Thu . 20 Jun 2020
TR | RU | UK | KK | BE |


scientology, scientology beliefs
Scientology is a body of religious beliefs and practices created in 1954 by American author L Ron Hubbard 1911–86 After he developed Dianetics, the Dianetics Foundation entered bankruptcy and Hubbard lost the rights to his seminal publication Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health in 1952 He then recharacterized the subject as a religion and renamed it Scientology, retaining the terminology, doctrines, the E-meter, and the practice of auditing Within a year, he regained the rights to Dianetics and retained both subjects under the umbrella of the Church of Scientology

Hubbard's groups have encountered considerable opposition and controversy In January 1951, the New Jersey Board of Medical Examiners brought proceedings against Hubbard's Dianetics Foundation on the charge of teaching medicine without a license Hubbard's followers engaged in a program of covert and illegal infiltration of the US government

Hubbard-inspired organizations and their classification are often a point of contention Germany classifies Scientology groups as an "anti-constitutional sect" verfassungsfeindliche Sekte In France, Scientology groups have been classified as a cult by some parliamentary reports


  • 1 History
    • 11 L Ron Hubbard
    • 12 Excalibur and Babalon Working
    • 13 Dianetics
    • 14 Church of Scientology
    • 15 Hubbard in hiding, death, and aftermath
    • 16 Splinter groups: Independent Scientology, Freezone, and Miscavige's RTC
  • 2 Beliefs and practices
    • 21 Theological doctrine
    • 22 Reactive mind, traumatic memories, and auditing
    • 23 Emotional Tone Scale and survival
    • 24 Toxins and Purification
    • 25 Introspection Rundown
    • 26 Rejection of psychology and psychiatry
    • 27 Body and thetan
    • 28 Space opera and the Wall of Fire
    • 29 Ethics, suppressives, and disconnection
    • 210 Fair game
  • 3 Organization
    • 31 Membership statistics
    • 32 Sea Org
    • 33 Rehabilitation Project Force
    • 34 Office of Special Affairs
    • 35 Franchises and advanced organizations
    • 36 Celebrity Centers
    • 37 Scientology tech in jails and prisons, schools, and management
    • 38 Volunteer ministers
    • 39 Other entities
  • 4 Controversies
    • 41 Criminal behavior
    • 42 Organized harassment
    • 43 Violation of auditing confidentiality
    • 44 Shunning
    • 45 Allegation of coerced abortions
    • 46 Scientology, litigation, and the Internet
  • 5 Disputes over legal status
    • 51 Scientology as a religion
    • 52 Viewed as a commercial enterprise
  • 6 Scientology in religious studies
    • 61 Hubbard's motives
    • 62 Scientology as a UFO religion
    • 63 Influences
    • 64 Scientology and hypnosis
    • 65 Etymology of "Scientology" and earlier usage
    • 66 ARC and KRC triangles
    • 67 Bridge to total freedom
  • 7 Scientology in popular culture
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 Notes
  • 11 External links


See also: Timeline of Scientology and History of Dianetics

L Ron Hubbard

Lts jg L Ron Hubbard and Thomas S Moulton in Portland, Oregon in 1943 Main article: L Ron Hubbard Further information: Early life of L Ron Hubbard and Military career of L Ron Hubbard

L Ron Hubbard 1911-1986 was the only child of Harry Ross Hubbard, a United States Navy officer, and his wife Ledora Hubbard spent three semesters at George Washington University but was placed on probation in September 1931 He failed to return for the fall 1932 semester

In July 1941, Hubbard was commissioned as a Lieutenant junior grade in the US Naval Reserve On May 18, 1943, the subchaser left Portland That night, Hubbard ordered his crew to fire 35 depth charges and a number of gun rounds at what he believed were Japanese submarines His ship sustained minor damage and three crew were injured Having run out of depth charges and with the presence of a submarine still unconfirmed by other ships, Hubbard's ship was ordered back to port The navy report concludes that "there was no submarine in the area" A decade later, Hubbard claimed he had sunk a Japanese submarine in his Scientology lectures

On June 28, 1941, Hubbard ordered his crew to fire on the Coronado Islands Hubbard apparently did not realize that the islands belonged to US-allied Mexico, nor that he had taken his vessel into Mexican territorial waters He was reprimanded and removed from command on July 7 After reassignment to a naval facility in Monterey, California, Hubbard became depressed and fell ill Reporting stomach pains in April 1945, he spent the remainder of the war as a patient in Oak Knoll Naval Hospital in Oakland, California According to his later teachings, during this time Hubbard made scientific "breakthroughs" by use of "endocrine experiments"

On October 15, 1947, Hubbard wrote a letter to the Veteran Administration formally requesting psychiatric treatment, but admitted that he was unable to afford it Within a few years, Hubbard would condemn psychiatry as evil, which would grow into a major theme in Scientology

Excalibur and Babalon Working

Main article: Scientology and the occult

In April 1938, Hubbard reportedly reacted to a drug used in a dental procedure According to his account, this triggered a revelatory near-death experience Allegedly inspired by this experience, Hubbard composed a manuscript, which was never published, with the working titles of "The One Command" or Excalibur The contents of Excalibur formed the basis for some of his later publications Arthur J Burks, who read the work in 1938, later recalled it discussed the "one command": to survive This theme would be revisited in Dianetics, the set of ideas and practices regarding the metaphysical relationship between the mind and body which became the central philosophy of Scientology Hubbard later cited Excalibur as an early version of Dianetics

In August 1945, Hubbard moved into the Pasadena mansion of John "Jack" Whiteside Parsons, an avid occultist and Thelemite, follower of the English ceremonial magician Aleister Crowley and leader of a lodge of Crowley's magical order, Ordo Templi Orientis OTO Parsons and Hubbard collaborated on the "Babalon Working", a sex magic ritual intended to summon an incarnation of Babalon, the supreme Thelemite Goddess The Church of Scientology admits to Hubbard’s involvement with Parsons while claiming that it was for the purpose of naval intelligence

In the late 1940s, Hubbard practiced as a hypnotist and he worked in Hollywood posing as a swami The Church says that Hubbard's experience with hypnosis led him to create Dianetics


Main article: Dianetics L Ron Hubbard in 1950

In May 1950, Hubbard's Dianetics: The Evolution of a Science was published by pulp magazine Astounding Science Fiction In the same year, he published the book-length Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, considered the seminal event of the century by Scientologists Scientologists sometimes use a a dating system based on the book's publication; for example, "AD 25" does not stand for Anno Domini, but "After Dianetics"

Dianetics uses a counseling technique known as auditing in which an auditor assists a subject in conscious recall of traumatic events in the individual's past It was originally intended to be a new psychotherapy and was not expected to become the foundation for a new religion Hubbard variously defined Dianetics as a spiritual healing technology and an organized science of thought The stated intent is to free individuals of the influence of past traumas by systematic exposure and removal of the engrams painful memories these events have left behind, a process called clearing Rutgers scholar Beryl Satter says that "there was little that was original in Hubbard's approach", with much of the theory having origins in popular conceptions of psychology Satter observes that in "keeping with the typical 1950s distrust of emotion, Hubbard promised that Dianetic treatment would release and erase psychosomatic ills and painful emotions, thereby leaving individuals with increased powers of rationality" According to Gallagher and Ashcraft, in contrast to psychotherapy, Hubbard stated that Dianetics "was more accessible to the average person, promised practitioners more immediate progress, and placed them in control of the therapy process" Hubbard's thought was parallel with the trend of humanist psychology at that time, which also came about in the 1950s Passas and Castillo write that the appeal of Dianetics was based on its consistency with prevailing values Shortly after the introduction of Dianetics, Hubbard introduced the concept of the "thetan" or soul which he claimed to have discovered Dianetics was organized and centralized to consolidate power under Hubbard, and groups that were previously recruited were no longer permitted to organize autonomously

Two of Hubbard's key supporters at the time were John W Campbell Jr, the editor of Astounding Science Fiction, and Campbell's brother-in-law, physician Joseph A Winter Dr Winter, hoping to have Dianetics accepted in the medical community, submitted papers outlining the principles and methodology of Dianetic therapy to the Journal of the American Medical Association and the American Journal of Psychiatry in 1949, but these were rejected

Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health spent six months on the New York Times bestseller list According to religious studies professor Paul Gutjahr, Dianetics is the bestselling non-Christian religious book of the centurysubscription required Publisher's Weekly gave a posthumous plaque to Hubbard to commemorate Dianetics' appearance on its list of bestsellers for one hundred weeks Studies that address the topic of the origins of the work and its significance to Scientology as a whole include Peter Rowley's New Gods in America, Omar V Garrison's The Hidden Story of Scientology, and Albert I Berger's Towards a Science of the Nuclear Mind: Science-fiction Origins of Dianetics More complex studies include Roy Wallis's The Road to Total Freedom

Dianetics appealed to a broad range of people who used instructions from the book and applied the method to each other, becoming practitioners themselves Dianetics soon met with criticism Morris Fishbein, the editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association and well-known at the time as a debunker of quack medicine, dismissed Hubbard's book An article in Newsweek stated that "the Dianetics concept is unscientific and unworthy of discussion or review" Hubbard asserted that Dianetics is “an organized science of thought built on definite axioms: statements of natural laws on the order of those of the physical sciences”

Hubbard became the leader of a growing Dianetics movement He became a popular lecturer and established the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation in Elizabeth, New Jersey, where he trained his first Dianetics counselors or auditors

Some practitioners of Dianetics reported experiences which they believed had occurred in past lives, or previous incarnations In early 1951, reincarnation became a subject of intense debate within the Dianetics community Hubbard took the reports of past life events seriously and introduced the concept of the thetan, an immortal being analogous to the soul This was an important factor in the transition from secular Dianetics to the religion of Scientology Sociologists Roy Wallis and Steve Bruce suggest that Dianetics, which set each person as his or her own authority, was about to fail due to its inherent individualism, and that Hubbard started Scientology as a religion to establish himself as the overarching authority

Also in 1951, Hubbard incorporated the electropsychometer E-meter for short, a kind of electrodermal activity meter, as an auditing aid Based on a design by Volney Mathison, the device is held by Scientologists to be a useful tool in detecting changes in a person's state of mind The global spread of Scientology at the latter half of the 1950s was culminated with the opening of churches in Johannesburg and Paris, while world headquarters transferred to England in Saint Hill, a rural estate Hubbard lived there for the next seven years

Dianetics is different from Scientology in that Scientology is a religion while Dianetics is not The purpose of Dianetics is the improvement of the individual, the individual or “self” being only one of eight "dynamics"

Church of Scientology

Main article: Church of Scientology The Founding Church of Scientology in Washington DC

In January 1951, the New Jersey Board of Medical Examiners began proceedings against the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation for teaching medicine without a license, which eventually led to that foundation's bankruptcy In December 1952, the Hubbard Dianetic Foundation filed for bankruptcy, and Hubbard lost control of the Dianetics trademark and copyrights to financier Don Purcell Author Russell Miller argues that Scientology "was a development of undeniable expedience, since it ensured that he would be able to stay in business even if the courts eventually awarded control of Dianetics and its valuable copyrights to Purcell"

L Ron Hubbard originally intended for Scientology to be considered a science, as stated in his writings In 1952, Scientology was organized to put this intended science into practice, and in the same year, Hubbard published a new set of teachings as Scientology, a religious philosophy Marco Frenschkowski quotes Hubbard in a letter written in 1953, to show that he never denied that his original approach was not a religious one: “Probably the greatest discovery of Scientology and its most forceful contribution to mankind has been the isolation, description and handling of the human spirit, accomplished in July, 1951, in Phoenix, Arizona I established, along scientific rather than religious or humanitarian lines that the thing which is the person, the personality, is separable from the body and the mind at will and without causing bodily death or derangement Hubbard 1983: 55”

In April 1953, Hubbard wrote a letter proposing that Scientology should be transformed into a religion As membership declined and finances grew tighter, Hubbard had reversed the hostility to religion he voiced in Dianetics His letter discussed the legal and financial benefits of religious status Hubbard outlined plans for setting up a chain of "Spiritual Guidance Centers" charging customers $500 for twenty-four hours of auditing "That is real money  Charge enough and we'd be swamped" He wrote:

I await your reaction on the religion angle In my opinion, we couldn't get worse public opinion than we have had or have less customers with what we've got to sell A religious charter would be necessary in Pennsylvania or NJ to make it stick But I sure could make it stick

In December 1953, Hubbard incorporated three churches – a "Church of American Science", a "Church of Scientology" and a "Church of Spiritual Engineering" – in Camden, New Jersey On February 18, 1954, with Hubbard's blessing, some of his followers set up the first local Church of Scientology, the Church of Scientology of California, adopting the "aims, purposes, principles and creed of the Church of American Science, as founded by L Ron Hubbard" The movement spread quickly through the United States and to other English-speaking countries such as Britain, Ireland, South Africa and Australia The second local Church of Scientology to be set up, after the one in California, was in Auckland, New Zealand In 1955, Hubbard established the Founding Church of Scientology in Washington, DC The group declared that the Founding Church, as written in the certificate of incorporation for the Founding Church of Scientology in the District of Columbia, was to “act as a parent church for the religious faith down as ‘Scientology’ and to act as a church for the religious worship of the faith”

The Church experienced further challenges The United States Food and Drug Administration FDA began an investigation concerning the claims the Church of Scientology made in connection with its E-meters On January 4, 1963, FDA agents raided offices of the Church of Scientology, seizing hundreds of E-meters as illegal medical devices and tons of literature that they accused of making false medical claims The original suit by the FDA to condemn the literature and E-meters did not succeed, but the Court ordered the Church to label every meter with a disclaimer that it is purely religious artifact, to post a $20,000 bond of compliance, and to pay the FDA's legal expenses

In the course of developing Scientology, Hubbard presented rapidly changing teachings that some have seen as often self-contradictory According to Lindholm, for the inner cadre of Scientologists in that period, involvement depended not so much on belief in a particular doctrine but on unquestioning faith in Hubbard

In 1966, Hubbard purportedly stepped down as executive director of Scientology to devote himself to research and writing The following year, he formed the ship-based Sea Organization or Sea Org which operated three ships: the Diana, the Athena, and the flagship the Apollo One month after the establishment of the Sea Org, Hubbard announced that he had made a breakthrough discovery, the result of which were the "OT III" materials purporting to provide a method for overcoming factors inhibiting spiritual progress These materials were first disseminated on the ships, and then propagated by Sea Org members reassigned to staff Advanced Organizations on land

Hubbard in hiding, death, and aftermath

In 1972, facing criminal charges in France, Hubbard returned to the United States and began living in an apartment in Queens, New York When faced with possible indictment in the United States, Hubbard went into hiding in April 1979 He hid first in an apartment in Hemet, California, where his only contact with the outside world was via ten trusted Messengers He cut contact with everyone else, even his wife, whom he saw for the last time in August 1979 In February 1980 he disappeared into deep cover in the company of two trusted Messengers, Pat and Anne Broeker

In 1979, as a result of FBI raids during Operation Snow White, eleven senior people in the church's Guardian's Office were convicted of obstructing justice, burglary of government offices, and theft of documents and government property In 1981, Scientology took the German government to court for the first time

On January 24, 1986, L Ron Hubbard died at his ranch in Creston, California David Miscavige emerged as the new head of the organization

Splinter groups: Independent Scientology, Freezone, and Miscavige's RTC

Main article: Free Zone Scientology

While Scientology generally refers to Miscavige-led Church of Scientology, other groups practice Scientology These groups, collectively known as Independent Scientologists, consist of former members of the official Church of Scientology as well as entirely new members

In 1950, founding member Joseph Winter cut ties with Hubbard and set up a private Dianetics practice in New York In 1965, a longtime Church member and "Doctor of Scientology" Jack Horner b 1927, dissatisfied with the Church's "ethics" program, developed Dianology Capt Bill Robertson, a former Sea Org member, was a primary instigator of the movement in the early 1980s The church labels these groups "squirrels" Scientology jargon and often subjects them to considerable legal and social pressure

On January 1, 1982, Miscavige established the Religious Technology Center RTC On November 11, 1982, the Free Zone was established by top Scientologists in disagreement with RTC The Free Zone Association was founded and registered under the laws of Germany, and espouses the doctrine that the official Church of Scientology led by David Miscavige has departed from Hubbard's original philosophy

The Advanced Ability Center was established by Hubbard's personal auditor David Mayo after February 1983 – a time when some of Scientology's upper and middle management split with Miscavige's organization

More recently, high-profile defectors Mark Rathbun and Mike Rinder have championed the cause of Independent Scientologists wishing to practice Scientology outside of the Church

Beliefs and practices

Main article: Scientology beliefs and practices

According to Scientology, its beliefs and practices are based on rigorous research, and its doctrines are accorded a significance equivalent to scientific laws Scientology cosmology is, however, at odds with modern science, with claims of memories going back "76 trillion years": much longer than the age of the universe Blind belief is held to be of lesser significance than the practical application of Scientologist methods Adherents are encouraged to validate the practices through their personal experience Hubbard put it this way: "For a Scientologist, the final test of any knowledge he has gained is, 'did the data and the use of it in life actually improve conditions or didn't it'" Hubbard defined Scientology’s aims as: “A civilization without insanity, without criminals and without war; where the world can prosper and honest beings can have rights, and where man is free to rise to greater heights, are the aims of Scientology"

Theological doctrine

Scientology does not preach or impose a particular idea of God on Scientologists Rather, people are expected to discover the truth through their own observations as their awareness advances

the Church of Scientology has no set dogma concerning God that it imposes on its members As with all its tenets, Scientology does not ask individuals to accept anything on faith alone Rather, as one’s level of spiritual awareness increases through participation in Scientology auditing and training, one attains his own certainty of every dynamic Accordingly, only when the Seventh Dynamic spiritual is reached in its entirety will one discover and come to a full understanding of the Eighth Dynamic infinity and one’s relationship to the Supreme Being

Reactive mind, traumatic memories, and auditing

See also: Dianetics and Auditing Scientology A Scientologist introduces the E-meter to a potential student

Scientology presents two major divisions of the mind The reactive mind is thought to record all pain and emotional trauma, while the analytical mind is a rational mechanism that serves consciousness The reactive mind stores mental images which are not readily available to the analytical conscious mind; these are referred to as engrams Engrams are painful and debilitating; as they accumulate, people move further away from their true identity To avoid this fate is Scientology's basic goal Some engrams are taught by Hubbard to happen by accident while others are inflicted by “thetans who have gone bad and want power,” as described by the Los Angeles Times These engrams are named Implants in the doctrine of Scientology Hubbard said, “Implants result in all varieties of illness, apathy, degradation, neurosis and insanity and are the principal cause of these in man”

Dianetic auditing is one way by which the Scientologist may progress toward the Clear state, winning gradual freedom from the reactive mind's engrams and acquiring certainty of his or her reality as a thetan David V Barrett, a sociologist of religion who has written widely about the subject, says that according to Scientology, the “first major goal is to go Clear” Clearing was described to represent “the attainment of Man’s dreams through the ages of attaining a new and higher state of existence and freedom from the endless cycle of birth, death, birth … Clear is the total erasure of the reactive mind from which stems all the anxieties and problems the individual has”

Scientology asserts that people have hidden abilities which have not yet been fully realized It teaches that increased spiritual awareness and physical benefits are accomplished through counseling sessions referred to as auditing Through auditing, people can solve their problems and free themselves of engrams This restores them to their natural condition as thetans and enables them to be at cause in their daily lives, responding rationally and creatively to life events rather than reacting to them under the direction of stored engrams Accordingly, those who study Scientology materials and receive auditing sessions advance from a status of Preclear to Clear and Operating Thetan Scientology's utopian aim is to "clear the planet", that is, clear all people in the world of their engrams

Auditing is a one-on-one session with a Scientology counselor or auditor It is similar to confession or pastoral counseling, but the auditor records and stores all information received and does not dispense forgiveness or advice as a pastor or priest of another religion might do Instead, the auditor's task is to help a person discover and understand the universal principles of affinity, reality, and communication ARC Most auditing requires an E-meter, a device that measures minute changes in electrical resistance through the body when a person holds electrodes metal "cans", and a small current is passed through them

Scientology teaches that the E-meter helps to locate spiritual difficulties Once an area of concern has been identified, the auditor asks the individual specific questions about it to help him or her eliminate the difficulty, and uses the E-meter to confirm that the "charge" has been dissipated As the individual progresses up the "Bridge to Total Freedom", the focus of auditing moves from simple engrams to engrams of increasing complexity and other difficulties At the more advanced OT levels, Scientologists act as their own auditors "solo auditors"

Emotional Tone Scale and survival

Main articles: Emotional tone scale and Science of Survival

Scientology uses an emotional classification system called the tone scale The tone scale is a tool used in auditing; Scientologists maintain that knowing a person's place on the scale makes it easier to predict his or her actions and assists in bettering his or her condition

Scientology emphasizes the importance of survival, which it subdivides into eight classifications that are referred to as "dynamics" An individual's desire to survive is considered to be the first dynamic, while the second dynamic relates to procreation and family The remaining dynamics encompass wider fields of action, involving groups, mankind, all life, the physical universe, the spirit, and infinity, often associated with the Supreme Being The optimum solution to any problem is held to be the one that brings the greatest benefit to the greatest number of dynamics

Toxins and Purification

Main article: Purification Rundown

The Purification Rundown is a controversial "detoxification" program used by the Church of Scientology as an introductory service It features high-dose dietary supplements and extended time in a sauna up to five hours a day for five weeks Scientology claims it the only effective way to deal with the long-term effects of drug abuse or toxic exposure

Narconon is a "drug education and rehabilitation program" founded on Hubbard's beliefs about "toxins" and "purification" Narconon is offered in the United States, Canada and a number of European countries; its Purification Program also uses high-dose vitamins and extended sauna sessions, combined with auditing and study

Introspection Rundown

Main article: Introspection Rundown

The Introspection Rundown is a controversial Church of Scientology auditing process that is intended to handle a psychotic episode or complete mental breakdown Introspection is defined for the purpose of this rundown as a condition where the person is "looking into one's own mind, feelings, reactions, etc" The Introspection Rundown came under public scrutiny after the death of Lisa McPherson in 1995

Rejection of psychology and psychiatry

Further information: Scientology and psychiatry, Citizens Commission on Human Rights, and Psychiatry: An Industry of Death Scientologists on an anti-psychiatry demonstration

Scientology is vehemently opposed to psychiatry and psychology Psychiatry rejected Hubbard's theories in the early 1950s and in 1951, Hubbard's wife Sara consulted doctors who recommended he "be committed to a private sanatorium for psychiatric observation and treatment of a mental ailment known as paranoid schizophrenia" Thereafter, Hubbard criticized psychiatry as a "barbaric and corrupt profession"

Hubbard taught that psychiatrists were responsible for a great many wrongs in the world, saying that psychiatry has at various times offered itself as a tool of political suppression and "that psychiatry spawned the ideology which fired Hitler's mania, turned the Nazis into mass murderers, and created the Holocaust" Hubbard created the anti-psychiatry organization Citizens Commission on Human Rights CCHR, which operates Psychiatry: An Industry of Death, an anti-psychiatry museum

From 1969, CCHR has created campaigns to stand against the psychiatric treatments, electroconvulsive shock, lobotomy, and psychotropic drugs such as Ritalin and Prozac It has also exposed abuses in the psychiatric profession

Body and thetan

Main article: Thetan

Scientology beliefs revolve around the immortal soul, the thetan Scientology teaches that the thetan is the true identity of a person – an intrinsically good, omniscient, non-material core capable of unlimited creativity

Hubbard taught that thetans brought the material universe into being largely for their own pleasure The universe has no independent reality, but derives its apparent reality from the fact that thetans agree it exists Thetans fell from grace when they began to identify with their creation rather than their original state of spiritual purity Eventually they lost their memory of their true nature, along with the associated spiritual and creative powers As a result, thetans came to think of themselves as nothing but embodied beings

Thetans are reborn time and time again in new bodies through a process called "assumption" which is analogous to reincarnation Scientology posits a causal relationship between the experiences of earlier incarnations and one's present life, and with each rebirth, the effects of the MEST universe MEST here stands for matter, energy, space, and time on the thetan become stronger

Space opera and the Wall of Fire

See also: Operating Thetan and Space opera in Scientology doctrine Xenu as depicted by Panorama

The Church of Scientology holds that at the higher levels of initiation "OT levels", mystical teachings are imparted that may be harmful to unprepared readers These teachings are kept secret from members who have not reached these levels The church says that the secrecy is warranted to keep its materials' use in context and to protect its members from being exposed to materials they are not yet prepared for

These are the OT levels, the levels above Clear, whose contents are guarded within Scientology The OT level teachings include accounts of various cosmic catastrophes that befell the thetans Hubbard described these early events collectively as "space opera"

In the OT levels, Hubbard explains how to reverse the effects of past-life trauma patterns that supposedly extend millions of years into the past Among these advanced teachings is the story of Xenu sometimes Xemu, introduced as the tyrant ruler of the "Galactic Confederacy" According to this story, 75 million years ago Xenu brought billions of people to Earth in spacecraft resembling Douglas DC-8 airliners, stacked them around volcanoes and detonated hydrogen bombs in the volcanoes The thetans then clustered together, stuck to the bodies of the living, and continue to do this today Scientologists at advanced levels place considerable emphasis on isolating body thetans and neutralizing their ill effects

Excerpts and descriptions of OT materials were published online by a former member in 1995 and then circulated in mainstream media This occurred after the teachings were submitted as evidence in court cases involving Scientology, thus becoming a matter of public record There are eight publicly known OT levels, OT I to VIII The highest level, OT VIII, is disclosed only at sea on the Scientology cruise ship Freewinds It has been rumored that additional OT levels, said to be based on material written by Hubbard long ago, will be released at some appropriate point in the future

A large Church of Spiritual Technology symbol carved into the ground at Scientology's Trementina Base is visible from the air Washington Post reporter Richard Leiby wrote, "Former Scientologists familiar with Hubbard’s teachings on reincarnation say the symbol marks a 'return point' so loyal staff members know where they can find the founder’s works when they travel here in the future from other places in the universe"

Scientology cruise ship Freewinds

Ethics, suppressives, and disconnection

Main articles: Ethics Scientology, Suppressive Person, and Disconnection

The Ethics system regulates member behavior, and Ethics officers are present in every Scientology organization Ethics officers ensure "correct application of Scientology technology" and deal with "behavior adversely affecting a Scientology organization's performance", ranging from "Errors" and "Misdemeanors" to "Crimes" and "Suppressive Acts", as those terms defined by Scientology

Scientology asserts some people are truly malevolent, and Hubbard taught 20 percent of the population were suppressive persons, which includes some hopelessly antisocial personalities who are the truly dangerous individuals in humanity: "the Adolf Hitlers and the Genghis Khans, the unrepentant murderers and the drug lords" Scientology disconnection policy prohibits most contact with Suppressive Persons The church denies that a disconnection policy exists, and quotes Hubbard's definition of disconnection as "a self-determined decision made by an individual that he is not going to be connected to another"

A Scientologist who communicates with a suppressive person risks being declared a Potential Trouble Source Defectors who turn into critics of the movement are declared suppressive persons, and the Church of Scientology has a reputation for moving aggressively against such detractors

Fair game

Main article: Fair Game Scientology

The term Fair Game is used to describe policies and practices carried out against people the Church perceives as its enemies Hubbard established the policy in the 1950s, in response to criticism both from within and outside his organization Individuals or groups who are "Fair Game" are judged to be a threat to the Church and, according to the policy, can be punished and harassed using any and all means possible

Hubbard and his followers targeted many individuals as well as government officials and agencies, including a program of covert and illegal infiltration of the IRS and other US government agencies during the 1970s They also conducted private investigations, character assassination and legal action against the Church's critics in the media The policy remains in effect and has been defended by the Church of Scientology as a core religious practice


According to a Church account, the Scientology cross represent the spirit "rising triumphantly, ultimately transcending the turmoil of the physical universe to achieve salvation" Main article: List of Scientology organizations The incomplete Super Power Building of the FLAG Scientology complex in Clearwater, Florida

The internal structure of Scientology organizations is strongly bureaucratic with a focus on statistics-based management Organizational operating budgets are performance-related and subject to frequent reviews

Membership statistics

Scientology center in New York City

A 2001 survey found only 55,000 people in the United States who claimed to be Scientologists Worldwide estimates of Scientology's core practicing membership ranges between 100,000 and 200,000, mostly in the US, Europe, South Africa and Australia The 2008 American Religious Identification Survey found that the number of American Scientologists had dropped to 25,000 Scientology is also declining in the United Kingdom

Although the Church of Scientology claims to be the fastest growing religious movement on Earth, the church's estimates of its membership numbers are reportedly significantly exaggerated

Sea Org

The highest echelon of the Scientology hierarchy are the members the Sea Organization or Sea Org The organization includes some 5,000 of Scientology's most dedicated adherents, who work for low pay, and sign a billion-year contract

Rehabilitation Project Force

The Rehabilitation Project Force RPF is a controversial part of the Scientology "justice" system When Sea Org members are found guilty of a violation, is assigned to the RPF The RPF involves a daily regimen of five hours of auditing or studying, eight hours of work, often physical labor, such as building renovation, and at least seven hours of sleep Douglas E Cowan and David G Bromley state that scholars and observers have come to radically different conclusions about the RPF and whether it is "voluntary or coercive, therapeutic or punitive"

Office of Special Affairs

Main articles: Office of Special Affairs and Guardian's Office

The Office of Special Affairs or OSA formerly the Guardian's Office is a department of the Church of Scientology which has been characterized as a non-state intelligence agency It has targeted critics of the Church for "dead agent" operations, which is mounting character assassination operations against perceived enemies

Franchises and advanced organizations

Many Scientologists' first contact with Scientology is through local informal groups and field auditors practicing Dianetics counseling In addition to these, Scientology operates hundreds of Churches and Missions around the world This is where Scientologists receive introductory training, and it is at this local level that most Scientologists participate Churches and Missions are licensed franchises; they may offer services for a fee provided they contribute a proportion of their income and comply with the Religious Technology Center RTC and its standards

Operating Thetan levels are offered only at Scientology's Advanced Organizations Los Angeles, Sydney, East Grinstead and Copenhagen The Flag Service Organization in Clearwater, Florida offers OT levels VI and VII The Scientology ship Freewinds offers OT VIII

Celebrity Centers

See also: Celebrity Centres, Scientology and celebrities, and List of Scientologists

In 1955, Hubbard created a list of 63 celebrities targets for conversion to Scientology In a church policy letter in 1973, L Ron Hubbard wrote, "The purpose of Celebrity Centre is, to forward the expansion and popularization of Scientology through the arts"

Scientology operates eight churches that are designated Celebrity Centres, designed to minister to celebrity Scientologists The largest of these is in Hollywood, California, called Church of Scientology Celebrity Centre International The Celebrity Centre International was the first one that was opened in 1969 and its opening is celebrated the first week of August each year in an evening gala

Former silent-screen star Gloria Swanson and actors Tom Cruise and John Travolta have spoken publicly about their commitment to Scientology

Scientology tech in jails and prisons, schools, and management

Church of Scientology of Tampa, Florida

Several Scientology organizations promote the use of Scientology technology as a means to solve social problems Scientology began to focus on these issues in the early 1970s, lead by Hubbard The church developed outreach programs to fight drug addiction, illiteracy, learning disabilities and criminal behavior These have been presented to schools, businesses and communities as secular techniques based on Hubbard's writings The Association for Better Living and Education ABLE acts as an umbrella organization for these efforts Notable examples include:

  • Criminon, an offshoot of Narconon, introduces Scientology practices to criminal offenders
  • Applied Scholastics, founded in 1972, teaches Scientology study tech to K-12 students Delphi Schools operates numerous private schools throughout the United States, including the flagship academy The Delphian School in Yamhill County, Oregon
  • The World Institute of Scientology Enterprises WISE applies Scientology technology to business management The most prominent training supplier to make use of Hubbard's technology is Sterling Management Systems
  • The Way to Happiness Foundation promotes a moral code written by Hubbard, to date translated into more than 40 languages

Volunteer ministers

Main article: Volunteer Ministers

The Church of Scientology began its "Volunteer Ministers" program as a way to participate in community outreach projects Volunteer Ministers sometimes travel to the scenes of major disasters in order to provide assistance with relief efforts According to critics, these relief efforts consist of passing out copies of a pamphlet authored by Hubbard entitled The Way to Happiness, and engaging in a method said to calm panicked or injured individuals known in Scientology as a "touch assist" Accounts of the Volunteer Ministers' effectiveness have been mixed, and touch assists are not supported by scientific evidence

Other entities

Other Scientology-related organizations include:

  • International Association of Scientologists, the official Scientology membership organization;
  • Church of Spiritual Technology, which owns the copyrights to Scientology works
  • The National Commission on Law Enforcement and Social Justice, devoted to combating what it describes as abusive practices by government and police agencies, especially Interpol


Main article: Scientology controversies See also: Scientology and the legal system Official German information leaflets from the Bavarian Office for the Protection of the Constitution on from left to right Islamic extremism, Scientology, and organized crime "Several states published pamphlets about Scientology and other religious groups that detailed the Church's ideology and practices States defended the practice by noting their responsibility to respond to citizens' requests for information about Scientology as well as other subjects While many of the pamphlets were factual and relatively unbiased, some warned of alleged dangers posed by Scientology to the political order, to the free market economic system, and to the mental and financial well being of individuals Beyond the Government's actions, the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Church have been public opponents of Scientology Evangelical 'Commissioners for Religious and Ideological Issues' have been particularly active in this regard"

The Church of Scientology is one of the most controversial religious organizations A first point of controversy was its challenge of the psychotherapeutic establishment Another was a 1991 Time magazine article that attacked the church, which was rejected by the court as baseless early in 1992 And a third is its religious status in the United States, formalized when the IRS granted the organization tax-exempt status in 1993

It has been in conflict with the governments and police forces of many countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, France and Germany It has been one of the most litigious religious movements in history, filing countless lawsuits against governments, organizations and individuals

Reports and allegations have been made, by journalists, courts, and governmental bodies of several countries, that the Church of Scientology is an unscrupulous commercial enterprise that harasses its critics and brutally exploits its members A considerable amount of investigation has been aimed at the church, by groups ranging from the media to governmental agencies

The controversies involving the church and its critics, some of them ongoing, include:

  • Criminal behavior by members of the Church, including the infiltration of the US Government
  • Organized harassment of people perceived as enemies of the Church
  • Scientology's disconnection policy, in which some members are required to shun friends or family members who are "antagonistic" to the Church
  • The death of a Scientologist Lisa McPherson while in the care of the church Robert Minton sponsored the multimillion-dollar lawsuit against Scientology for the death of McPherson In May 2004, McPherson's estate and the Church of Scientology reached a confidential settlement
  • Attempts to legally force search engines censor information critical of the Church
  • Allegations the Church leader David Miscavige beats and demoralizes staff, and that physical violence by superiors towards staff working for them is a common occurrence in the church Scientology spokesman Tommy Davis denied these claims and provided witnesses to rebut them

Scientology social programs such as drug and criminal rehabilitation have likewise drawn both support and criticism

Stephen A Kent, a professor of sociology, has said that "Scientologists see themselves as possessors of doctrines and skills that can save the world, if not the galaxy" As stated in Scientology doctrine: "The whole agonized future of this planet, every man, woman and child on it, and your own destiny for the next endless trillions of years depend on what you do here and now with and in Scientology" Kent has described Scientology's ethics system as "a peculiar brand of morality that uniquely benefited In plain English, the purpose of Scientology ethics is to eliminate opponents, then eliminate people's interests in things other than Scientology"

Many former members have come forward to speak out about the Church and the negative effects its teachings have had on them, including celebrities such as Leah Remini Remini spoke about her split from the Church, saying that she still has friends within the organization that she is no longer able to speak to

Criminal behavior

See also: Operation Snow White and Operation Freakout Author Paulette Cooper was indicted for making bomb threats after she was framed by agents of the Church of Scientology

Much of the controversy surrounding Scientology stems from the criminal convictions of core members of the Scientology organization

In 1978, a number of Scientologists, including L Ron Hubbard's wife Mary Sue Hubbard who was second in command in the organization at the time, were convicted of perpetrating what was at the time the largest incident of domestic espionage in the history of the United States, called "Operation Snow White" This involved infiltrating, wiretapping, and stealing documents from the offices of Federal attorneys and the Internal Revenue Service L Ron Hubbard was convicted in absentia by French authorities of engaging in fraud and sentenced to four years in prison The head of the French Church of Scientology was convicted at the same trial and given a suspended one-year prison sentence

An FBI raid on the Church's headquarters revealed documentation that detailed Scientology's criminal actions against various critics of the organization In "Operation Freakout", agents of the church attempted to destroy Paulette Cooper, author of The Scandal of Scientology, an early book that had been critical of the movement Among these documents was a plan to frame Gabe Cazares, the mayor of Clearwater, Florida, with a staged hit-and-run accident

In 1988, Scientology president Heber Jentzsch and ten other members of the organization were arrested in Spain on various charges including illicit association, coercion, fraud, and labor law violations

In October 2009, the Church of Scientology was found guilty of organized fraud in France The sentence was confirmed by appeal court in February 2012

In 2012, Belgian prosecutors indicted Scientology as a criminal organization engaged in fraud and extortion

Organized harassment

Main article: Fair Game Scientology

Scientology has historically engaged in hostile action toward its critics; executives within the organization have proclaimed that Scientology is "not a turn-the-other-cheek religion" Journalists, politicians, former Scientologists and various anti-cult groups have made accusations of wrongdoing against Scientology since the 1960s, and Scientology has targeted these critics – almost without exception – for retaliation, in the form of lawsuits and public counter-accusations of personal wrongdoing Many of Scientology's critics have also reported they were subject to threats and harassment in their private lives

Journalist John Sweeney reported that "While making our BBC Panorama film Scientology and Me I have been shouted at, spied on, had my hotel invaded at midnight, denounced as a 'bigot' by star Scientologists, brain-washed—that is how it felt to me—in a mock up of a Nazi-style torture chamber and chased round the streets of Los Angeles by sinister strangers"

Violation of auditing confidentiality

Scientology E-Meter

During the auditing process, the auditor collects and records personal information from the client

While the Church of Scientology claims to protect the confidentiality of auditing records, the Church has a history of attacking and psychologically abusing former members using information culled from the records For example, a December 16, 1969, a Guardian's Office order G O 121669 by Mary Sue Hubbard explicitly authorized the use of auditing records for purposes of "internal security" Former members report having participated in combing through information obtained in auditing sessions to see if it could be used for smear campaigns against critics


For more details on this topic, see Disconnection

The practice of shunning in Scientology is termed "Disconnection" Members can disconnect from any person they already know, including existing family members Many examples of this policy's application have been established in court Failure to disconnect from a Suppressive Person is itself labelled a Suppressive act

Allegation of coerced abortions

For more details on this topic, see Scientology and abortion § Sea Org Protester against Scientology, holding sign which reads: "What kind of Church makes its staff have Abortions"

The Sea Org originally operated on vessels at sea where it was understood that it was not permitted to raise children on board the ships Pregnant women in the Sea Org have reported been pressured to undergo abortions Sea Org members were reportedly shown secret writings by L Ron Hubbard to convince them that having an abortion was not against Scientology practices

In 2003, The Times of India reported that "Forced abortions, beatings, starvation are considered tools of discipline in this church"

A former high-ranking source reports that "some 1,500 abortions" have been "carried out by women in the Sea Organization since the implementation of a rule in the late '80s that members could not remain in the organization if they decided to have children" The source noted that "And if members who have been in the Sea Organization for, say, 10 years do decide to have kids, they are dismissed with no more than $1,000" as a severance package

Many former members have claimed they were pressured to undergo abortion

A protester holds a sign which reads: "C o S forces its female members to get abortions" February 10, 2008

Longtime member Astra Woodcraft reportedly "left Scientology for good when the church tried to pressure her to have an abortion" Former Sea Org member Karen Pressley recounted that she was often asked by fellow Scientologists for loans so that they could get an abortion and remain in the Sea Org Scientology employee Claire Headley has claimed that she worked "was forced to have two abortions to keep her job and was subjected to violations of personal rights and liberties for the purpose of obtaining forced labor" Laura Ann DeCrescenzo reported that while a minor, she was "coerced to have an abortion"

In March 2009, Maureen Bolstad reported that women who worked at Scientology's headquarters were forced to have abortions, or faced being declared a "Suppressive Person" by the organization's management In March 2010, former Scientologist Janette Lang stated that at age 20 she became pregnant by her boyfriend while in the organization, and her boyfriend's Scientology supervisors "coerced them into terminating the pregnancy" "We fought for a week, I was devastated, I felt abused, I was lost and eventually I gave in It was my baby, my body and my choice, and all of that was taken away from me by Scientology," said Lang

Australian Senator Nick Xenophon gave a speech to the Australian Parliament in November 2009, about statements he had received from former Scientologists He said that he had been told members of the organization had coerced pregnant female employees to have abortions "I am deeply concerned about this organisation and the devastating impact it can have on its followers," said Senator Xenophon, and he requested that the Australian Senate begin an investigation into Scientology According to the letters presented by Senator Xenophon, the organization was involved in "ordering" its members to have abortions Former Scientologist Aaron Saxton sent a letter to Senator Xenophon stating he had participated in coercing pregnant women within the organization to have abortions "Aaron says women who fell pregnant were taken to offices and bullied to have an abortion If they refused, they faced demotion and hard labour Aaron says one staff member used a coat hanger and self-aborted her child for fear of punishment," said Senator Xenophon Carmel Underwood, another former Scientologist, said she had been put under "extreme pressure" to have an abortion, and that she was placed into a "disappearing programme", after refusing Underwood was the executive director of Scientology's branch in Sydney, Australia

Scientology spokesman Tommy Davis dismissed such claims as "utterly meritless" Mike Ferriss, the head of Scientology in New Zealand, told media that "There are no forced abortions in Scientology" Scientology spokesperson Virginia Stewart likewise rejected the claims and asserted "The Church of Scientology considers the family unit and children to be of the utmost importance and does not condone nor force anyone to undertake any medical procedure whatsoever"

Scientology, litigation, and the Internet

See also: Scientology and the Internet and Project Chanology

In the 1990s, Miscavige's organization took action against increased criticism of Scientology on the Internet and online distribution of Scientology-related documents

Starting in 1991, Scientology filed fifty lawsuits against Scientology-critic Cult Awareness Network CAN Many of the suits were dismissed, but one resulted in $2 million in losses, bankrupting the network At bankruptcy, CAN's name and logo were obtained by a Scientologist A new Cult Awareness Network was set up with Scientology backing, which operates as an information and networking center for non-traditional religions, referring callers to academics and other experts

In a 1993 US lawsuit brought by the Church of Scientology against Steven Fishman, a former member of the Church, Fishman made a court declaration which included several dozen pages of formerly secret esoterica detailing aspects of Scientologist cosmogony As a result of the litigation, this material, normally strictly safeguarded and used only in Scientology's more advanced "OT levels", found its way onto the Internet This resulted in a battle between the Church of Scientology and its online critics over the right to disclose this material, or safeguard its confidentiality The Church of Scientology was forced to issue a press release acknowledging the existence of this cosmogony, rather than allow its critics "to distort and misuse this information for their own purposes" Even so, the material, notably the story of Xenu, has since been widely disseminated and used to caricature Scientology, despite the Church's vigorous program of copyright litigation

In January 1995, church lawyer Helena Kobrin attempted to shut down the newsgroup altreligionscientology by sending a control message instructing Usenet servers to delete the group In practice, this rmgroup message had little effect, since most Usenet servers are configured to disregard such messages when sent to groups that receive substantial traffic, and newgroup messages were quickly issued to recreate the group on those servers that did not do so However, the issuance of the message led to a great deal of public criticism by free-speech advocates Among the criticisms raised, one suggestion is that Scientology's true motive is to suppress the free speech of its critics

An Internet-based group which refers to itself as 'Anonymous' held protests outside Scientology centers in cities around the world in February 2008 as part of Project Chanology Issues they protested ranged from alleged abuse of followers to the validity of its claims to qualify as a state-sponsored religion

The Church also began filing lawsuits against those who posted copyrighted texts on the newsgroup and the World Wide Web, and lobbied for tighter restrictions on copyrights in general The Church supported the controversial Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act as well as the even more controversial Digital Millennium Copyright Act DMCA Some of the DMCA's provisions notably the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act were heavily influenced by Church litigation against US Internet service providers over copyrighted Scientology materials that had been posted or uploaded through their servers

Beginning in the middle of 1996 and ensuing for several years, the newsgroup was attacked by anonymous parties using a tactic dubbed sporgery by some, in the form of hundreds of thousands of forged spam messages posted on the group Some investigators said that some spam had been traced to church members Former Scientologist Tory Christman later asserted that the Office of Special Affairs had undertaken a concerted effort to destroy altreligionscientology through these means; the effort failed

On January 14, 2008, a video produced by the Church of Scientology featuring an interview with Tom Cruise was leaked to the Internet and uploaded to YouTube The Church of Scientology issued a copyright violation claim against YouTube requesting the removal of the video Subsequently, the group Anonymous voiced its criticism of Scientology and began attacking the Church Calling the action by the Church of Scientology a form of Internet censorship, participants of Anonymous coordinated Project Chanology, which consisted of a series of denial-of-service attacks against Scientology websites, prank calls, and black faxes to Scientology centers On January 21, 2008, Anonymous announced its intentions via a video posted to YouTube entitled "Message to Scientology", and a press release declaring a "war" against both the Church of Scientology and the Religious Technology Center In the press release, the group stated that the attacks against the Church of Scientology would continue in order to protect the freedom of speech, and end what they saw as the financial exploitation of church members

A protester criticizes Scientology

On January 28, 2008, an Anonymous video appeared on YouTube calling for protests outside Church of Scientology centers on February 10, 2008 According to a letter Anonymous e-mailed to the press, about 7,000 people protested in more than 90 cities worldwide Many protesters wore masks based on the character V from V for Vendetta who was influenced by Guy Fawkes or otherwise disguised their identities, in part to protect themselves from reprisals from the Church of Scientology Many further protests have followed since then in cities around the world

The Arbitration Committee of the Wikipedia internet encyclopedia decided in May 2009 to restrict access to its site from Church of Scientology IP addresses, to prevent self-serving edits by Scientologists A "host of anti-Scientologist editors" were topic-banned as well The committee concluded that both sides had "gamed policy" and resorted to "battlefield tactics", with articles on living persons being the "worst casualties"

Disputes over legal status

Main article: Scientology status by country A Scientology Center on Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California

The legal status of Scientology or Scientology-related organizations differs between jurisdictions Scientology was legally recognized as a tax-exempt religion in South Africa, Australia, Sweden, New Zealand, Portugal, and Spain Scientology was granted tax-exempt status in the United States in 1993 The organization is considered a cult in Chile and an "anticonstitutional sect" in Germany, and is considered a cult French secte by some French public authorities

The church argues that Scientology is a genuine religious movement that has been misrepresented, maligned, and persecuted The Church of Scientology has pursued an extensive public relations campaign for the recognition of Scientology as a tax-exempt religion in the various countries in which it exists

Scientology has often encountered opposition due to its strong-arm tactics directed against critics and members wishing to leave the organization A number of governments regard the Church as a religious organization entitled to tax-exempt status, while governments variously classify it as a business, cult, pseudoreligion, or criminal organization

In 1957, the Church of Scientology of California was granted tax-exempt status by the United States Internal Revenue Service IRS, and so, for a time, were other local churches In 1958 however, the IRS started a review of the appropriateness of this status In 1959, Hubbard moved to England, remaining there until the mid-1960s

In the mid-sixties, the Church of Scientology was banned in several Australian states, starting with Victoria in 1965 The ban was based on the Anderson Report, which found that the auditing process involved "command" hypnosis, in which the hypnotist assumes "positive authoritative control" over the patient On this point the report stated,

It is the firm conclusion of this Board that most scientology and dianetic techniques are those of authoritative hypnosis and as such are dangerous the scientific evidence which the Board heard from several expert witnesses of the highest repute leads to the inescapable conclusion that it is only in name that there is any difference between authoritative hypnosis and most of the techniques of scientology Many scientology techniques are in fact hypnotic techniques, and Hubbard has not changed their nature by changing their names

The Australian Church was forced to operate under the name of the "Church of the New Faith" as a result, the name and practice of Scientology having become illegal in the relevant states Several years of court proceedings aimed at overturning the ban followed In 1973, the law in Victoria was formally repealed in Western and Southern Australia and within two decades, all legislation against Scientology was reversed In 1982, the law was repealed, and the High Court of Australia ruled in a unanimous decision that the Church of Scientology was “undoubtedly a religion and deserving of tax exemption” the following year

In 1967, the IRS removed Scientology's tax-exempt status, asserting that its activities were commercial and operated for the benefit of Hubbard, rather than for charitable or religious purposes The decision resulted in a process of litigation that was settled in the Church's favor a quarter of a century later, the longest case of litigation in IRS history

Scientology as a religion

Scientology is officially recognized as a religion in the United States Recognition came in 1993, when the Internal Revenue Service IRS stated that " operated exclusively for religious and charitable purposes" Scientology was again recognized as a religion by the US courts when the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed the judgment in Headley v Church of Scientology International in 2012

The New York Times noted in this connection that the Church of Scientology had funded a campaign which included a whistle-blower organization to publicly attack the IRS, as well as hiring of private investigators to look into the private lives of IRS officials In 1991, Miscavige, the highest-ranking Scientology leader, arranged a meeting with Fred T Goldberg Jr, the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service at the time The meeting was an "opportunity for the church to offer to end its long dispute with the agency, including the dozens of suits brought against the IRS" The committee met several times with the Scientology legal team and "was persuaded that those involved in the Snow White crimes had been purged, that church money was devoted to tax-exempt purposes and that, with Mr Hubbard's death, no one was getting rich from Scientology" In August 1993, a settlement was reached; the church would receive its tax-exempt status and end its legal actions against the IRS and its personnel The church was required only to resubmit new applications for exemption to the IRS Exempt Organizations EO division, which was told "not to consider any substantive matters" because those issues had been resolved by the committee The secret agreement was announced on October 13, 1993, with the IRS refusing to disclose any of the terms or the reasoning behind the decision Both the IRS and Scientology rejected any allegations that foul play or undue pressure had been used on IRS officials, insisting that the decision had been based on the merits of the case IRS officials "insisted that Scientology's tactics had not affected the decision" and that "ultimately the decision was made on a legal basis" Miscavige claims that the IRS’s examination of Scientology was the most exhaustive review of any non-profit organization in history

Elsewhere, Scientology is recognized as a religion in Australia, Portugal, Spain, Slovenia, Sweden, Croatia, Hungary and Kyrgyzstan In New Zealand, the Inland Revenue Department classified the Church of Scientology as a charitable organization and stated that its income would be tax exempt It has gained judicial recognition in Italy, and Scientology officials have won the right to perform marriages in South Africa

Scientology is not recognized as a religion in Canada In the UK, the Charity Commission for England and Wales ruled in 1999 that Scientology was not a religion and refused to register the Church as a charity, although a year later, it was recognized as a not-for-profit body in a separate proceeding by the UK Revenue and Customs and exempted from UK value added tax In December 2013, the United Kingdom’s highest court officially recognized Scientology as a religion The ruling ended a five-year legal battle by Scientologist Louisa Hodkin, who sought the legal right to marry at the Church of Scientology chapel in central London The opinion by five supreme court justices redefined religion in law, rendering the 1970 definition “out of date” in restricting religious worship to “reverence or veneration of God or of a Supreme Being”

Viewed as a commercial enterprise

Main article: Scientology as a business Scientology desk near the Potsdamer Platz in Berlin

Scientology has been accused of being "a business, often given to criminal acts, and sometimes masquerading as a religion"

In conjunction with the Church of Scientology's request to be officially recognized as a religion in Germany, around 1996 the German state Baden-Württemberg conducted a thorough investigation of the group's activities within Germany The results of this investigation indicated that at the time of publication, Scientology's main sources of revenue "Haupteinnahmequellen der SO" were from course offerings and sales of their various publications Course offerings ranged from German Marks DM 18250 to about DM 30,000 – the equivalent today of approximately $119 to $19,560 USD Revenue from monthly, bi-monthly, and other membership offerings could not be estimated in the report, but was nevertheless placed in the millions Defending its practices against accusations of profiteering, the Church has countered critics by drawing analogies to other religious groups who have established practices such as tithing, or require members to make donations for specific religious services

Since 1997 Germany has considered Scientology to be in conflict with the principles of the nation's constitution It is seen as an anticonstitutional sect and a new version of political extremism and because there is "evidence for intentions against the free democratic basic order" it is observed by the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution In 1997, an open letter to then-German Chancellor, Helmut Kohl, published as a newspaper advertisement in the International Herald Tribune, drew parallels between the "organized oppression" of Scientologists in Germany and the treatment of Jews in 1930s' Nazi Germany The letter was signed by Dustin Hoffman, Goldie Hawn and a number of other Hollywood celebrities and executives Commenting on the matter, a spokesman for the US Department of State said that Scientologists were discriminated against in Germany, but condemned the comparisons to the Nazis' treatment of Jews as extremely inappropriate, as did a United Nations Special Rapporteur Based on the IRS exemptions, the US State Department formally criticized Germany for discriminating against Scientologists and began to note Scientologists' complaints of harassment in its annual human rights reports, as well as the annual International Religious Freedom Reports it has released from 1999 onwards Germany will continue to monitor Scientology's activities in the country, despite continued objection from Scientology which cites such monitoring as abuse of freedom of religion

France and Belgium have not recognized Scientology as a religion, and Stephen A Kent, writing in 2001, noted that recognition had not been obtained in Ireland, Luxembourg, Israel or Mexico either The Belgian State Prosecution Service has recommended that various individuals and organizations associated with Scientology should be prosecuted An administrative court has yet to decide if charges will be pressed

In Greece, Scientology is not recognized as a religion by the Greek government, and multiple applications for religious status have been denied, notably in 2000 and 2003

In the Netherlands, Scientology was granted tax exempt status in October 2013 The status was revoked in October 2015 The court ruled that because auditing fees and course costs were more expensive than most commercial education institutions, Scientology appeared to be aimed at making a profit

Scientology maintains strict control over the use of its symbols, icons, and names It claims copyright and trademark over its "Scientology cross", and its lawyers have threatened lawsuits against individuals and organizations who have published the image in books and on Web sites Because of this, it is very difficult for individual groups to attempt to publicly practice Scientology on their own, independent of the official Church of Scientology Scientology has filed suit against a number of individuals who have attempted to set up their own auditing practices, using copyright and trademark law to shut these groups down

The Church of Scientology and its many related organizations have amassed considerable real estate holdings worldwide, likely in the hundreds of millions of dollars Scientology encourages existing members to "sell" Scientology to others by paying a commission to those who recruit new members Scientology franchises, or missions, must pay the Church of Scientology roughly 10% of their gross income On that basis, it is likened to a pyramid selling scheme While introductory courses do not cost much, courses at the higher levels may cost several thousand dollars each As a rule, the great majority of members proceeds up the bridge in a steady rate commensurate with their income Most recently the Italian Supreme Court agreed with the American IRS that the church's financial system is analogous to the practices of other groups and not out of line with its religious purposes

In November 2009, Australian Senator Nick Xenophon used a speech in Federal Parliament to allege that the Church of Scientology is a criminal organization Based on letters from former followers of the religion, he said that there were "allegations of forced imprisonment, coerced abortions, and embezzlement of church funds, of physical violence and intimidation, blackmail and the widespread and deliberate abuse of information obtained by the organization"

Scientology in religious studies

Describing the available scholarship on Scientology, David G Bromley and Douglas E Cowan stated in 2006 that "most scholars have concluded that Scientology falls within the category of religion for the purposes of academic study, and a number have defended the Church in judicial and political proceedings on this basis" Hugh B Urban writes that "Scientology's efforts to get itself defined as a religion make it an ideal case study for thinking about how we understand and define religion" Urban presented a “balanced description” of the Church utilizing interviews with current satisfied practitioners and interviews with former members critical of the establishment in his work Toward the second decade of the 2000s, a new interest for Scientology emerged among scholars, bringing the subject from obscurity

According to the Encyclopedia of Religious Controversies in the United States, "even as Scientology raises questions about how and who gets to define religion, most scholars recognize it as a religion, one that emerges from and builds on American individualism and the spiritual marketplace that dominated 1950's America" David G Bromley comments that Scientology “could gain strength by adding to the new perspective on existence, the hope and human meaning that only a transcendent creed can give”

Bromley and Cowan noted in 2008 that Scientology's attempts "to gain favor with new religion scholars" had often been problematic According to Religious Studies professor Mary Farrell Benarowski, Scientology describes itself as drawing on science, religion, psychology and philosophy but "had been claimed by none of them and repudiated, for the most part, by all"

Regis Dericquesbourg writes about the efficacy of Scientology in imparting knowledge: “Scientology indeed not only brings knowledge, it also brings personal introspection through auditing, and transmission in upper levels is not merely reading texts: what is transmitted is experienced through a solo or duo auditing experience” He compared it to psychoanalysis

In Scientology, ceremonies for events such as weddings, child naming, and funerals are observed Friday services are held to commemorate the completion of a person's religious services during the prior week Ordained Scientology ministers may perform such rites However, these services and the clergy who perform them play only a minor role in Scientologists' religious lives

Frank K Flinn, adjunct professor of religious studies at Washington University in St Louis wrote, "it is abundantly clear that Scientology has both the typical forms of ceremonial and celebratory worship and its own unique form of spiritual life" Flinn further states that religion requires "beliefs in something transcendental or ultimate, practices rites and codes of behavior that re-inforce those beliefs and, a community that is sustained by both the beliefs and practices", all of which are present within Scientology Similarly, World Religions in America states that "Scientology contains the same elements of most other religions, including myths, scriptures, doctrines, worship, sacred practices and rituals, moral and ethical expectations, a community of believers, clergy, and ecclesiastic organizations"

While acknowledging that a number of his colleagues accept Scientology as a religion, sociologist Stephen A Kent writes: "Rather than struggling over whether or not to label Scientology as a religion, I find it far more helpful to view it as a multifaceted transnational corporation, only one element of which is religious"

Donna Batten in the Gale Encyclopedia of American Law writes, "A belief does not need to be stated in traditional terms to fall within First Amendment protection For example, Scientology—a system of beliefs that a human being is essentially a free and immortal spirit who merely inhabits a body—does not propound the existence of a supreme being, but it qualifies as a religion under the broad definition propounded by the Supreme Court"

J Gordon Melton asserts that while the debate over definitions of religion will continue, “scholars will probably continue in the future to adopt a broad definition, thus including Scientology in a wider religious field”

The material contained in the OT levels has been characterized as bad science fiction by critics, while others claim it bears structural similarities to gnostic thought and ancient Hindu beliefs of creation and cosmic struggle Melton suggests that these elements of the OT levels may never have been intended as descriptions of historical events and that, like other religious mythology, they may have their truth in the realities of the body and mind which they symbolize He adds that on whatever level Scientologists might have received this mythology, they seem to have found it useful in their spiritual quest

Hubbard's motives

During his lifetime, Hubbard was accused of using religion as a façade for Scientology to maintain tax-exempt status and avoid prosecution for false medical claims The IRS cited a statement frequently attributed to Hubbard that the way to get rich was to found a religion According to Melton, the statement is unsubstantiated, although several of Hubbard's science fiction colleagues do recall Hubbard raising the topic in conversation

Hubbard grew up in a climate that was very critical of organized religion, and frequently quoted anti-religious sentiments in his early lectures The scholar Marco Frenschkowski University of Mainz has stated that it was not easy for Hubbard "to come to terms with the spiritual side of his own movement Hubbard did not want to found a religion: he discovered that what he was talking about in fact was religion This mainly happened when he had to deal with apparent memories from former lives He had to defend himself about this to his friends" Frenschkowski allows that there were practical concerns in the question of "how to present Scientology to the outside world", but dismisses the notion that the religious format was just an expedient pretense; Frenschkowski points to many passages in Hubbard's works that document his struggle with this question Frenschkowski suggests that it was a biographical mistake to suggest that Hubbard only became interested in Scientology as a religion in 1954 He notes that Hubbard discussed religion and the concept of God even in the years leading up to the emergence of Scientology, and that he did not “rush into religion” but rather, “discovered it through the development of his work with pre-clears”

Drawing parallels to similar struggles for identity in other religious movements such as Theosophy and Transcendental Meditation, Frenschkowski sees in Hubbard's lectures "the case of a man whose background was non-religious and who nevertheless discovers that his ideas somehow oscillate between 'science' in a very popular sense, 'religion' and 'philosophy', and that these ideas somehow fascinate so many people that they start to form a separate movement" Hubbard experiments with traditional religious language in a short piece written in 1953 called "The Factors", "a basic expression of Scientologist cosmology and metaphysics", reprinted in current Scientology literature Frenschkowski observes that the text is partly biblical in structure and that this development is a component of Scientology’s metamorphosis into a religion, written at a point when the nature of the new movement was unclear

The Church of Scientology denounces the idea of Hubbard starting a religion for personal gain as an unfounded rumor The Church also suggests that the origin of the rumor was a remark by George Orwell which had been misattributed to Hubbard Robert Vaughn Young, who left the Church in 1989 after being its spokesman for twenty years, suggested that reports of Hubbard making such a statement could be explained as a misattribution, despite having encountered three of Hubbard's associates from his science fiction days who remembered Hubbard making statements of that sort in person It was Young who by a stroke of luck came up with the "Orwell quote": "but I have always thought there might be a lot of cash in starting a new religion, and we'll talk it over some time" It appears in a letter by Eric Blair known the world as George Orwell to his friend, Jack Common, dated 16-February-38 February 16, 1938, and was published in Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell, vol 1 In 2006, Rolling Stone's Janet Reitman also attributed the statement to Hubbard, as a remark to science fiction writer Lloyd Eshbach and recorded in Eshbach's autobiography

Scientology as a UFO religion

Scientology can be seen as a UFO religion in which the existence of extraterrestrial entities operating unidentified flying objects UFOs are an element of belief In this context, it is discussed in UFO Religions by Christopher Partridge, and The Encyclopedic Sourcebook of UFO Religions by James R Lewis, while Susan Palmer draws several parallels with Raelianism Gregory Reece, in his book UFO Religion: Inside flying saucer cults and culture, writes:

Scientology is unique within the UFO culture because of this secretiveness, as well as because of the capitalist format under which they operate Scientology is also difficult to categorize While it bears strong similarities to the Ashtar Command or the Aetherius Society, its emphasis upon the Xenu event as the central message of the group seems to place them within the ancient astronaut tradition Either way, Scientology is perhaps most different from other UFO groups in their attempt to keep all of the space opera stuff under wraps They really would have preferred the rest of us not to know about Xenu and the galactic federation Alas, such secrets are hard to keep

Regardless of such statements by critics, Hubbard wrote and lectured openly about the material he himself called "space opera" In 1952, Hubbard published a book What to Audit / A History of Man on space opera and other material that may be encountered when auditing preclears


The general orientation of Hubbard's philosophy owes much to Will Durant, author of the popular 1926 classic The Story of Philosophy; Dianetics is dedicated to Durant Hubbard's view of a mechanically functioning mind in particular finds close parallels in Durant's work on Spinoza According to Hubbard himself, Scientology is "the Western anglicized continuance of many early forms of wisdom" Ankerberg and Weldon mention the sources of Scientology to include "the Vedas, Buddhism, Judaism, Gnosticism, Taoism, early Greek civilization and the teachings of Jesus, Nietzsche and Freud" Hubbard asserted that Freudian thought was a “major precursor” to Scientology W Vaughn Mccall, Professor and Chairman of the Georgia Regents University writes, “Both Freudian theory and Hubbard assume that there are unconscious mental processes that may be shaped by early life experiences, and that these influence later behavior and thought” Both schools of thought propose a “tripartite structure of the mind” Sigmund Freud's psychology, popularized in the 1930s and 1940s, was a key contributor to the Dianetics therapy model, and was acknowledged unreservedly as such by Hubbard in his early works Hubbard never forgot, when he was 12 years old, meeting Cmdr Joseph Cheesman Thompson, a US Navy officer who had studied with Freud and when writing to the American Psychological Association in 1949, he stated that he was conducting research based on the "early work of Freud"

In Dianetics, Hubbard cites Hegel as a negative influence — an object lesson in "confusing" writing According to Mary A Mann, Scientology is considered nondenominational, accepting all people regardless of their religions background, ethnicity, or educational attainment Another major influence was Alfred Korzybski's General Semantics Hubbard was friends with fellow science fiction writer A E van Vogt, who explored the implications of Korzybski's non-Aristotelian logic in works such as The World of Null-A, and Hubbard's view of the reactive mind has clear and acknowledged parallels with Korzybski's thought; in fact, Korzybski's "anthropometer" may have been what inspired Hubbard's invention of the E-meter

Beyond that, Hubbard himself named a great many other influences in his own writing – in Scientology 8-8008, for example, these include philosophers from Anaxagoras and Aristotle to Herbert Spencer and Voltaire, physicists and mathematicians like Euclid and Isaac Newton, as well as founders of religions such as Buddha, Confucius, Jesus and Mohammed – but there is little evidence in Hubbard's writings that he studied these figures to any great depth

As noted, elements of the Eastern religions are evident in Scientology, in particular the concept of karma found in Hinduism and Jainism In addition to the links to Hindu texts, Scientology draws from Taoism and Buddhism According to the Encyclopedia of Community, Scientology "shows affinities with Buddhism and a remarkable similarity to first-century Gnosticism"

In the 1940s, Hubbard was in contact with Jack Parsons, a rocket scientist and member of the Ordo Templi Orientis then led by Aleister Crowley, and there have been suggestions that this connection influenced some of the ideas and symbols of Scientology Religious scholars Gerald Willms and J Gordon Melton have stated that Crowley's teachings bear little if any resemblance to Scientology doctrine

According to James R Lewis, Scientology is in the same lineage of supernatural religious movements such as New Thought Scientology goes beyond this and refers to their religio-therapeutic practices as religious technology Lewis wrote, "Scientology sees their psycho-spiritual technology as supplying the missing ingredient in existing technologies—namely, the therapeutic engineering of the human psyche"

Scientology and hypnosis

Main article: Scientology and hypnosis

Hubbard was said to be an accomplished hypnotist, and close acquaintances such as Forrest Ackerman Hubbard's literary agent and A E van Vogt an early supporter of Dianetics witnessed repeated demonstrations of his hypnotic skills Scientology literature states that L Ron Hubbard expertise in hypnosis led to the discovery of the Dianetic engram But Hubbard wrote that hypnosis is a "wild variable", and compared parlor hypnosis to an atom bomb He also wrote:

Hypnotism plants, by positive suggestion, one or another form of insanity It is usually a temporary planting, but sometimes the hypnotic suggestion will not "lift" or remove in a way desirable to the hypnotist

Etymology of "Scientology" and earlier usage

The word Scientology is a pairing of the Latin word scientia "knowledge", "skill", which comes from the verb scīre "to know", and the Greek λόγος lógos "word" or "account " Scientology, as coined by L Ron Hubbard, comes from the Latin scio, which means "knowing, in the fullest meaning of the word" and the Greek word logos, which means "study of" Scientology is further defined as "the study and handling of the spirit in relationship to itself, universes, and other life"

The term scientology had been used in published works at least twice before Hubbard In The New Word 1901 poet and lawyer Allen Upward first used scientology to mean blind, unthinking acceptance of scientific doctrine In 1934, philosopher Anastasius Nordenholz published Scientology: Science of the Constitution and Usefulness of Knowledge, which used the term to mean the science of science It is unknown whether Hubbard was aware of either prior usage of the word

ARC and KRC triangles

The Scientology symbol is composed of the letter S, which stands for Scientology, and the ARC and KRC triangles, two important concepts in Scientology See also: Scientology terminology and Scientology beliefs and practices § ARC and KRC triangle

The ARC and KRC triangles are concept maps which show a relationship between three concepts to form another concept These two triangles are present in the Scientology symbol The lower triangle, the ARC triangle, is a summary representation of the knowledge the Scientologist strives for It encompasses Affinity affection, love or liking, Reality consensual reality and Communication the exchange of ideas Scientology teaches that improving one of the three aspects of the triangle "increases the level" of the other two, but Communication is held to be the most important The upper triangle is the KRC triangle, the letters KRC positing a similar relationship between Knowledge, Responsibility and Control

Among Scientologists, the letters ARC are used as an affectionate greeting in personal communication, for example at the end of a letter Social problems are ascribed to breakdowns in ARC – in other words, a lack of agreement on reality, a failure to communicate effectively, or a failure to develop affinity These can take the form of overts – harmful acts against another, either intentionally or by omission – which are usually followed by withholds – efforts to conceal the wrongdoing, which further increase the level of tension in the relationship

Bridge to total freedom

Scientologists seek to attain spiritual development through study of Scientology materials and auditing The subject called Technology or Tech in Scientology jargon is structured in a series of levels or gradients of gradually increasing complexity The sequence of study "training" and auditing "processing" levels is termed the "Bridge to Total Freedom", or simply "the Bridge" Training concerns primarily the principles and techniques of auditing Processing is personal development through participation in auditing sessions

The Church of Scientology teaches the principle of reciprocity, involving give-and-take in every human transaction Accordingly, members are required to make donations for study courses and auditing as they move up the Bridge, the amounts increasing as higher levels are reached Participation in higher-level courses on the Bridge may cost several thousand dollars, and Scientologists usually move up the Bridge at a rate governed by their income

Scientology in popular culture

Main article: Scientology in popular culture Xenu as depicted in South Park

The 2005 South Park episode "Trapped in the Closet" publicized the story of Xenu, based directly on the actual Scientology Operating Thetan III document, and accompanied by an onscreen caption reading "This is what Scientologists actually believe" After explaining these beliefs, the character representing the church's president ultimately reveals to Stan that the church is in reality a money-making scam

Paul Thomas Anderson's 2012 film The Master features a religious organization called "The Cause" that has many similarities to Scientology Also, the character of Lancaster Dodd, played by Philip Seymour Hoffman shares a physical resemblance to Scientology founder L Ron Hubbard

In April 2015, following the recent release of Going Clear: Scientology and the Prison of Belief, Saturday Night Live aired a music video featuring the "Church of Neurotology", a parody of Scientology's 1990 music video "We Stand Tall"

See also

  • Scientology portal
  • Scientology and other religions
  • Scientology and sexual orientation


  1. ^ Cusack 2009, p 400
  2. ^ "ABC News: Scientology 101" USA: ABC May 9, 1950 Archived from the original on November 5, 2013 Retrieved January 12, 2009 
  3. ^ Associated Press August 13, 1991 "Rural studio is Scientology headquarters" San Jose Mercury News p 6B 
  4. ^ http://metrocouk/2016/03/13/l-ron-hubbards-birthday-who-was-he-and-what-is-scientology-5747353/
  5. ^ "Scientology glossary" Retrieved 7 August 2013 
  6. ^ Melton 2000, pp 28
  7. ^ a b "Remember Venus" Time December 22, 1952 Archived from the original on July 21, 2013 Retrieved July 20, 2007 
  8. ^ Melton, J Gordon 1992 Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America New York: Garland Pub p 190 ISBN 978-0-8153-1140-9 
  9. ^ Guiley, Rosemary 1991 Harper's Encyclopedia of Mystical & Paranormal Experience : HarperSanFrancisco p 107 ISBN 978-0-06-250365-7 
  10. ^ DeChant & Jorgenson 2003, p 227
  11. ^ Kent, Stephen A July 1999 "Scientology – Is this a Religion" Marburg Journal of Religion 4 1: 1–23 Archived from the original PDF on June 3, 2011 Retrieved March 3, 2013 
  12. ^ Cohen, David October 23, 2006 "Tom's aliens target City's 'planetary rulers'" Evening Standard Archived from the original on June 3, 2013 Retrieved March 3, 2013 As Miscavige begins to crescendo "our next step is eradicating psychiatry from this planet, we will triumph!" 
  13. ^ Reitman, Janet 2011 Inside Scientology: The Story of America's Most Secretive Religion Houghton Mifflin Harcourt ISBN 9780547549231 
  14. ^ a b https://booksgooglecom/booksid=umep6P6dYLAC&pg=PA532
  15. ^ a b c d e Cite error: The named reference urban2006 was invoked but never defined see the help page
  16. ^ a b c d Urban, Hugh B 2008 "Secrecy and New Religious Movements: Concealment, Surveillance, and Privacy in a New Age of Information" Religion Compass Wiley 2 1: 66–83 doi:101111/j1749-8171200700052x ISSN 1749-8171 
  17. ^ a b http://wwwspiegelde/international/germany/hubbard-s-church-unconstitutional-germany-prepares-to-ban-scientology-a-522052html
  18. ^ a b National Assembly of France report No 2468
  19. ^ A 1995 parliamentary report lists Scientology groups as cults, and in its 2006 report MIVILUDES similarly classified Scientology organizations as a dangerous cult
  20. ^ Le point sur l'Eglise de Scientologie, Le Nouvel Observateur
  21. ^ Rapport d'enquête n°2468 de l'Assemblée nationale
  22. ^ Rapport MILS 1999
  23. ^ "Une condamnation historique" contre l'Eglise de scientologie, le Monde
  24. ^ Miviludes 2006 report PDF
  25. ^ Shermer, Michael "Is Scientology a Cult" Skeptic 171 2011: 16-17 Retrieved Jan 21, 2016
  26. ^ Wallis, p 21
  27. ^ Atack, p 75
  28. ^ Hubbard, L Ron October 23, 1956 CRA Triangle Fifteenth American Advanced Clinical Lectures Los Angeles, CA: Golden Era Publications 
  29. ^ a b Miller, p 139
  30. ^ Atack, p 82
  31. ^ http://wwwwiseoldgoatcom/papers-scientology/popup-windows/scn_summary_scn_for_scientists_69html
  32. ^ https://booksgooglecom/booksid=Tz0LjwEACAAJ
  33. ^ http://wwwnprorg/2013/01/24/170010096/going-clear-a-new-book-delves-into-scientology
  34. ^ http://wwwlermanetcom/excalibur/
  35. ^ Hubbard, "The Anatomy Of Thought" Hubbard Communication Office Policy Letter 26 April 1970R, revised 15 March 1975
  36. ^ http://wwwamerican-buddhacom/cultyesbookcalledexcaliburhtm
  37. ^ Letter to Forrest Ackerman Jan 13, 1949 , "THE SCIENCE OF MIND, really EXCALIBUR" quoted by http://tonyortegaorg/2014/10/23/l-ron-hubbard-explains-to-a-friend-the-real-reason-he-wrote-dianetics/
  38. ^ https://booksgooglecom/books/about/Going_Clearhtml
  39. ^ Miller, p 113
  40. ^ Urban, Hugh B Magia sexualis: sex, magic, and liberation in modern Western esotericism, p 137 Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2006 ISBN 978-0-520-24776-5
  41. ^ Wright, Lawrence 2013 Going Clear: Scientology, Hollywood and the Prison of Belief Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group ISBN 9780385350273 
  42. ^ Robinson, Jill 1997-11-11 "L Ron Hubbard" Secret Lives A&E 
  43. ^ Hubbard, L Ron October 1958 The Story of Dianetics and Scientology, Lecture 18 Speech 
  44. ^ Hubbard, What is Scientology, 1998 softcover edition, pg 529
  45. ^ "The Creation of 'Religious' Scientology" Religious Studies and Theology Retrieved 2006-05-08  Originally published by Stephen A Kent in December, 1999
  46. ^ Grant, Boyd 2014 What is Scientology History, Beliefs, Rules, Secrets, and Facts Newark, DE: Speedy Publishing LLC p 4 
  47. ^ Melton 2000, p 4
  48. ^ a b c d Melton 2000, pp 9, 67
  49. ^ Melton 2000, pp 9
  50. ^ a b c Gutjahr, Paul C 2001 "The State of the Discipline Sacred Texts in the United States" Journal Book History: 351–352 JSTOR 30227336 
  51. ^ Melton 2000, p 28
  52. ^ Wilson, Bryan 1970 Religious Sects: A Sociological Study, McGraw-Hill, p 163
  53. ^ Book: The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements By James R Lewis, p 110 Booksgooglecom 2004 ISBN 978-0-19-514986-9 Retrieved September 4, 2010 
  54. ^ a b "Psychiatry and Psychology in the Writings of L Ron Hubbard" Journal of Religion and Health 46 3: 437–447 September 2007 doi:101007/s10943-006-9079-9 Retrieved July 29, 2013 
  55. ^ a b c Satter, Beryl July 3, 2003 "The Sexual Abuse Paradigm in Historical Perspective: Passivity and Emotion in Mid-Twentieth-Century America" Journal of the History of Sexuality 12 3: 424–464 doi:101353/sex20040014 Retrieved July 29, 2013 
  56. ^ Gallagher, Eugene; Ashcraft, Michael Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America: African diaspora traditions and other American innovations p 172 Retrieved 2015-11-05 
  57. ^ Passas, Nikos, and Manuel Escamilla Castillo "Scientology And Its 'Clear' Business" Behavioral Sciences & The Law 101 1992: 103-116 Academic Search Premier
  58. ^ Wallis, Roy 1975 "Scientology: Therapeutic Cult to Relgious Sect" Sociology 9 1: 89–100 doi:101177/003803857500900105 JSTOR 42851574 
  59. ^ https://booksgooglecom/booksid=z4IDPV2hZL0C&pg=PT85
  60. ^ Miller, Russell 1987 Bare-faced Messiah, The True Story of L Ron Hubbard First American ed New York: Henry Holt & Co p 151 ISBN 978-0-8050-0654-4 
  61. ^ Wallis, Roy 1977 The Road to Total Freedom: A Sociological Analysis of Scientology, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-04200-0
  62. ^ June 18, 1950 to December 24
  63. ^ "Adult New York Times Best Seller Lists for 1950" Hawescom Archived from the original on July 13, 2012 Retrieved September 4, 2010 
  64. ^ a b c d e f g h Cowan & Bromley 2006, p 172
  65. ^ a b c d e Melton 2000, p 13
  66. ^ Lewis, James R 2009 Scientology USA: Oxford University Press 
  67. ^ "Poor Man's Psychoanalysis" Newsweek November 6, 1950 
  68. ^ Carroll, Robert The Skeptic's Dictionary: A Collection of Strange Beliefs, Amusing Deceptions, and Dangerous Delusions Retrieved 2015-11-23 
  69. ^ a b c Melton 2000, p 10
  70. ^ Wallis, Roy; Steve Bruce Spring 1984 "The Stark-Bainbridge Theory of Religion: A Critical Analysis and Counter Proposals" Sociological Analysis 45 1: 24 doi:102307/3711319 JSTOR 3711319 
  71. ^ Lewis, James R 2009 Scientology Oxford University Press 
  72. ^ Chryssides, George D; Wilkins, Margaret 2006 A Reader in New Religious Movements: Readings in the Study of New Religious Movements Bloomsbery Academic 
  73. ^ Flowers 1984, pp 96–97
  74. ^ Thomas Streissguth Charismatic Cult Leaders, p 70, The Oliver Press Inc, 1996 ISBN 978-1-881508-18-2
  75. ^ George Malko Scientology: the now religion, p 58, Delacorte Press, 1970 ASIN B0006CAHJ6
  76. ^ "Jon Atack: The games L Ron Hubbard played" tonyortegaorg 
  77. ^ Miller, 1987: 202-203
  78. ^ "The Creation of "Religious" Scientology" solitarytreesnet 
  79. ^ Christian D Von Dehsen-Scott L Harris Philosophers and Religious Leaders, p 90, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999 ISBN 978-1-57356-152-5
  80. ^ a b Frenschkowski, Marco 2016 "Images of Religions and Religious History in the Works of L Ron Hubbard" Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review doi:105840/asrr20166620 
  81. ^ Miller, p 213
  82. ^ a b Kent, Stephen A "The Creation of 'Religious' Scientology" Religious Studies and Theology 18:2, pp 97–126 1999 ISSN 1747-5414
  83. ^ Hubbard, L Ron Letter of April 10, 1953 Quoted in Miller, p 213
  84. ^ a b Miller, Russell 1987 Bare-faced Messiah, The True Story of L Ron Hubbard First American ed New York: Henry Holt & Co pp 140–142 ISBN 978-0-8050-0654-4 
  85. ^ Melton 2000, p 11
  86. ^ a b Melton 2000, p 12
  87. ^ Zald, Mayer N; McCarthy, John David 1987 Social Movements in an Organizational Society: Collected Essays Transaction Publishers ISBN 9780887388026 Archived from the original on |archive-url= requires |archive-date= help |archive-url= requires |url= help 
  88. ^ Garrison, Omar V 1974 The Hidden Story of Scientology Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, Lyle Suart, Inc p 135 ISBN 0-8065-0440-4 
  89. ^ Garrison, Omar V 1974 The hidden Story of Scientology Secaucus, MJ: Citadel Press, Lyle Stuart, Inc pp 136, 142 ISBN 0-8065-0440-4 
  90. ^ "1963 FDA raid" Cscmuedu January 4, 1963 Archived from the original on October 19, 2012 Retrieved September 4, 2010 
  91. ^ Garrison, Omar V 1974 The Hidden Story of Scientology Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press, Lyle Stuart, Inc p 143 ISBN 0-8065-0440-4 
  92. ^ a b Lindholm, Charles 1992 "Charisma, Crowd Psychology and Altered States of Consciousness" Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry Kluwer Academic Publishers 16 3: 287–310 doi:101007/BF00052152 
  93. ^ Wallis, Roy 1977 The Road to Total Freedom New York: Columbia University Press p 153 
  94. ^ DeChant & Jorgenson 2003, p 225
  95. ^ a b c Melton 2000, p 17
  96. ^ http://tonyortegaorg/2015/02/16/the-paranoid-depressed-l-ron-hubbard-jim-dincalcis-1997-secret-lives-tv-interview/
  97. ^ Atack, p 258
  98. ^ Atack, p 259
  99. ^ Miller, p 364
  100. ^ Elisabeth Amveck Researching New Religious Movements, p 261, Routledge, 2006 ISBN 978-0-415-27754-9
  101. ^ L Ron Hubbard's last refuge | Cover Story | New Times San Luis Obispo, CA Archived December 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  102. ^ http://wwwcscmuedu/~dst/Library/Shelf/wallis/wallis1txt
  103. ^ Melton, J G Ed 2003 "Church of Eductivism" Encyclopedia of American Religions Detroit: Gale p 815 
  104. ^ Free Zone Assoc January 30, 2002 "Introduction" Freezoneorg Archived from the original on November 9, 2013 Retrieved September 4, 2010 
  105. ^ Meyer-Hauser, Bernard F June 23, 2000 "Religious Technology Center v Freie Zone E V" Case No D2000-0410 Archived from the original on September 28, 2013 
  106. ^ Brown, Janelle July 22, 1999 "Copyright – or wrong : The Church of Scientology takes up a new weapon – the Digital Millennium Copyright Act – in its ongoing battle with critics" Salon Archived from the original on June 26, 2009 
  107. ^ Colette, Mark "Former Scientology film crew member describes surveillance activities in Ingleside on the Bay" Caller-Times, Corpus Christi Archived from the original on November 5, 2013 Retrieved September 6, 2011 
  108. ^ Lewis & Hammer 2007, p 24
  109. ^ William W Zellner Extraordinary Groups, p 295, Macmillan, 2007 ISBN 978-0-7167-7034-3
  110. ^ "Free Zone" Archived from the original on April 9, 2014 Retrieved July 13, 2011 
  111. ^ Nordhausen & Billerbeck 2008, pp 469–470
  112. ^ Sweeney, John September 26, 2010 "Mr Shouty and Cruise: the rematch" The Sunday Times Marty Rathbun, who like Rinder is now an independent scientologist Rinder, though a 'heretic' to the church, lives and breathes Independent scientology 
  113. ^ Tobin, Thomas C; Childs, Joe January 1, 2012 "In new year's message, Scientology insider blasts 'extreme' fundraising" Tampa Bay Times Archived from the original on June 25, 2013 Retrieved January 14, 2012 Rathbun, now a leading figure in a movement for Scientologists to practice independently of the church  
  114. ^ a b c d Cowan & Bromley 2006, pp 170–171
  115. ^ Hubbard, L Ron 2007 Scientology : the fundamentals of thought Commerce, Calif: Bridge Publications p 178 ISBN 9781403144201 Retrieved 21 December 2015 
  116. ^ Wilkins, Margaret; Chryssides, George D 2006 A Reader in New Religious Movements: Readings in the Study of New Religious Movements A&C Black 
  117. ^ Kent, Stephen A 2001 From Slogans to Mantras: Social Protest and Religious Conversion in the Late Vietnam War Era Syracuse University Pres 
  118. ^ "Does Scientology have a concept of God" wwwscientologyorg Retrieved 2015-12-31 
  119. ^ Flowers 1984, p 98
  120. ^ a b c d e Chryssides, George D 1999 Exploring New Religions Continuum International Publishing Group p 283 ISBN 978-0-8264-5959-6 
  121. ^ Bednarowski, Mary Farrell 1995 New Religions and the Theological Imagination in America Religion in North America Bloomington: Indiana University Press p 60 ISBN 978-0-253-20952-8 
  122. ^ Pollock, Robert 2002 The Everything World's Religions Book: Discover the Beliefs, Traditions, and Cultures of Ancient and Modern Religions Avon, MA: Adams Media Corporation p 210 ISBN 978-1-58062-648-4 
  123. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m DeChant & Jorgenson 2003, pp 221–236
  124. ^ http://wwwlatimescom/local/la-scientologysidea062490-storyhtml
  125. ^ a b Melton 2000, p 32
  126. ^ Barrett, David V 2011 A Brief Guide to Secret Religions: A Complete Guide to Hermetic, Pagan and Esoteric Beliefs Little, Brown Book Group 
  127. ^ J Gordon Melton The Encyclopedia of American Religion, p 224, McGrath Publishing Co, 1978 ISBN 978-0-7876-9696-2
  128. ^ Paul Finkelman Religion and American Law, p 509, Taylor & Francis, 2000 ISBN 978-0-8153-0750-1
  129. ^ a b c d Reitman, Janet "Inside Scientology" Rolling Stone Rolling Stone Archived from the original on March 31, 2014 Retrieved August 22, 2011 
  130. ^ Cowan & Bromley 2006, p 175
  131. ^ Cowan & Bromley 2006, pp 176–177
  132. ^ Palmer 2009, p 316
  133. ^ a b c d e f g h DeChant & Jorgenson 2003, pp 229–230
  134. ^ Malko, George 1970 Scientology: The Now Religion New York: Delacorte Press p 109 ISBN 978-1-112-96373-5 
  135. ^ John Corrigan 2008 The Oxford Handbook of Religion and Emotion, page 132 ISBN 978-0-19-517021-4 
  136. ^ a b c d Roy Wallis "The Road to Total Freedom A Sociological analysis of Scientology, page 1" Archived from the original on October 15, 2013 
  137. ^ Melton 2000, p 31
  138. ^ Melton 2000, p 25
  139. ^ a b Bouma, Gary D 2006 Australian Soul: Religion and Spirituality in the 21st Century Cambridge University Press p 9 ISBN 0-521-67389-5 
  140. ^ a b Christensen, Dorthe Refslund 2009 "Sources for the Study of Scientology" In James R Lewis Scientology New York: Oxford University Press US pp 420–421 ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3 
  141. ^ Al-Zaki, Taleb; B Tilman Jolly January 1997 "Severe Hyponatremia After Purification" Annals of Emergency Medicine Mosby, Inc 29 1: 194–195 doi:101016/S0196-06449770335-4 PMID 8998113 
  142. ^ a b c d e f Cowan & Bromley 2006, p 182
  143. ^ a b c Melton 2000, pp 45–46
  144. ^ Technical Bulletins X Bridge Publications, Inc ISBN 0-88404-481-5 1991
  145. ^ Tobin and Childs 21 June 2009 "Death in slow motion: Part 2 of 3 in a special report on the Church of Scientology" Tampa Bay Times Retrieved 9 August 2013 
  146. ^ Scientology's views on the evils of materialism
  147. ^ Cooper, Paulette 1997 Scientology Versus Medicine in Scandal of Scientology Web Edition 
  148. ^ Mieszkowskii, Katharine 2005 "Scientology's War on Psychiatry" Saloncom 
  149. ^ a b c d Cowan & Bromley 2006, p 184
  150. ^ Miller, p 184
  151. ^ a b c Melton 2000, p 49
  152. ^ Aagaard Petersen, Jesper 2014 Controversial New Religions Oxford University Press 
  153. ^ Carl G Liungman Symbols, p 297, Ionfox AB, 2004 ISBN 978-91-972705-0-2
  154. ^ a b c d Melton 2000, p 33
  155. ^ a b Ortega, Tony December 23, 1999 "Double Crossed" Phoenix New Times Village Voice Media Archived from the original on June 20, 2009 Retrieved September 16, 2007 
  156. ^ Sappell, Joel; Robert W Welkos June 24, 1990 "The Scientology Story" Los Angeles Times pp A36:1 Archived from the original on January 11, 2008 Retrieved August 9, 2006  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= help Another link: Carnegie-Mellon University
  157. ^ Hines, Matt September 8, 2003 "Scientology loss keeps hyperlinks legal" CNET Archived from the original on November 16, 2006 Retrieved September 16, 2007 
  158. ^ a b Derek Davis New Religious Movements and Religious Liberty in America, pp 45–47, Baylor University Press, 2004 ISBN 978-0-918954-92-3
  159. ^ Lewis & Hammer 2007, p 36
  160. ^ Coordinates of Trementina Base 35°30′42″N 104°34′48″W / 3551167°N 10458000°W / 3551167; -10458000 Trementina Base
  161. ^ Leiby, Richard November 27, 2005 "A Place in the Desert for New Mexico's Most Exclusive Circles" The Washington Post Retrieved July 13, 2011 
  162. ^ a b c d e Cowan & Bromley 2006, p 180
  163. ^ Melton 2000, p 34
  164. ^ a b c d e Cowan & Bromley 2006, p 181
  165. ^ a b c d Cowan & Bromley 2006, p 177
  166. ^ a b Zellner & Petrowsky 1998, pp 146–147
  167. ^ "What is Disconnection" Retrieved 2015-11-30 
  168. ^ Bednarowski, Mary Farrell 1995 New Religions and the Theological Imagination in America Religion in North America Bloomington: Indiana University Press p 114 ISBN 978-0-253-20952-8 
  169. ^ Miller, Timothy 1995 America's alternative religions Albany, NY: State University of New York Press p 388 ISBN 978-0-7914-2397-4 
  170. ^ Marshall, Gordon 1990 In praise of sociology Boston: Unwin Hyman p 187 ISBN 978-0-04-445687-2 
  171. ^ a b Flowers 1984, p 101
  172. ^ Grossman, Wendy 1997 Net wars New York: New York University Press p 73 ISBN 978-0-8147-3103-1 
  173. ^ Greenawalt, Kent 2006 Religion and the Constitution Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press p 298 ISBN 978-0-691-12582-4 
  174. ^ Melton 2000, p 36
  175. ^ Wollersheim v Church of Scientology, 212 Cal App 3d 872 Cal App 2d Dist 1989
  176. ^ Frank K Flinn testimony in Church of Scientology of California, 1984, vol23, pp4032-4160
  177. ^ Wollersheim v Church of Scientology of California, Court of Appeal of the State of California, civnoB023193, 18 July 1989
  178. ^ "Scientology Cross", Church of Scientology International Accessed November 8, 2007 Archived May 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  179. ^ Bernstein, Fred November 9, 2010 "In Pasadena, a Model for Scientology's Growth Plan" The New York Times Archived from the original on May 14, 2013 Retrieved July 13, 2011 
  180. ^ a b "Scientology Gateshead building still empty after seven years" BBC News 
  181. ^ Bromley, David; Cowan, Douglas Cults and new religions: a brief history Archived from the original on August 1, 2013 Retrieved July 29, 2013 
  182. ^ a b c Flinn, Frank K July 5, 2005 "Scientology" Live discussion Washington Post Retrieved February 4, 2008 
  183. ^ Jarvik, Elaine September 18, 2004 "Scientology: Church now claims more than 8 million members" Deseret News Archived from the original on June 16, 2008 Retrieved August 1, 2007 Melton, who has been criticized by some for being too easy on Scientology, and has been criticized by the church for being too harsh, says that the church's estimates of its membership numbers – 4 million in the United States, 8 to 9 million worldwide – are exaggerated "You're talking about anyone who ever bought a Scientology book or took a basic course Ninety-nine percent of them don't ever darken the door of the church again" If the church indeed had 4 million members in the United States, he says, "they would be like the Lutherans and would show up on a national survey" such as the Harris poll 
  184. ^ Melton 2000, p 43
  185. ^ Wakefield, Margery Understanding Scientology
  186. ^ Cisar, Joe translator The Guardian Office GO
  187. ^ Hamburg Regional Office of the German Constitutional Security Agency Der Geheimdienst der Scientology-Organisation – Grundlagen, Aufgaben, Strukturen, Methoden und Ziele – Zweite Auflage, Stand 06051998"
  188. ^ Scientologists pay for libel, Clare Dyer, The Guardian, 9 June 1999
  189. ^ Sappell, Joel; Welkos, Robert W 1990-06-29 "On the Offensive Against an Array of Suspected Foes" Los Angeles Times p A1:1 Retrieved 2006-08-02  Additional convenience link at "" 
  190. ^ Melton 2000, p 39
  191. ^ Melton 2000, p 42
  192. ^ Bromley 2009, p 98
  193. ^ Melton 2000, p 40
  194. ^ Melton 2000, p 41
  195. ^ a b Shaw, William February 14, 2008 "What do Tom Cruise and John Travolta know about Scientology that we don't" The Daily Telegraph London Archived from the original on February 15, 2012 Retrieved June 25, 2009 
  196. ^ Frantz, Douglas February 13, 1998 "Scientology's Star Roster Enhances Image" New York Times, Late Edition East Coast  |access-date= requires |url= help
  197. ^ a b DeChant & Jorgenson 2003, p 233
  198. ^ Melton, J Gordon "Celebrity Centre International First Week of August" Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations Ed J Gordon Melton Vol 1 Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2011 168 Gale Virtual Reference Library Web January 8, 2014
  199. ^ Cusack 2009, pp 394–395
  200. ^ Neusner, Jacob 2009 World Religions in America 4 ed Westminster John Knox Press 
  201. ^ Melton 2000, p 44
  202. ^ a b c d Cowan & Bromley 2006, p 183
  203. ^ Sly, Randy 2 September 2010 "Updated: Scientologists in Haiti: Volunteers or Vultures" Catholicorg Retrieved 16 December 2015 
  204. ^ Winn, Patrick May 15, 2015 "Scientologists are in Nepal trying to 'heal' trauma victims" Global Post Retrieved December 16, 2015 
  205. ^ Winn, Patrick April 11, 2011 "Scientology's global disaster squad" MinnPost Retrieved December 16, 2015 
  206. ^ Melton 2000, pp 50–51
  207. ^ "Publications listing on the website of the Bavarian Office for the Protection of the Constitution" Lfvbayernde Archived from the original on February 19, 2012 Retrieved September 4, 2010 
  208. ^ "US State department Report 2006:" 
  209. ^ Lewis, James R Scientology Oxford University Press Retrieved 2015-11-05 
  210. ^ Morgan, Lucy March 29, 1999 "Abroad: Critics public and private keep pressure on Scientology" St Petersburg Times Archived from the original on May 1, 2011 Retrieved September 7, 2007 Canada's highest court in 1997 upheld the criminal conviction of the Church of Scientology of Toronto and one of its officers for a breach of trust stemming from covert operations in Canadian government offices during the 1970s and 1980s 
  211. ^ Souchard, Pierre-Antoine February 2, 2012 "Scientology Fraud Conviction Upheld" Huffington Post Archived from the original on November 3, 2013 Retrieved February 3, 2012 A French appeals court on Thursday upheld the Church of Scientology's 2009 fraud conviction on charges it pressured members into paying large sums for questionable remedies 
  212. ^ a b c d e Behar, Richard May 6, 1991 "Scientology: The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power" Time Archived from the original on August 19, 2013 Retrieved November 3, 2008 
  213. ^ a b c d Leiby, Richard December 25, 1994 "Scientology Fiction: The Church's War Against Its Critics – and Truth" The Washington Post p C1 Retrieved June 21, 2006 
  214. ^ a b c Goodin, Dan June 3, 1999 "Scientology subpoenas Worldnet" CNET Newscom Archived from the original on April 1, 2012 Retrieved May 4, 2006 
  215. ^ "Marburg Journal of Religion: Framing Effects in the Coverage of Scientology versus Germany: Some Thoughts on the Role of Press and Scholars" PDF Webuni-marburgde May 22, 2009 Retrieved September 4, 2010 
  216. ^ Richardson 2009, p 283
  217. ^ Farley, Robert June 24, 2006 "The unperson" St Petersburg Times pp 1A,14A Archived from the original on July 17, 2007 Retrieved June 24, 2007 
  218. ^ Farley, Robert May 29, 2004 "Scientologists settle death suit" St Petersburg Times Archived from the original on October 29, 2013 Retrieved November 3, 2008 
  219. ^ Matt Loney; Evan Hansen March 21, 2002 "Google pulls anti-Scientology links" CNet Archived from the original on October 15, 2008 Retrieved May 10, 2007 
  220. ^ a b Joe Childs, Thomas C Tobin June 23, 2009 "The Truth Run Down" St Petersburg Times Archived from the original on February 9, 2013 Retrieved June 23, 2009 
  221. ^ Joe Childs, Thomas C Tobin June 23, 2009 "Scientology: Ecclesiastical justice" St Petersburg Times Archived from the original on January 17, 2013 Retrieved June 23, 2009 
  222. ^ Gianni, Luke February 22, 2007 "Scientology does detox – David E Root, MD" local stories > 15 minutes Sacramento News & Review Archived from the original on January 30, 2011 Retrieved May 6, 2007 
  223. ^ Seifman, David April 21, 2007 "Local Pols Cruised in Free to Tom Gala" New York Post Archived from the original on October 24, 2012 Retrieved November 27, 2007 
  224. ^ "Monserrate Defends Detox Program" The Politicker New York Observer April 20, 2007 Archived from the original on April 1, 2012 Retrieved November 27, 2007 
  225. ^ Etter, Lauren January 19, 2007 "Program for prisoners draws fire over Scientology" Wall Street Journal Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Archived from the original on April 1, 2012 Retrieved November 27, 2007 
  226. ^ Reitman, Janet February 8, 2011 "Inside Scientology" Rolling Stone Magazine Archived from the original on March 31, 2014 Retrieved September 6, 2011 
  227. ^ Hubbard, LR 1965: Keeping Scientology working Series 1, page 7 The Hubbard Communication Office Policy Letter, titled Keeping Scientology Working Series 1, was included in the attached documents submitted to the IRS in 1993 Available from Xenunet:
  228. ^ Stephen A Kent September 2003 "Scientology and the European Human Rights Debate: A Reply to Leisa Goodman, J Gordon Melton, and the European Rehabilitation Project Force Study" Marburg Journal of Religion 8 1 Retrieved May 21, 2006 ; Kent cites Hubbard, L Ron 1976a Modern Management Technology Defined Copenhagen, New Era Publications
  229. ^ Eggenberger, Nicole September 10, 2013 "Leah Remini Tells Ellen DeGeneres She 'Lost Friends"'After Leaving Scientolog" US Weekly Archived December 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  230. ^ Ficsher, Erika National Reporting, 1941-1986 Walter de Gruyter p 302 
  231. ^ Morgan, Lucy 1999-03-29 "Abroad: Critics public and private keep pressure on Scientology" St Petersburg Times Retrieved 2007-11-04 
  232. ^ Catholic Sentinel, March 17, 1978
  233. ^ Charles L Stafford; Bette Orsini 1980-01-09 "Scientology: An in-depth profile of a new force in Clearwater" PDF St Petersburg Times  Original 18M
  234. ^ Koff, Stephen 1988-12-22 "Scientology church faces new claims of harassment" St Petersburg Times Retrieved 2008-04-19 
  235. ^ "Scientology convicted for fraud in France, escapes ban" Reuters October 27, 2009 Archived from the original on January 14, 2010 , Reuters, October 27, 2009
  236. ^ "French court upholds Scientology fraud conviction" , AFP, February 2, 2012
  237. ^ http://wwwthewirecom/global/2012/12/belgium-scientology-charges/60398/
  238. ^ http://tonyortegaorg/2014/03/27/belgium-will-try-two-scientology-organizations-and-10-scientologists-for-fraud/
  239. ^ http://tonyortegaorg/2014/01/11/our-man-in-europe-reports-on-belgiums-criminal-prosecution-of-scientology/
  240. ^ "A Sci-Fi Faith" Time magazine 1976-04-05 Retrieved July 24, 2009 
  241. ^ Behar, Richard 1991-05-06 "The Scientologists and Me" Time 
  242. ^ Strupp, Joe 2005-06-30 "The press vs Scientology" Salon Retrieved 2007-09-19 
  243. ^ Sweeney, John 14 May 2007 "Row over Scientology video" BBC News Retrieved 2008-11-03 
  244. ^ Melton 2000, p 29
  245. ^ a b Donaghy, James June 9, 2007 "My name is L Ron Hubbard" The Guardian London Archived from the original on March 7, 2013 Retrieved January 14, 2009 
  246. ^ Breckenridge, Memorandum of Intended Decision in Church of Scientology of California vs Gerald Armstrong, Superior Court, Los Angeles County, case no C420153 quoted in Atack, Jon 1990 A Piece of Blue Sky Carol Publishing Group p 322 ISBN 978-0-8184-0499-3 
  247. ^ Koff, Stephen December 22, 1988 "Scientology church faces new claims of harassment" St Petersburg Times Archived from the original on May 15, 2009 Retrieved October 26, 2008 
  248. ^ Steven Girardi May 9, 1982 "Witnesses Tell of Break-ins, Conspiracy" Clearwater Sun: 1A 
  249. ^ Judgement of Mr Justice Latey, Re: B & G Minors Custody Delivered in the High Court Family Division, London, 23 July 1984
  250. ^ "Judge brands Scientology 'sinister' as mother is given custody of children" The Times 24 July 1984 p 3 
  251. ^ "News and Notes: Scientology Libel Action" British Medical Journal 1 5743: 297–298 30 January 1971 doi:101136/bmj15743297 ISSN 0007-1447 PMC 1794922 PMID 5294085 
  252. ^ Hubbard, L Ron 2007 Introduction to Scientology Ethics Latin American Spanish ed Bridge Publications p 209 ISBN 978-1-4031-4684-7 
  253. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference kent was invoked but never defined see the help page
  254. ^ Kelly, Brian November 10, 2009 "The Even Darker World of Scientology" Catholicismorg Saint Benedict Center, Richmond, New Hampshire Retrieved 2009-11-10 
  255. ^ The Times of India staff July 17, 2003 "Tom Cruise and the Church of Scientology" The Times of India 
  256. ^ New York Post staff June 29, 2005 "Abort-Happy Folks" New York Post News Corporation p 011 
  257. ^ Los Angeles Times staff February 29, 2008 "Kids against Scientology" Web Scout Los Angeles Times Retrieved 2009-11-07 
  258. ^ Lattin, Don February 12, 2001 "Leaving the Fold – Third-generation Scientologist grows disillusioned with faith" San Francisco Chronicle The Chronicle Publishing Co p A1 
  259. ^ MSNBC staff January 15, 2008 "Exclusive: 'Tom Cruise: An Unauthorized Biography' – Read an excerpt from Andrew Morton's controversial new book" MSNBC NBC Retrieved 2009-11-07 
  260. ^ Morton, Andrew 2008 Tom Cruise: An Unauthorized Biography St Martin's Press p 130 ISBN 0-312-35986-1 
  261. ^ a b Perrault, Michael March 26, 2009 "Suit alleges wing of Church of Scientology violated labor laws" The Press-Enterprise The Press-Enterprise Co p C01 
  262. ^ Courthouse News Service staff April 3, 2009 "Scientology Accused of Human Trafficking" Courthouse News Service wwwcourthousenewscom Retrieved 2009-11-07 
  263. ^ Baca, Nathan March 31, 2009 "Former Scientologist Recounts 'Torturous' Past Inside the Church" KESQ-TV 
  264. ^ "Scientologists forced me to have two abortions" Herald Sun wwwheraldsuncomau March 17, 2010 Retrieved 2010-03-17 
  265. ^ a b Australian Associated Press March 17, 2010 "Scientologists forced me to have two abortions, ex-disciple says" Newscomau News Limited Retrieved 2010-03-17 
  266. ^ "Scientologists pressured me to have abortions" ABC News Australia Australian Broadcasting Corporation March 27, 2010 Retrieved 2010-03-17 
  267. ^ a b c Tedmanson, Sophie November 19, 2009 "Church of Scientology accused of torture and forced abortions" The Times Times Newspapers Ltd Retrieved 2009-11-19 
  268. ^ Agence France-Presse November 18, 2009 "Australian PM voices 'concerns' over Scientology" Canadacom Canwest News Service Retrieved 2009-11-19 
  269. ^ Collins, Pádraig November 19, 2009 "Scientology faces allegations of abuse and covering up deaths in Australia" Irish Times wwwirishtimescom Retrieved 2009-11-19 
  270. ^ a b O'Loughlin, Toni November 18, 2009 "Scientology faces allegations of torture in Australia: Australian prime minister considers inquiry after senator tables allegations including forced abortions, assault and blackmail" The Guardian Guardian News and Media Limited Retrieved 2009-11-19 
  271. ^ Saulwick, Jacob November 18, 2009 "Pressure mounts for Scientology inquiry" Sydney Morning Herald Fairfax Digital Retrieved 2009-11-19 
  272. ^ Ansley, Greg November 19, 2009 "Church attacked for 'criminal' activities" New Zealand Herald APN Holdings NZ Limited Retrieved 2009-11-19 
  273. ^ 3 News staff November 26, 2009 "Kiwi blows the whistle on Scientology" 3 News www3newsconz Retrieved 2009-11-26 
  274. ^ Australian Associated Press March 18, 2010 "Scientologists reject claims they forced abortions" Sydney Morning Herald Retrieved 2010-03-17 
  275. ^ Grossman, Wendy October 1997 "Copyright Terrorists" NetWars New York: New York University Press pp 77–78 ISBN 978-0-8147-3103-1 Archived from the original on February 27, 2014 Retrieved June 11, 2006 
  276. ^ a b c Knapp, Dan December 19, 1996 "Group that once criticized Scientologists now owned by one" CNN Time Warner Archived from the original on April 8, 2014 Retrieved October 29, 2007 
  277. ^ Russell, Ron September 9, 1999 "Scientology's Revenge – For years, the Cult Awareness Network was the Church of Scientology's biggest enemy But the late L Ron Hubbard's LA-based religion cured that–by taking it over" New Times LA 
  278. ^ Book: Cults: A Reference Handbook By James R Lewis, Published by ABC-CLIO, 2005, ISBN 1-85109-618-3, ISBN 978-1-85109-618-3 Booksgooglecouk May 3, 2005 ISBN 978-1-85109-618-3 Retrieved September 4, 2010 
  279. ^ Goodman, Leisa, Human Rights Director, Church of Scientology International 2001 "A Letter from the Church of Scientology" Marburg Journal of Religion: Responses From Religions pp Volume 6, No 2, 4 pages Retrieved October 28, 2007 
  280. ^ a b c d e Dawson, Lorne L; Cowan, Douglas E 2004 Religion Online: Finding Faith on the Internet New York, NY/London, UK: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group pp 262, 264–265 ISBN 978-0-415-97022-8 
  281. ^ Wendy Grossman Netwars, p 77, NYU Press, 1997 ISBN 978-0-8147-3103-1
  282. ^ Steven Vedro Digital Dharma, p 190, Quest Books, 2007 ISBN 978-0-8356-0859-6
  283. ^ Mike Godwin Cyber Rights, p 219, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 2003 ISBN 978-0-262-57168-5
  284. ^ Catharine Cookson Encyclopedia of Religious Freedom, p 432, Taylor & Francis, 2003 ISBN 978-0-415-94181-5
  285. ^ Wendy Grossman Netwars, p 90, New York University Press, 1997 ISBN 978-0-8147-3103-1
  286. ^ Sarno, David February 11, 2008 "takes part in Scientology protests" Los Angeles Times Archived from the original on November 7, 2012 , Los Angeles Times, February 11, 2008
  287. ^ Christopher Lueg From Usenet to CoWebs, p 37, Springer, 2003 ISBN 978-1-85233-532-8
  288. ^ Wendy Grossman Netwars, pp 74–76, NYU Press, 1997 ISBN 978-0-8147-3103-1
  289. ^ Nordhausen, Frank Scientology: Wie der Sektenkonzern die Welt erobern will in German Links Christoph Verlag p 518 ISBN 978-3-86153-470-9 
  290. ^ John Cook March 17, 2008 "Scientology – Cult Friction" Radar Online Radar Magazine Archived from the original on March 23, 2008 Retrieved March 18, 2008  External link in |work= help
  291. ^ Vamosi, Robert January 24, 2008 "Anonymous threatens to "dismantle" Church of Scientology via internet" cnetcom CNET Retrieved May 30, 2015 
  292. ^ KNBC Staff January 24, 2008 "Hacker Group Declares War On Scientology: Group Upset Over Church's Handling Of Tom Cruise Video" KNBC Archived from the original on August 21, 2008 Retrieved January 25, 2008 
  293. ^ Vamosi, Robert January 24, 2008 "Anonymous hackers take on the Church of Scientology" CNET News CNET Networks, Inc Retrieved January 25, 2008 
  294. ^ "Anonymous Attacks!" Archived from the original on August 29, 2012 Retrieved January 30, 2009 
  295. ^ George-Cosh, David January 25, 2008 "Online group declares war on Scientology" National Post Canwest Publishing Inc Retrieved January 25, 2008 
  296. ^ Singel, Ryan January 23, 2008 "War Breaks Out Between Hackers and Scientology – There Can Be Only One" Wired CondéNet, Inc Archived from the original on April 24, 2013 Retrieved January 25, 2008 
  297. ^ Feran, Tom January 24, 2008 "Where to find the Tom Cruise Scientology videos online, if they're still posted" The Plain Dealer Newhouse Newspapers Archived from the original on December 11, 2013 Retrieved January 25, 2008 
  298. ^ a b Chan Enterprises January 21, 2008 "Internet Group Declares "War on Scientology": Anonymous are fighting the Church of Scientology and the Religious Technology Center" Press Release PRLogOrg Archived from the original PDF on May 8, 2011 Retrieved January 25, 2008 
  299. ^ Matthew A Schroettnig; Stefanie Herrington; Lauren E Trent February 6, 2008 "Anonymous Versus Scientology: Cyber Criminals or Vigilante Justice" Archived from the original on June 3, 2013 Retrieved January 25, 2008 
  300. ^ Dodd, Gareth Editor; Agencies January 25, 2008 "Anonymous hackers vow to "dismantle" Scientology" Xinhua News Agency Archived from the original on October 22, 2012 Retrieved January 25, 2008 
  301. ^ Brandon, Mikhail January 28, 2008 "Scientology in the Crosshairs" The Emory Wheel Emory University Archived from the original on May 15, 2012 Retrieved January 31, 2008 
  302. ^ Feran, Tom January 31, 2008 "The group Anonymous calls for protests outside Scientology centers – New on the Net" The Plain Dealer Newhouse Newspapers Archived from the original on March 4, 2014 Retrieved February 4, 2008 
  303. ^ Vamosi, Robert January 28, 2008 "Anonymous names 10 February as its day of action against Scientology" CNET News CNET Networks, Inc Archived from the original on October 15, 2008 Retrieved January 28, 2008 
  304. ^ Carlos Moncada February 12, 2008 "Organizers Tout Scientology Protest, Plan Another" TBOcom Archived from the original on February 10, 2012 Retrieved February 13, 2008 
  305. ^ Harrison, James The State News February 12, 2008 "Scientology protestors take action around world" Archived from the original on October 21, 2013 Retrieved February 14, 2008 
  306. ^ Forrester, John February 11, 2008 "Dozens of masked protesters blast Scientology church" The Boston Globe Archived from the original on October 27, 2013 Retrieved February 15, 2008 
  307. ^ Andrew Ramadge March 17, 2008 "Second round of Anonymous v Scientology" Newscomau News Limited Archived from the original on October 6, 2009 Retrieved March 17, 2008 
  308. ^ a b c Shea, Danny May 29, 2009 "Wikipedia Bans Scientology From Site" The Huffington Post Archived from the original on September 20, 2012 Retrieved May 29, 2009 
  309. ^ a b Metz, Cade May 29, 2009 "Wikipedia bans Church of Scientology" The Register Archived from the original on March 18, 2011 Retrieved May 29, 2009 
  310. ^ Alan Aldridge Religion in the Contemporary World, p 20, Polity, 2007 ISBN 978-0-7456-3405-0
  311. ^ "Scientology Marriage Officers Approved in South Africa" CESNUR April 11, 2000 Retrieved July 21, 2007 
  312. ^ High Court of Australia "CHURCH OF THE NEW FAITH v COMMISSIONER OF PAY-ROLL TAX VICT 1983 154 CLR 120" Archived from the original on May 13, 2013 
  313. ^ "Decision of March 13, 2000 registering Scientology as a "religious community" in Sweden" CESNUR March 13, 2000 Retrieved July 21, 2007 
  314. ^ "Scientology gets tax-exempt status" New Zealand Herald December 27, 2002 Retrieved August 1, 2007 the IRD said the church met the criteria of a charitable organisation in the category of the advancement of religion 
  315. ^ "Opinion of the New Zealand Inland Revenue Department on the Charitable Status of Scientology" December 4, 2002 
  316. ^ "2007 US Department of State – 2007 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Portugal" Stategov March 11, 2008 Retrieved September 20, 2012 
  317. ^ "La Audiencia Nacional reconoce a la Cienciología como iglesia" El Pais November 1, 2007 Archived from the original on May 13, 2011  Spanish
  318. ^ a b Finkelman, Paul 2006 Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties CRC Press p 287 ISBN 978-0-415-94342-0  "Scientology has achieved full legal recognition as a religious denomination in the United States"
  319. ^ a b c Davis, Derek H 2004 "The Church of Scientology: In Pursuit of Legal Recognition" Zeitdiagnosen: Religion and Conformity Münster, Germany: Lit Verlag Archived from the original PDF on March 8, 2010 Retrieved May 10, 2008 Many countries, including the United States, now give official recognition to Scientology as a religion  
  320. ^ a b Lucy Morgan March 29, 1999 "Abroad: Critics public and private keep pressure on Scientology" St Petersburg Times In the United States, Scientology gained status as a tax-exempt religion in 1993 when the Internal Revenue Service agreed to end a long legal battle over the group's right to the exemption 
  321. ^ a b Toomey, Shamus June 26, 2005 "'TomKat' casts spotlight back on Scientology", Chicago Sun-Times
  322. ^ Urban, Hugh B The Church of Scientology: A History of a New Religion Princeton Press p 2 ISBN 978-0-691-14608-9 Archived from the original on July 16, 2012 Retrieved July 29, 2013 
  323. ^ Willms 2009, p 245 "Being a religion is one of the most important issues of Scientology's current self-representation"
  324. ^ Kennedy, Dominic June 23, 2007 "'Church' that yearns for respectability" The Times London Archived from the original on May 23, 2011 Retrieved January 4, 2009 Scientology is probably unique in that it keeps its sacred texts secret until, typically, devotees have paid enough money to learn what they say 
  325. ^ a b Cowan & Bromley 2007, p 17
  326. ^ Garcia, Wayne March 31, 1994 "Scientology suit on PR firm heads for trial" St Petersburg Times Retrieved January 4, 2009 For 2 1⁄2 years, Hill & Knowlton worked closely with the controversial religion, coming up with ways to turn around Scientology's maligned image and teaching Scientologists how to handle reporters' questions 
  327. ^ Cowan, Douglas E July 2004 "Researching Scientology: Academic Premises, Promises, and Problematic" CESNUR 2004 International Conference Retrieved June 23, 2006 
  328. ^ Hexham, Irving 1997 "The Religious Status of Scientology: Is Scientology a Religion" University of Calgary Archived from the original on November 19, 2009 Retrieved June 13, 2006 
  329. ^ a b c d e f g h Frantz, Douglas March 9, 1997 "Scientology's Puzzling Journey From Tax Rebel to Tax Exempt" New York Times Archived from the original on March 21, 2008 Retrieved October 26, 2008 
  330. ^ a b c Melton 2000, p 14
  331. ^ Anderson, Kevin Victor, QC; Victoria Board of Enquiry into Scientology 1965 Report of the Board of Enquiry into Scientology Melbourne: Government Printer p 155  Cite uses deprecated parameter |coauthors= help
  332. ^ Lewis, James R Scientology Oxford University Press Retrieved 2015-11-23 
  333. ^ Phillip Lucas New Religious Movements in the 21st Century, p 235, Routledge, 2004 ISBN 978-0-415-96577-4
  334. ^ "Recognition was based upon voluminous information provided by the Church regarding its financial and other operations to the Internal Revenue Service" IRS press release December 31, 1997 "Church of Scientology & IRS Confidentiality" Archived from the original on May 18, 2012  Retrieved August 13, 2007
  335. ^ Dahl, David; Vick, Karl October 24, 1993 "IRS examined Scientology dollars, not dogma" St Petersburg Times Archived from the original on October 12, 2008 Retrieved August 31, 2007 
  336. ^ De ATLEY, RICHARD K July 24, 2012 "CHURCH OF SCIENTOLOGY: Two former ministers' lawsuit loses on appeal" Press Enterprise Press Enterprise Retrieved 2016-03-24 
  337. ^ Frantz, Douglas March 19, 1997 "Scientology Denies an Account Of an Impromptu IRS Meeting" New York Times Archived from the original on January 15, 2008 Retrieved January 18, 2009 
  338. ^ Richardson 2009, p 288
  339. ^ "http://wwwcscmuedu/~dst/Fishman/Declaration/dmdectxt" Archived from the original on February 6, 2012  External link in |title= help
  340. ^ Richardson 2009, p 286: "After doing a thorough analysis, the Court stated unequivocally that Scientology met the criteria establishing itself as a religion, and therefore should be granted exempt status for tax purposes The Court went on to state that a religion did not have to be theistic, and that a religion involved both belief and behavior This case is still the leading case in Australia defining religion, and is cited in other courts and countries as well"
  341. ^ "2007 US State Department – 2007 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Portugal" : "In November the government officially recognized Scientology as a religion"
  342. ^ "Cienciología entre las "entidades religiosas"" Archived from the original on April 11, 2013 : "Un tribunal administrativo de la Audiencia Nacional de Madrid, máxima instancia judicial española, aceptó un recurso interpuesto por ese movimiento fundado en 1954 por el autor de ciencia ficción Lafayette Ron Hubbard 1911–1986, para ser inscripto en el registro de los movimientos religiosos del país"
  343. ^ a b c d "La justice espagnole accorde à la Scientologie le statut de religion" , 2008-01-09, Le Monde
  344. ^ "Decision of 13 March 2000 registering Scientology as a "religious community" in Sweden" CESNUR March 13, 2000 Retrieved July 21, 2007 
  345. ^ Bogdan 2009, p 338: "on March 13, 2000, the Church of Scientology was registered as a religious community by the National Judicial Board for Public Lands and Funds following a new law, titled the Act on Religious Communities , which took on effect on January 1, 2000, with the separation of the Church of Sweden from the state On June 10, 2000, the first legal Scientology wedding in Europe was celebrated in Stockholm"
  346. ^ "US State Department – 2005 Report on International Religious Freedom: Kyrgyzstan" : "In the past year the State Commission on Religious Affairs SCRA also registered the Church of Scientology"
  347. ^ "Scientology gets tax-exempt status" The New Zealand Herald December 27, 2002 Archived from the original on April 1, 2012 Retrieved July 13, 2011 
  348. ^ Richardson 2009, p 291
  349. ^ a b c Gallagher, Eugene V; Ashcraft, W Michael 2006 Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, ISBN 978-0-275-98712-1, p 185
  350. ^ Harry Wallop: "Scientology tax victory could cost Revenue millions" The Daily Telegraph London Archived from the original on May 1, 2008 , Daily Telegraph, August 11, 2006
  351. ^ "UK Supreme Court says Scientology is a religion, allows wedding" Reuters December 11, 2013 
  352. ^ Bingham, John December 11, 2013 "Scientology is a religion, rules Supreme Court" The Daily Telegraph London Archived from the original on April 1, 2014 
  353. ^ December 11, 2013 – RT News Archived December 11, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  354. ^ Hafiz, Yasmine December 12, 2013 "Britain Recognizes Scientology As A Religion" Huffington Post Archived from the original on December 16, 2013 
  355. ^ a b c Cowan & Bromley 2006, p 170
  356. ^ a b Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin September 2003 "Scientology: Religion or racket" Marburg Journal of Religion Philipps-Universität Marburg 8 1 Retrieved June 30, 2006 
  357. ^ Zur Frage der Beobachtung der Scientology-Organisation durch die Verfassungsschutzbehörden in German PDF format
  358. ^ Melton 2000, p 60
  359. ^ "Scientology-Organisation" Archived from the original on February 10, 2013 
  360. ^ German""Eskalierende Gewaltkultur" bei Scientology – heute-Nachrichten" Heutede Retrieved September 20, 2012 
  361. ^ Schmid, John January 15, 1997 "German Party Replies To Scientology Backers" Archived from the original on February 28, 2009 , Herald Tribune
  362. ^ a b "Germany, America and Scientology" Archived from the original on June 10, 2014 , Washington Post, February 1, 1997
  363. ^ a b Bonfante, Jordan; van Voorst, Bruce February 10, 1997 ""Does Germany Have Something Against These Guys" Time February 10, 1997 Archived from the original on May 20, 2013 ", Time
  364. ^ Staff April 2, 1998 ""UN Derides Scientologists' Charges About German 'Persecution'" The New York Times April 2, 1998 ", New York Times
  365. ^ Peter Beyer; Lori G Beaman 2007 Religion, globalization and culture BRILL p 274 ISBN 978-90-04-15407-0 Retrieved October 10, 2010 
  366. ^ "Germany drops attempt to ban Scientology" msnbccom Archived from the original on October 31, 2012 Retrieved July 13, 2011 
  367. ^ Kent 2001
  368. ^ a b "Church of Scientology Faces Criminal Charges in Belgium – International News" FOXNewscom September 4, 2007 Archived from the original on November 19, 2012 Retrieved September 4, 2010 
  369. ^ a b Planchar, Roland September 4, 2007 "La Scientologie plus près de son procès" in French La Libre Belgique Archived from the original on October 16, 2007 Retrieved May 13, 2008 
  370. ^ "US Dept of State International Religious Freedom Report 2004" Stategov January 1, 2004 Retrieved September 4, 2010 
  371. ^ "Scientology tax-exempt in Netherlands" New York Post Associated Press October 18, 2013 Archived from the original on December 11, 2013 Retrieved February 19, 2014 
  372. ^ Pieters, Janene October 22, 2015 "Hague Court Deal Blow to Scientology Tax-Free Status" NL Times Retrieved March 15, 2016 
  373. ^ "ECLI:NL:GHDHA:2015:2875" in Dutch Gerechtshof Den Haag October 21, 2015 Archived from the original on November 7, 2015 Retrieved March 15, 2016 
  374. ^ Plotkin-Wells & Wimmer E-Commerce Law & Business, Section 801, Aspen Publishers Online, 2003 ISBN 978-0-7355-4148-1
  375. ^ Sappell, Joel; Welkos, Robert W June 24, 1990 "The Man In Control" Los Angeles Times p A41:4 Archived from the original on June 2, 2010 Retrieved June 6, 2006 
  376. ^ West, Louis Jolyon July 1990 "Psychiatry and Scientology" Archived from the original on April 1, 2012 Retrieved May 16, 2007 
  377. ^ Melton 2000, p 59
  378. ^ Melton, J Gordon 2000 The Church of Scientology Salt Lake City: Signature Press ISBN 978-1-56085-139-4
  379. ^ "Rudd's concerns about Scientology quoted from embedded video, "Xenophon attacks Scientology – Independent Senator Nick Xenophon attacks Scientology as a 'criminal organisation'"" The Age November 18, 2009 
  380. ^ Urban, Hugh B: The Church of Scientology: A History of a New Religion Chapman, Mark Review of Religious Research 2013 vol 55 Issue: 1, pp 203-204
  381. ^ Dericquebourg, Regis 2014 "Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review" 4 1 University Charles De Gaulle Lille 
  382. ^ Neal, Lynn S 2013 "Scientology" In Bill J Leonard and Jill Y Crainshaw Encyclopedia of Religious Controversies in the United States 2 2nd ed Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO pp 697–699  |access-date= requires |url= help
  383. ^ Bromley, David G 1987 The Future of New Religious Movements Mercer University Press 
  384. ^ Bednarowski, Mary Farrell 1995 "The Church of Scientology: Lightning Rod for Cultural Boundary Conflicts" In Timothy Miller America's Alternative Religions SUNY Press p 388 ISBN 978-0-7914-2397-4 
  385. ^ Dericquebourg, Regis 2014 "Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review" University Charles De Gaulle Lille 4
  386. ^ Flinn, Frank K September 22, 1994 "Scientology: The Marks of Religion" Church of Scientology Archived from the original on September 14, 2012 
  387. ^ DeChant, Dell; Jorgensen, Danny L 2009-10-07 Neusner, Jacob, ed World Religions in America, Fourth Edition: An Introduction Westminster John Knox Press p 297 ISBN 9781611640472 
  388. ^ Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin September 2003 "Scientology: Religion or racket" PDF 8 1 Marburg Journal of Religion Retrieved July 1, 2014 
  389. ^ Kent, Stephen July 1999 "Scientology – Is this a Religion" PDF 4 1 Marburg Journal of Religion Retrieved July 1, 2014 
  390. ^ Jeffrey Lehman; Shirelle Phelps, eds 2005 "Religion" West's Encyclopedia of American Law 8 2 ed Detroit: Thomson/Gale p 283 ISBN 978-0-7876-6375-9 
  391. ^ Melton, J Gordon 2000 Massimo Introvigne, eds Studies in Contemporary Religion: The Church of Scientology Signature Books ISBN 978-1-56085-139-4 Archived from the original on August 1, 2013 Retrieved July 29, 2013  CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter link
  392. ^ Herrick, James A 2004 The Making of the New Spirituality Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press p 199 ISBN 978-0-8308-3279-8 
  393. ^ a b Miller, Russell 1987 Bare-faced Messiah, The True Story of L Ron Hubbard First American ed New York: Henry Holt & Co pp 140–142 ISBN 978-0-8050-0654-4 Archived from the original on March 12, 2011 
  394. ^ a b Melton 2000, pp 55, 74
  395. ^ a b c Frenschkowski, Marco January 1, 2010 "Researching Scientology: Some Observations on Recent Literature, English and German" Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review Academic Publishing 1 1: 38 ISSN 1946-0538 Archived from the original on February 27, 2014 Retrieved January 13, 2011 
  396. ^ Frenschkowski, Marco 2016 "Images of Religions and Religious History in the Works of L Ron Hubbard" Alternative Spirituality and Religion Review 7: 111–153 doi:105840/asrr20166620 
  397. ^ Platvoet & Molendijk The Pragmatics of Defining Religion, pp 63–64, Brill, 1999 ISBN 978-90-04-11544-6
  398. ^ Jentzsch, Heber "Church of Scientology FAQ: Did L Ron Hubbard state that the way to make money was to start a religion" Archived from the original on February 23, 2012 Retrieved June 9, 2010 
  399. ^ The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell 4 volumes, vol 1, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1968 ASIN: B000GLJ10S
  400. ^ Janet Reitman Inside Scientology, Rolling Stone, February 23, 2006
  401. ^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh 2003, UFO religions, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-26323-8 
  402. ^ Lewis, James R editor November 2003 The Encyclopedic Sourcebook of UFO Religions Prometheus Books p 42 ISBN 978-1-57392-964-6 
  403. ^ Palmer, Susan J Aliens adored : Raël’s UFO religion, Rutgers University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-8135-3475-6
  404. ^ Reece, Gl, UFO Religion: Inside Flying Saucer Cults and Culture, IBTauris & Co Ltd, 2007, pp 182-186
  405. ^ "Scientology: A History of Man | Bridge Publications, Inc" wwwbridgepubcom Retrieved 2015-05-08 
  406. ^ Church of Scientology, "Complete List of Scientology and Dianetics Books and Materials of 1952"
  407. ^ Rothstein, Mikael 2009 Lewis, James R, ed Scientology New York, New York: Oxford University Press p 375 ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3 
  408. ^ a b Willms 2009, pp 248–249
  409. ^ Ankerberg, John; Weldon, John 1996 Encyclopedia of New Age Beliefs Harvest House Publishers 
  410. ^ Pretorius, SP 2006 "The concept "salvation" in the Church of Scientology" HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies 62 1: 313–327 doi:104102/htsv62i1353 
  411. ^ Mccall, W Vaughn 2007 "Psychiatry and Psychology in the Writings of L Ron Hubbard" Journal of Religion and Health 46 3: 437–47 doi:101007/s10943-006-9079-9 
  412. ^ a b c d Willms 2005, pp 54–60
  413. ^ Lewis & Petersen Controversial New Religions, p 238, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-515682-9
  414. ^ a b Cowan & Bromley 2006, p 171
  415. ^ Hubbard, L Ron 'Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health' Los Angeles, California: Bridge Publications, 2007: 3 ISBN 978-1-4031-4484-3
  416. ^ Mann, Mary A 2004 Science and Spirituality Retrieved 2015-12-14 
  417. ^ Bryan Wilson 1995: "Religious Toleration & Religious Diversity" Archived from the original on October 31, 2013 , The Institute for the Study of American Religion
  418. ^ James R Lewis The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements, p 429, Oxford University Press US, 2004 ISBN 978-0-19-514986-9
  419. ^ Kent, Stephen A "Scientology's Relationship With Eastern Religious Traditions" Archived from the original on September 2, 2012 , Journal of Contemporary Religion, Vol 11, No 1, 1996, page 21
  420. ^ Karen Christensen, David Levinson 2003: Encyclopedia of Community, SAGE, p 1210: "Scientology shows affinities with Buddhism and a remarkable similarity to first-century Gnosticism"
  421. ^ John A Saliba 1996: Signs of the Times, Médiaspaul, p 51
  422. ^ a b Willms 2009, p 259
  423. ^ a b Melton 2000, pp 7–8, 67
  424. ^ Lewis, James R March 2009 Scientology Cary, NC: Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3 
  425. ^ "Is Scientology like hypnotism, meditation, psychotherapy or other mental therapies" wwwscientologyorg Retrieved 2015-12-29 
  426. ^ Urban, Hugh B 2011-08-22 The Church of Scientology: A History of a New Religion Princeton University Press ISBN 069114608X 
  427. ^ Hubbard, L Ron 1968 Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health Copenhagen, Denmark: Advanced Organization Saint Hill Denmark p 72 ISBN 87-87347-19-9 
  428. ^ Hubbard, L Ron 1968 Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health Copenhagen, Denmark: Advanced Organization Saint Hill Denmark p 82 ISBN 87-87347-19-9 
  429. ^ Cusack 2009, p 394
  430. ^ Benjamin J Hubbard/John T Hatfield/James A Santucci An Educator's Classroom Guide to America's Religious Beliefs and Practices, p 89, Libraries Unlimited, 2007 ISBN 978-1-59158-409-4
  431. ^ "Beginnings" Patheoscom Archived from the original on April 2, 2014 Retrieved September 20, 2012 
  432. ^ The New Word original version available for download
  433. ^ Anastasius Nordenholz Scientology: Science of the Constitution and Usefulness of Knowledge, Freie Zone e V, 1995 ISBN 978-3-9804724-1-8
  434. ^ The New Word, Publisher: Forgotten Books February 7, 2008, ISBN 978-1-60506-811-4 ISBN 978-1-60506-811-4
  435. ^ The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey W Bromiley, page 556
  436. ^ a b Cowan & Bromley 2006, p 176
  437. ^ "Scientology Glossary of Terms – K" Whatisscientologyorg Retrieved May 30, 2015 
  438. ^ Ortega, Tony January 6, 2012 "Scientology in Turmoil: Debbie Cook's E-Mail, Annotated" The Village Voice Archived from the original on February 14, 2014 Retrieved January 14, 2012 
  439. ^ a b c DeChant & Jorgenson 2003, p 228
  440. ^ a b c Melton 2000, pp 59–60
  441. ^ Arp, Robert, ed 2006-12-11 South Park and Philosophy: You Know, I Learned Something Today William Irwin Series Editor Blackwell Publishing The Blackwell Philosophy & Pop Culture Series pp 27, 59, 60, 118, 120, 132, 137, 138, 140, 224 ISBN 978-1-4051-6160-2 
  442. ^ Brown, Lane December 3, 2010 "So This New Paul Thomas Anderson Movie Is Definitely About Scientology, Right" NYMagcom New York Media Holdings Retrieved June 5, 2011 
  443. ^ Brown, Lane March 17, 2010 "Universal Passes on Paul Thomas Anderson's Scientology Movie" NYMagcom New York Media Holdings Retrieved June 5, 2011 
  444. ^ Pilkington, Ed April 26, 2011 "Church of Scientology snaps up Hollywood film studio" Guardiancouk Guardian News and Media Limited Retrieved June 12, 2011 
  445. ^ Yamato, Jen June 10, 2010 "Will Scientologists Declare War on Paul Thomas Anderson's The Master" Filmcom RealNetworks Retrieved June 2, 2011 
  446. ^ Ortega, Tony April 5, 2015 "Saturday Night Live's genius spoof of Scientology: Lyrics and images" The Underground Bunker Retrieved November 23, 2015 
  447. ^ Carlson, Adam April 5, 2015 "SNL's 'Neurotology' Skit Puts Musical Spin on Scientology" People Retrieved November 23, 2015 


  • Barrett, David V 1998 Sects, ‘Cults’ & Alternative Religions: A World Survey and Sourcebook Paperback New Ed Sterling Pub Co Inc ISBN 978-0-7137-2756-2 
  • Behar, Richard 1991 Scientology: The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power, Time magazine
  • Bogdan, Henrik 2009 "The Church of Scientology in Sweden"  In Lewis, James R 2009 Scientology New York, NY: Oxford University Press pp 335–344 ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3 
  • Bromley, David G 2009 "Making Sense of Scientology"  In Lewis, James R 2009 Scientology New York, NY: Oxford University Press pp 83–101 ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3 
  • Cowan, Douglas E; Bromley, David G 2006 "The Church of Scientology"  In Gallagher, Eugene V; Ashcraft, W Michael eds 2006 Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America 5 Westport CT: Greenwood Press pp 169–196 ISBN 978-0-275-98712-1 
  • Cowan, Douglas E; Bromley, David G 2007 Cults and New Religions: A Brief History Malden, MA / Oxford, UK / Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing ISBN 978-1-4051-6127-5 
  • Cusack, Carole M 2009 "Celebrity, the Popular Media, and Scientology: Making Familiar the Unfamiliar"  In Lewis, James R 2009 Scientology New York, NY: Oxford University Press pp 389–409 ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3 
  • Cusack, Carole M; Digance, Justine 2009 "Pastoral Care and September 11: Scientology's Nontraditional Religious Contribution"  In Lewis, James R 2009 Scientology New York, NY: Oxford University Press pp 435–437 ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3 
  • Flowers, Ronald B 1984 Religion in Strange Times: The 1960s and 1970s Macon, GA: Mercer University Press ISBN 978-0-86554-127-6 
  • Frenschkowski, Marco 1999 "L Ron Hubbard and Scientology: An annotated bibliographical survey of primary and selected secondary literature" Archived from the original on September 2, 2005 
  • Gallagher, Eugene V; Ashcraft, W Michael eds 2006 Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America Westport CT: Greenwood Press ISBN 978-0-275-98712-1 
  • Garrison, Omar V 1974 The Hidden Story of Scientology Citadel Press ISBN 978-0-8065-0440-7 
  • Hunt, Stephen J 2003 Alternative Religions: A Sociological Introduction Ashgate Publishing ISBN 978-0-7546-3410-2 
  • Kent, Stephen A 1996 "Scientology's Relationship With Eastern Religious Traditions" Journal of Contemporary Religion 11 1: 21–36 doi:101080/13537909608580753 Archived from the original on September 2, 2012 Retrieved January 13, 2009 
  • Kent, Stephen A 2001 "The French and German versus American Debate over 'New Religions', Scientology, and Human Rights" Marburg Journal of Religion 6 1 Retrieved March 28, 2009 
  • Lewis, James R 2009 Scientology New York, NY: Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3 
  • Lewis, James R; Hammer, Olav 2007 The Invention of Sacred Tradition Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press ISBN 978-0-521-86479-4 
  • Melton, J Gordon 2000 The Church of Scientology Salt Lake City: Signature Press ISBN 978-1-56085-139-4 
  • DeChant, Dell; Jorgenson, Danny L 2003 "Chapter 14: The Church of Scientology: A Very New American Religion" In Neusner, Jacob World Religions in America Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 978-0-664-22475-2 
  • Palmer, Susan J 2009 "The Church of Scientology in France: Legal and Activist Counterattacks in the "War on Sectes""  In Lewis, James R 2009 Scientology New York, NY: Oxford University Press pp 295–322 ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3 
  • Reitman, Janet 2011 "Inside Scientology: The Story of America's Most Secretive Religion" New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing ISBN 978-0-618-88302-8 
  • Richardson, James T 2009 "Scientology in Court: A Look at Some Major Cases from Various Nations"  In Lewis, James R 2009 Scientology New York, NY: Oxford University Press pp 283–294 ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3 
  • Urban, Hugh B 2011 The Church of Scientology: A History of a New Religion Princeton Press ISBN 978-0-691-14608-9 
  • Willms, Gerald 2005 Scientology: Kulturbeobachtungen jenseits der Devianz in German Bielefeld, Germany: transcript Verlag ISBN 978-3-89942-330-3 
  • Willms, Gerald 2009 "Scientology: "Modern Religion" or "Religion of Modernity""  In Lewis, James R 2009 Scientology New York, NY: Oxford University Press pp 245–265 ISBN 978-0-19-533149-3 
  • Zellner, William W; Petrowsky, Marc 1998 Sects, Cults, and Spiritual Communities: a Sociological Analysis Westport CT: Praeger Publishers ISBN 978-0-275-96335-4 

External links

Official site
  • Scientology website
  • Scientology at DMOZ
Scholarly web pages on Scientology
  • Center for Studies on New Religions CESNUR
  • Scientology -- Is This a Religion
  • J Gordon Melton
  • An Annotated Bibliographical Survey of Primary and Secondary Literature on L Ron Hubbard and Scientology

scientology, scientology and the aftermath, scientology beliefs, scientology celebrities, scientology cult, scientology defectors, scientology documentary, scientology e-meter, scientology leah remini, scientology wikipedia

Scientology Information about


  • user icon

    Scientology beatiful post thanks!


Scientology viewing the topic.
Scientology what, Scientology who, Scientology explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

Random Posts

IP address blocking

IP address blocking

IP address blocking prevents connection between a server or website and certain IP addresses or rang...
Gisele Bündchen

Gisele Bündchen

Gisele Caroline Bündchen1 Portuguese pronunciation: ʒiˈzɛli kaɾoˈlini ˈbĩtʃẽj, German pronuncia...
Sheldon, West Midlands

Sheldon, West Midlands

Sheldon is an area of east Birmingham, England Historically part of Warwickshire, it is close to the...
Beverly, Chicago

Beverly, Chicago

Beverly is one of the 77 community areas of Chicago, Illinois It is located on the South Side on the...