglev Miyazaki Maglev Test Track January 1987 Two-car train set
431 2678 MLU002N Maglev Miyazaki Maglev Test Track February 1994 Single-car
550 3418 MLX01 Maglev Yamanashi Maglev Test Line 24 December 1997 Three-car train set
548 3405 MLX01 Maglev Yamanashi Maglev Test Line 18 March 1999 Five-car train set

Relative passing speed recordsedit

Speed km/h mph Train Type Location Date Comments
966 600 MLX01 Maglev Yamanashi Maglev Test Line December 1998 Former world relative passing speed record
1,003 623 MLX01 Maglev Yamanashi Maglev Test Line November 1999 Former world relative passing speed record
1,026 638 MLX01 Maglev Yamanashi Maglev Test Line 16 November 2004 Current world relative passing speed record

See alsoedit

  • MAGLEV 2000
  • Transrapid
  • Krauss-Maffei Transurban - Electromagnetic suspension technology had been transferred from Krauss-Maffei
  • ROMAG
  • Inductrack

Referencesedit

  • Hood, Christopher P 2006 Shinkansen – From Bullet Train to Symbol of Modern Japan Routledge ISBN 0-415-32052-6 
  1. ^ a b Central Japan Railway Company 11 May 2010 Test Ride of Superconducting Maglev by the US Secretary of Transportation, Mr Ray LaHood Retrieved 24 May 2012 
  2. ^ Central Japan Railway Company 2012 "Central Japan Railway Company Annual Report 2012" PDF pp 23–25 Retrieved 23 July 2013 
  3. ^ a b c d He, JL; Rote, DM; Coffey, HT 1994 "Study of Japanese Electrodynamic-Suspension Maglev Systems" Argonne National Laboratory OSTI 10150166 doi:102172/10150166 Retrieved 26 December 2014 
  4. ^ a b McCurry, Justin 21 April 2015 "Japan's Maglev Train Breaks World Speed Record with 600km/h Test Run" The Guardian US ed New York Retrieved 21 April 2015 
  5. ^ a b US-Japan Maglev 2012 "History" USJMAGLEV Retrieved 26 December 2014 
  6. ^ Central Japan Railway Company 2012 "The Chuo Shinkansen Using the Superconducting Maglev System" Data Book 2012 PDF pp 24–25 
  7. ^ Pfanner, Eric 19 November 2013 "Japan Pitches Its High-Speed Train With an Offer to Finance" The New York Times New York ed p B8 Retrieved 28 April 2015 
  8. ^ "General Electric, Japan Rail and Mitsui all aboard high-speed rail proposal" Financial Review 2016-05-12 Retrieved 2016-06-22 
  9. ^ "Consolidated Land and Rail Australia Pty Ltd" wwwclaracomau Retrieved 2016-06-22 
  10. ^ リニアが世界最速590キロ 長距離走行記録も更新 Maglev sets new world record of 590 km/h - Also sets new distance record Sankei News in Japanese Japan: The Sankei Shimbun & Sankei Digital 16 April 2015 Retrieved 16 April 2015 

Further readingedit

  • Heller, Arnie June 1998 "A New Approach for Magnetically Levitating Trains—and Rockets" Science & Technology Review 
  • Henry H Kolm; Richard D Thornton October 1973 "Electromagnetic Flight" Scientific American Springer Nature 229 4: 17–25 

External linksedit

  • Central Japan Railway Company - Linear Express
  • Railway Technical Research Institute RTRI
  • RTRI Maglev website
  • SCMAGLEV website
  • The Northeast Maglev
  • US-Japan MAGLEV

Coordinates: 35°35′N 138°56′E / 35583°N 138933°E / 35583; 138933

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