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Sanctus

sanctus real, sanctus
The Sanctus Latin: Sanctus, "Holy" is a hymn from Chalcedonian Christian liturgy It may also be called the epinikios hymnos Greek: ἐπινίκιος ὕμνος, "Hymn of Victory" when referring to the Greek rendition

In Western Christianity, the Sanctus forms part of the Ordinary and is sung or said as the final words of the Preface of the Eucharistic Prayer, the prayer of consecration of the bread and wine The preface, which alters according to the season, usually concludes with words describing the praise of the worshippers joining with the angels, who are pictured as praising God with the words of the Sanctus In Byzantine Rite and general Eastern Orthodox Christianity, the Sanctus is offered as a response by the choir during the Holy Anaphora

Tersanctus "Thrice Holy" is another, rarer name for the Sanctus The same name is sometimes used for the Trisagion1

Contents

  • 1 Text
    • 11 In Greek
    • 12 In Latin
    • 13 In English
  • 2 Sources
  • 3 Hymn forms in Eastern liturgies
    • 31 Alternative ancient names and ancient secrecy
  • 4 Musical settings
  • 5 Accompanying gestures
  • 6 See also
  • 7 Notes and references
  • 8 External links

Textedit

In Greekedit

Ἅγιος, ἅγιος, ἅγιος Κύριος Σαβαώθ· πλήρης ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ τῆς δόξης σου, ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου Ὡσαννὰ ὁ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις234n 1n 2n 3

In the Divine Liturgy of St John Chrysostom2 and the Liturgy of St Basil:5

Ἅγιος, ἅγιος, ἅγιος Κύριος Σαβαώθ·
πλήρης ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ τῆς δόξης σου,
ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις
Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου
Ὡσαννὰ ὁ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις

In the Liturgy of St James:4n 3

Ἅγιος, ἅγιος, ἅγιος Κύριος Σαβαώθ
Πλήρης ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ τῆς δόξης σου
Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις
Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου
Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις

In Latinedit

In the Roman Rite:6

Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus
Dominus Deus Sabaoth
Pleni sunt cæli et terra gloria tua
Hosanna in excelsis
Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini
Hosanna in excelsis

In the Mozarabic Rite:7

Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus,
Dominus Deus Sabaoth:
Pleni sunt cæli et terra gloria maiestatis tuæ,
Hosanna filio David
Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini
Hosanna in excelsis
Hagios, hagios, hagios Kyrie o Theos

In Englishedit

The Sanctus appears thus in the 1549 Book of Common Prayer and as set to music by John Merbecke in 15508:

Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts:
heaven & earth are full of thy glory:
Hosanna, in the highest
Blessed is he that commeth in the name of the Lord:
Glory to thee, O lord in the highest

In the 1559 BCP it appears without the Benedictus:9

Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts,
heaven and earth are full of thy glory,
glory be to thee, O Lord most high

English version of some Lutherans:10

Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Sabaoth;
heaven and earth are full of thy glory
Hosanna in the highest
Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord
Hosanna in the highest

In 1973 the International Consultation on English Texts ICET produced an ecumenical version that at that time was adopted by Catholics, Anglicans and others:1112

Holy, holy, holy Lord, God of power and might,
heaven and earth are full of your glory
Hosanna in the highest
Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord
Hosanna in the highest

Since 2011 the Roman Missal in English has:13

Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God of hosts
Heaven and earth are full of your glory
Hosanna in the highest
Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord
Hosanna in the highest

According to the liturgy of Ss Addai and Mari used by the Assyrian Church of the East:

Holy, Holy, Holy Lord is the Lord God of hosts, for heaven and earth are full of his praises, and of the nature of his being, and for the excellency of his glorious splendor Hosanna in the heights Hosanna to the son of David Blessed is he who came in the comes in the name of the Lord Hosanna in the heights

Sourcesedit

As Enrico Mazza writes:

The Sanctus became part of the Roman Eucharistic Prayer only in the first half of the fifth century; all in all, this was a fairly late period, inasmuch as by then the text of the Roman Canon had become fixed and was regarded as a text possessing great authority

There exist two fundamental types of Sanctus: the Alexandrian and the Antiochene The Sanctus of the Roman Eucharist derives from the Antiochene liturgy and has two parts: a the Sanctus true and proper, consisting of the acclamation from Isaiah 6:3; and b the Benedictus, a christological acclamation taken from Matthew 21:9 The Sanctus has been given a christological interpretation and a trinitarian interpretation, and this in both the East and the West These differing interpretations may be due to the presence, in the text of the Sanctus, of a theological section, namely, the acclamation from Isaiah 6:3, and a christological part, namely the acclamation from Matthew 21:9

The text of the Sanctus passed from Jewish use to Christian use at a very early time, since it cited in the Apocalypse of John and in the letter of Clement to the Corinthians14

As can be read in the same source, in the Alexandrian tradition on the other hand:

the Sanctus consisted of only the first part, the citation of Isaiah 6:3, and lacked the Benedictus; this was the earliest form taken by the Sanctus in the Eucharist This early state can be seen in the testimonies of Eusebius of Caesarea, the Mystagogical Catecheses of Cyril of Jerusalem, and, above all, the Ritual used in the Church of Theodore of Mopsuestia In the latter, too, that is, in the archaic stage of the Syrian liturgy, the Benedictus was unknown, and the Sanctus consisted solely of the acclamation from Isaiah 6:314

The first part of the Sanctus, the adaptation from Isaiah 6:3, describes the prophet Isaiah's vision of the throne of God surrounded by six-winged, ministering seraphim A similar representation is found in Revelation 4:8 In Jewish liturgy, the verse from Isaiah is uttered by the congregation during Kedusha, a prayer said during the cantor's repetition of the Amidah 18 Benedictions:

Kadosh Kadosh Kadosh Adonai Tz'vaot
Melo Kol Haaretz Kevodo

The text of the second part, beginning with the word Benedictus Latin for "Blessed" is taken from Matthew 21:9, describes Jesus' Entry into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, which is in turn based on the first half of Psalm 118:26 In its present liturgical context "it points to the expected presence of the Lord in the eucharistic gifts"1516 Within Anglicanism, the 1552 Book of Common Prayer omitted it and, though it is now permitted, "the choice whether or not to use the Benedictus is still for some a matter of Eucharistic theology and churchmanship"17

The Sanctus appears in the Sacramentary of Serapion of Thmuis the saint died in 360, but may go as far back to Christian liturgy in North Africa in the year 20018

Hymn forms in Eastern liturgiesedit

The present form of the Divine Liturgy of St John Chrysostom, the primary liturgy of the Eastern Orthodox Church, reads when in Greek the following text:

Ἅγιος, ἅγιος, ἅγιος Κύριος Σαβαώθ· πλήρης ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ τῆς δόξης σου, ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου Ὡσαννὰ ὁ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις2n 2

The above differs from the Roman Rite Latin text

  • in that the Latin adds to the word Dominus Lord, which is the regular Latin translation of יהוה, the Deus God, which is found in neither the Greek nor the Latin translations nor in the original text of Isaiah 6:3,202122 but is found in Revelation 4:8: "Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God Almighty, who was and is and is to come!"
  • in that the Latin has the plural caeli, and the Greek the singular οὐρανός for the mention of "heaven", which appears in neither the Latin nor the Greek translation of Isaiah 6:3
  • in that the Greek gives two different forms of the phrase corresponding to Hosanna in excelsis, the second one including an ὁ article The article is not found in Matthew 21:923 The form of the hymn without the article is also used in the Greek Liturgy of Saint James,4 and in modern settings, practises and contexts3n 3

The Liturgy of Saint Basil of the Eastern Orthodox Church has the same form of the Sanctus as the Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom, with its two variants of the Hosanna phrase24

In older Greek liturgical manuscripts, various forms of the hymn are attested; the ones that will follow below, belong to the ones edited by Swainson in his 1884 book The Greek liturgies; among these forms, there are variations of the hymn being composed of practically only the Old testament part Others include:
In the Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom, one of them excludes not only the article ὁ, but also the article «τῆς»:

Ἅγιος, ἅγιος, ἅγιος, Κύριος Σαβαώθ· πλήρης ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ δόξης σου Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις· εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου· ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις25

The Liturgy of Saint James as given in Swainson reads as follows:

Ἅγιος, ἅγιος, ἅγιος, Κύριε σαβαώθ· πλήρης ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ τῆς δόξης σου· ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις Eὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου· ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις2627

This text not only omits the article ὁ that is used in the Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom, but also has Kyrie vocative case where the Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom has Kyrios nominative

In current use, the Liturgy of Saint James may use the nominative rather than the vocative case of Κύριος; the article ὁ is also not present in this form at the concluding Hosanna4

Moreover, a different variant of the Liturgy of Saint James is found in the margin of a manuscript that gives only the three words Ἅγιος, ἅγιος, ἅγιος in the body: "In the margin, much abbreviated, may be discerned the following: Κύριος σαβαώθ, πλήρης ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ τῆς δόξης σου Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις· εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐλθὼν καὶ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου· ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις28 This produces the text:

Ἅγιος, ἅγιος, ἅγιος, Κύριος σαβαώθ, πλήρης ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ τῆς δόξης σου· ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐλθὼν καὶ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου· ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις

This version adds "he who came and" before "he who comes"; in this it resembles the Liturgy of Saint James in the tradition of the Syriac Orthodox Church:

Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty; heaven and earth are full of His glories Hosanna in the highest Blessed is He Who came and will come in the Name of the Lord Hosanna in the highest29

The Syriac Orthodox Church also has what it calls the Liturgy of Saint Dionysius, in which the Hosanna phrase appears only at the end:

Holy Holy Holy, Lord of Sabbaoth, Heaven and Earth are full of Thy Glory Blessed is He that cometh in the Lord's Name; Hosanna in the highest30

The form used in the ancient Liturgy of Addai and Mari is much shorter:

Holy, Holy, Holy Lord is the Lord God of hosts, for heaven and earth are full of his praises, and of the nature of his being, and for the excellency of his glorious splendor Hosanna in the heights Hosanna to the son of David Blessed is he who came in the comes in the name of the Lord Hosanna in the heights31

The Coptic version of the Liturgy of Saint Basil also gives a short text of what it calls the Hymn of the Seraphim:

Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord of hosts; Heaven and earth are full of Your holy glory32

Alternative ancient names and ancient secrecyedit

The priest's introductions, following the rubrics that set what should be done by whom with each passage, uniformly call the hymn the ἐπινίκιος ὕμνος, ie "the hymn of victory" On the other hand, it used to be that, as Swainson notes about an attested variant form wherein only Ἅγιος, ἅγιος, ἅγιος is being quoted:

In the margin, much abbreviated, may be discerned the following: Κύριος σαβαώθ, πλήρης ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ τῆς δόξης σου Ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις· εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐλθὼν καὶ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου· ὡσαννὰ ἐν τοῖς ὑψίστοις Chrysostom frequently refers to this: sometimes as τὸ μυστικὸν μέλος; sometimes as ὁ πανάγιος ὕμνος; sometimes as the τρισάγιος ὕμνος The knowledge of it as a whole was confined to the faithful28n 4

Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus Dominus Deus Sabaoth; pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria tua Holy, Holy, Holy Lord God of Hosts; Heaven and earth are full of Your glory Hosanna in excelsis Hosanna in the highest Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord

Hosanna in excelsis

Musical settingsedit

See also: Byzantine Music and Mass music § IV Sanctus and Benedictus

The Sanctus has been set to numerous plainchant melodies, many of which are given in the Roman Missal, and many more composers have set it to polyphonic music, both in single settings and as part of cyclic mass settings In addition, music duo Simon and Garfunkel adapted the second to last line of the hymn in Latin into their song, "Benedictus" on the 1964 album Wednesday Morning, 3 AM

Accompanying gesturesedit

In the Tridentine Mass the priest joins his hands while saying the word "Sanctus" and then, bowing, continues to recite the whole of the Sanctus in a lower voice, while a small bell is rung; then, on reaching the words "Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini", he stands erect again and makes the Sign of the Cross34 He then continues immediately with the Canon of the Mass, while the choir, if there is one, sings the Sanctus, pausing for the Consecration and continuing with the Benedictus part afterwards As a result of this division, the Sanctus has sometimes been spoken of as "Sanctus and Benedictus"353637 a However, the Vatican Gradual has consistently forbid the splitting of the Sanctus since the 1800start with the rubric "De ritibus servandis in cantu missæ, VII

In the Mass revised in line with the Second Vatican Council, the only ceremony prescribed for the priest is to join his hands He and the people sing or recite together the whole of the Sanctus, before the priest continues the Eucharistic Prayer

See alsoedit

  • Christian music portal
  • Name of God in Christianity
  • Kedushah

Notes and referencesedit

Notes
  1. ^ This is the text of the two present forms with or without the parenthesised article of the hymn in Greek; for more details, see the Sources and the Hymn forms in Eastern liturgies sections
  2. ^ a b A recorded example of the hymn chanted-sung in the form with the ὁ article, can be listened to here Page will play audio when loaded realmedia format The cantor is the Archon Protopsaltes of the Great Church of Christ Leonidas Asteres, promoted to that position and title by Patriarch Demetrios19
  3. ^ a b c A recorded example of the hymn chanted-sung in the form without the ὁ article, can be listened to here Page will play audio when loaded realmedia format The cantor is the Archon Protopsaltes of the Great Church of Christ Thrasyboulos Stanitsas 1907 or 1910–1987, promoted to that position and title by Patriarch Athenagoras19
  4. ^ See μυστικόν, mystikon; μέλος, melos; πανάγιος, panagios33
References
  1. ^ Cross, F L; Livingstone, E A, eds 2005 "Tersanctus" The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church Oxford University Press 
  2. ^ a b c "Ἡ Θεία Λειτουργία τοῦ Ἁγίου Ἰωάννου τοῦ Χρυσοστόμου" Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America in Greek  For an English translation, see The Orthodox Page: The Divine Liturgy of St John Chrysostomos
  3. ^ a b Trempelas, Panagiotes N 1978 1949 Εκλογή Ελληνικής Ορθοδόξου Υμνογραφίας Selection of Greek Orthodox Hymnography in Greek Athens: Soter 
  4. ^ a b c d Ἡ Θεία Λειτουργία τοῦ Ἁγίου Ἰακώβου τοῦ Ἀδελφοθέου The Holy Liturgy of Saint James the Brother of God PDF in Greek Ἐπιστασίᾳ Ἀρχιεπισκόπου Ἀθηνῶν Χρυσοστόμου 11th ed Athens p 28 
  5. ^ Ἡ θεία Λειτουργία τοῦ Βασιλείου τοῦ Μεγάλου
  6. ^ Missale Romanum 2002, p 517 electronic text
  7. ^ Shawn Tribe, "The Mozarabic Rite: The Offertory to the Post Sanctus" with regularized spelling English translation: "Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth: Heaven and earth are full of the glory of Thy majesty Hosanna to the Son of David Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord Hosanna in the highest Holy, holy, holy art thou Lord God The Mozarabic Liturgy
  8. ^ "The Book of Common Prayer Noted: Communion, part 7" Justusanglicanorg Retrieved 2014-03-11 
  9. ^ "The Order for the Administration of the Lords Supper, or Holy Communion" Justusanglicanorg Retrieved 2014-03-11 
  10. ^ Lutheran Service Book, Divine Service III
  11. ^ Felix Just, SJ "Liturgy of the Eucharist" Catholic-resourcesorg Retrieved 2014-03-11 
  12. ^ Book of Common Prayer Booksgoogleie Retrieved 2014-03-11 
  13. ^ THE ORDER OF MASS Excerpts from the English translation of The Roman Missal © 2010, International Committee on English in the Liturgy
  14. ^ a b Enrico Mazza 1999 The Celebration of the Eucharist: The Origin of the Rite and the Development of Its Interpretation Liturgical Press p 285 
  15. ^ Johannes H Emminghaus, The Eucharist: Essence, Form, Celebration Liturgical Press 1997 ISBN 978-0-81461036-7, p 181
  16. ^ Tim Gray, Mission of the Messiah Emmaus Road Publishing 1998 ISBN 978-0-96632231-6, pp 109–110
  17. ^ Paul Thomas, Using the Book of Common Prayer Church Publishing House 2012 ISBN 978-0-71514276-9, p 102
  18. ^ Perspectives on Christian Worship by J Matthew Pinson, Timothy Quill, Ligon Duncan and Dan Wilt Mar 1, 2009 ISBN 0805440992 pages 64-65
  19. ^ a b "Ecumenical Patriarchate Byzantine Music" 
  20. ^ "Isaiah 6:3" Tanakh biblehubcom in Hebrew קָדֹ֛ושׁ קָדֹ֖ושׁ יְהוָ֣ה צְבָאֹ֑ות מְלֹ֥א כָל־הָאָ֖רֶץ כְּבֹודֹֽו׃ 
  21. ^ "Isaiah 6" Old Testament myriobiblosgr in Greek ἅγιος, ἅγιος, ἅγιος Κύριος σαβαώθ, πλήρης πᾶσα ἡ γῆ τῆς δόξης αὐτοῦ 
  22. ^ "Isaiah 6" Vulgata Old Testament biblehubcom in Latin sanctus sanctus sanctus Dominus exercituum plena est omnis terra gloria eius 
  23. ^ "Matthew 21:9" New Testament biblegatewaycom in Greek 
  24. ^ Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, "The Divine Liturgy of Saint Basil the Great: A New Translation"
  25. ^ Swainson, Charles Anthony, ed 1884 "Liturgy of Saint John the Chrysostom" The Greek liturgies: Chiefly from original authorities With an appendix containing the Coptic ordinary canon of the mass from two manuscripts in the British Museum, edited and translated by Dr C Bezold Cambridge: Cambridge University Press p 128  At the Internet Archive
  26. ^ Swainson, Charles Anthony, ed 1884 "Liturgy of Saint James" pp 268–269 https://archiveorg/stream/greekliturgies00swai#page/269/mode/1up  Missing or empty |title= help
  27. ^ For an English translation of the Liturgy of Saint James, see Christian Classics Ethereal Library, "The Divine Liturgy of James the Holy Apostle and Brother of the Lord"
  28. ^ a b Swainson, Charles Anthony, ed 1884 "Liturgy of Saint James" p 268 https://archiveorg/stream/greekliturgies00swai#page/268/mode/1up  Missing or empty |title= help
  29. ^ Syriac Orthodox Resources, "Anaphora of St James"
  30. ^ Liturgy of St Dionysius, Bishop of the Athenians
  31. ^ Christian Classics Ethereal Library, "The Liturgy of the Blessed Apostles"
  32. ^ Abraam D Sleman editor, St Basil Liturgy: Reference Book, p 83
  33. ^ μυστικόν, μέλος, πανάγιος in Liddell and Scott
  34. ^ Ritus servandus in celebratione Missae, VII, 8
  35. ^ "Adrian Fortescue, "Sanctus" in ''Catholic Encyclopedia'' New York 1912" Newadventorg 1912-02-01 Retrieved 2014-03-11 
  36. ^ "Gail Ramshaw, "Wording the Sanctus"" PDF Retrieved 2014-03-11 
  37. ^ "Library of Congress" Locgov Retrieved 2014-03-11 

External linksedit

  • Article at Catholic Encyclopedia

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