Tue . 20 May 2020
TR | RU | UK | KK | BE |

Same-sex marriage

same sex marriage states 2018, same sex marriage in the philippines
· Denmark proper
· Greenland
· CM, CH, CA,
· CL, GR3, JA,
· MC, MR, NA,
· PU3, QE3,

· Netherlands proper
New Zealand:
· New Zealand proper
South Africa
United Kingdom:
· England and Wales
· Scotland
· AX and DX, AC
United States:
· United States proper
· GU, MP, PR, VI
· some tribal jurisdictions

  1. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage
  2. When performed in the Netherlands proper
  3. Marriages performed in some municipalities and recognized by the state

Not yet in effect

LGBT portal
  • v
  • e

Same-sex marriage, also known as gay marriage, is marriage between people of the same sex, either as a secular civil ceremony or in a religious setting

In the late 20th century, religious rites of marriage without legal recognition became increasingly common The first law providing for marriage of people of the same sex in modern times was enacted in 2001 in the Netherlands As of 22 July 2016, same-sex marriage is legally allowed nationwide or in some parts in the following countries: Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, France, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom the United States, and Uruguay A similar law in Finland is not yet in force Polls show rising support for legally recognizing same-sex marriage in the Americas, Australia and most of Europe However, as of 2016 South Africa is the only African country where same-sex marriage is recognized, and no country in Asia allows same-sex marriage ceremonies, although Israel accepts same-sex marriages performed overseas

  Marriage open to same-sex couples   Recognized when performed in certain other jurisdictions   Government/court announced intention to legalize marriage   Civil unions/domestic partnerships   Government/court announced intention to legalize civil unions   Unregistered cohabitation   Same-sex unions not legally recognized
Colors higher in the list override those lower down
rings = individual cases

Introduction of same-sex marriage laws has varied by jurisdiction, being variously accomplished through legislative change to marriage laws, a court ruling based on constitutional guarantees of equality, or by direct popular vote via ballot initiative or referendum The recognition of same-sex marriage is a political and social issue, and also a religious issue in many countries, and debates continue to arise over whether people in same-sex relationships should be allowed marriage or some similar status a civil union Same-sex marriage can provide those in same-sex relationships who pay their taxes with government services and make financial demands on them comparable to those afforded to and required of those in opposite-sex marriages Same-sex marriage also gives them legal protections such as inheritance and hospital visitation rights Various faith communities around the world support allowing those of the same sex to marry, while many major religions oppose same-sex marriage Opponents of same-sex marriages have argued that recognition of same-sex marriages would erode religious freedoms, undermine a right of children to be raised by their biological mother and father or erode the institution of marriage itself

Some analysts state that financial, psychological and physical well-being are enhanced by marriage, and that children of same-sex parents or carers benefit from being raised by two parents within a legally recognized union supported by society's institutions Court documents filed by American scientific associations also state that singling out gay men and women as ineligible for marriage both stigmatizes and invites public discrimination against them The American Anthropological Association asserts that social science research does not support the view that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon not recognizing same-sex marriage


  • 1 Terminology
    • 11 Alternative terms
    • 12 Use of the term marriage
  • 2 Studies
    • 21 Health
    • 22 Parenting
    • 23 Opinion polling
  • 3 History
    • 31 Ancient
    • 32 Medieval
    • 33 Contemporary
      • 331 Timeline
      • 332 International organisations
        • 3321 European Court of Human Rights
        • 3322 European Union
  • 4 Same-sex marriage around the world
    • 41 Legal recognition
      • 411 Argentina
      • 412 Belgium
      • 413 Brazil
      • 414 Canada
      • 415 Colombia
      • 416 Denmark
      • 417 Finland
      • 418 France
      • 419 Iceland
      • 4110 Ireland
      • 4111 Luxembourg
      • 4112 Mexico
      • 4113 Netherlands
      • 4114 New Zealand
      • 4115 Norway
      • 4116 Portugal
      • 4117 South Africa
      • 4118 Spain
      • 4119 Sweden
      • 4120 United Kingdom
      • 4121 United States
      • 4122 Uruguay
    • 42 National debates
      • 421 Andorra
      • 422 Australia
      • 423 Austria
      • 424 Bermuda
      • 425 Chile
      • 426 China
      • 427 Costa Rica
      • 428 El Salvador
      • 429 Germany
      • 4210 India
      • 4211 Israel
      • 4212 Italy
      • 4213 Japan
      • 4214 Latvia
      • 4215 Malta
      • 4216 Nepal
      • 4217 Philippines
      • 4218 Poland
      • 4219 Slovenia
      • 4220 South Korea
      • 4221 Switzerland
      • 4222 Taiwan
      • 4223 Thailand
      • 4224 Turkey
      • 4225 Venezuela
      • 4226 Vietnam
    • 43 International organizations
  • 5 Other arrangements
    • 51 Civil unions
    • 52 Non-sexual same-sex marriage
      • 521 Kenya
      • 522 Nigeria
  • 6 Issues
    • 61 Parenting
      • 611 Adoption
      • 612 Surrogacy and IVF treatment
    • 62 Transgender and intersex people
    • 63 Divorce
    • 64 Religious views
    • 65 Religious freedom
    • 66 Judicial and legislative
  • 7 See also
  • 8 Notes
  • 9 References
  • 10 Bibliography
  • 11 External links


Alternative terms

Some proponents of legal recognition of same-sex marriage, such as Freedom to Marry and Canadians for Equal Marriage, use the terms marriage equality and equal marriage to indicate that they seek equal benefit of marriage laws as opposed to special rights

Opponents of the legalization of same-sex marriage sometimes characterize it as redefining marriage or redefined marriage, especially in the United States The term homosexual marriage is generally used by organisations opposed to same-sex marriage such as the Family Research Council in the United States; that term is rarely used in the mainstream press

Associated Press style recommends the usages marriage for gays and lesbians or in space-limited headlines gay marriage with no hyphen and no scare quotes The Associated Press warns that the construct gay marriage can imply that marriages of same-sex couples are somehow legally different from those of mixed-sex couples

Use of the term marriage

Anthropologists have struggled to determine a definition of marriage that absorbs commonalities of the social construct across cultures around the world Many proposed definitions have been criticized for failing to recognize the existence of same-sex marriage in some cultures, including in more than 30 African cultures, such as the Kikuyu and Nuer

With several countries revising their marriage laws to recognize same-sex couples in the 21st century, all major English dictionaries have revised their definition of the word marriage to either drop gender specifications or supplement them with secondary definitions to include gender-neutral language or explicit recognition of same-sex unions The Oxford English Dictionary has recognized same-sex marriage since 2000

Alan Dershowitz and others have suggested reserving the word marriage for religious contexts as part of privatizing marriage, and in civil and legal contexts using a uniform concept of civil unions, in part to strengthen the separation between church and state Jennifer Roback Morse, the president of the anti-same-sex marriage group National Organization for Marriage's Ruth Institute project, claims that the conflation of marriage with contractual agreements is a threat to marriage

Some publications that oppose same-sex marriage, such as WorldNetDaily and Baptist Press, have an editorial style policy of placing the word marriage in scare quotes "marriage" when it is used in reference to same-sex couples In the United States, the mainstream press has generally abandoned this practice Cliff Kincaid of the conservative Accuracy in Media argued for use of quotation marks on the grounds that marriage was a legal status denied same-sex couples by most US state governments Same-sex marriage supporters argue that the use of scare quotes is an editorialization that implies illegitimacy

Opponents of same-sex marriage such as The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, and the Southern Baptist Convention use the term traditional marriage to mean marriages between one man and one woman


The American Anthropological Association stated on February 26, 2004:

The results of more than a century of anthropological research on households, kinship relationships, and families, across cultures and through time, provide no support whatsoever for the view that either civilization or viable social orders depend upon marriage as an exclusively heterosexual institution Rather, anthropological research supports the conclusion that a vast array of family types, including families built upon same-sex partnerships, can contribute to stable and humane societies

Research findings from 1998–2014 from the University of Virginia, Michigan State University, Florida State University, the University of Amsterdam, the New York State Psychiatric Institute, Stanford University, the University of California-San Francisco, the University of California-Los Angeles, Tufts University, Boston Medical Center, the Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health and independent researchers also support the findings of this study


A same-sex wedding ceremony in June 2006

In 2010, a Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health study examining the effects of institutional discrimination on the psychiatric health of lesbian, gay and bisexual LGB individuals found an increase in psychiatric disorders, including a more than doubling of anxiety disorders, among the LGB population living in states that instituted bans on same-sex marriage According to the author, the study highlighted the importance of abolishing institutional forms of discrimination, including those leading to disparities in the mental health and well-being of LGB individuals Institutional discrimination is characterized by societal-level conditions that limit the opportunities and access to resources by socially disadvantaged groups

Gay activist Jonathan Rauch has argued that marriage is good for all men, whether homosexual or heterosexual, because engaging in its social roles reduces men's aggression and promiscuity The data of current psychological and other social science studies on same-sex marriage in comparison to mixed-sex marriage indicate that same-sex and mixed-sex relationships do not differ in their essential psychosocial dimensions; that a parent's sexual orientation is unrelated to their ability to provide a healthy and nurturing family environment; and that marriage bestows substantial psychological, social, and health benefits Same-sex parents and carers and their children are likely to benefit in numerous ways from legal recognition of their families, and providing such recognition through marriage will bestow greater benefit than civil unions or domestic partnerships

The American Psychological Association stated in 2004: "Denial of access to marriage to same-sex couples may especially harm people who also experience discrimination based on age, race, ethnicity, disability, gender and gender identity, religion, socioeconomic status and so on" It has also averred that same-sex couples who may only enter into a civil union, as opposed to a marriage, "are denied equal access to all the benefits, rights, and privileges provided by federal law to those of married couples," which has adverse effects on the well-being of same-sex partners

In 2009, a pair of economists at Emory University tied the passage of state bans on same-sex marriage in the US to an increase in the rates of HIV infection The study linked the passage of a same-sex marriage ban in a state to an increase in the annual HIV rate within that state of roughly 4 cases per 100,000 population


Many psychologist organizations have concluded that children stand to benefit from the well-being that results when their parents' relationship is recognized and supported by society's institutions, eg civil marriage For example, the Canadian Psychological Association stated in 2006 that "parents' financial, psychological and physical well-being is enhanced by marriage and that children benefit from being raised by two parents within a legally-recognized union" The CPA stated in 2003 the stressors encountered by gay and lesbian parents and their children are more likely the result of the way society treats them than because of any deficiencies in fitness to parent

The American Academy of Pediatrics concluded in 2006, in an analysis published in the journal Pediatrics:

There is ample evidence to show that children raised by same-gender parents fare as well as those raised by heterosexual parents More than 25 years of research have documented that there is no relationship between parents' sexual orientation and any measure of a child's emotional, psychosocial, and behavioral adjustment These data have demonstrated no risk to children as a result of growing up in a family with 1 or more gay parents Conscientious and nurturing adults, whether they are men or women, heterosexual or homosexual, can be excellent parents The rights, benefits, and protections of civil marriage can further strengthen these families

Opinion polling

LGBT rainbow flag

Numerous polls and studies on the issue have been conducted, including those that were completed throughout the first decade of the 21st century A consistent trend of increasing support for same-sex marriage has been revealed across the world Much of the research that was conducted in developed countries in the first decade of the 21st century shows a majority of people in support of same-sex marriage Support for legal same-sex marriage has increased across every age group, political ideology, religion, gender, race and region of various developed countries in the world

Recent polling in the United States has shown a further increase in public support for same-sex marriage When adults were asked in 2005 if they thought "marriages between homosexuals should or should not be recognized by the law as valid, with the same rights as traditional marriages", 28 percent replied in the affirmative, while 68 percent replied in the negative the remaining 4 percent stated that they were unsure When adults were asked in March 2013 if they supported or opposed same-sex marriage, 50 percent said they supported same-sex marriage, while 41 percent were opposed, and the remaining 9 percent stated that they were unsure Various detailed polls and studies on same-sex marriage that were conducted in several countries show that support for same-sex marriage generally increases with higher levels of education and decreases with age


Main articles: History of same-sex unions, Timeline of same-sex marriage, and History of homosexuality


The first historical mention of the performance of same-sex marriages occurred during the early Roman Empire according to controversial historian John Boswell These were usually reported in a critical or satirical manner Child emperor Elagabalus referred to his chariot driver, a blond slave from Caria named Hierocles, as his husband He also married an athlete named Zoticus in a lavish public ceremony in Rome amidst the rejoicings of the citizens

The first Roman emperor to have married a man was Nero, who is reported to have married two other males on different occasions The first was with one of Nero's own freedmen, Pythagoras, with whom Nero took the role of the bride Later, as a groom, Nero married Sporus, a young boy, to replace the teenage female concubine he had killed and married him in a very public ceremony with all the solemnities of matrimony, after which Sporus was forced to pretend to be the female concubine that Nero had killed and act as though they were really married A friend gave the "bride" away as required by law The marriage was celebrated in both Greece and Rome in extravagant public ceremonies

It should be noted, however, that conubium existed only between a civis Romanus and a civis Romana that is, between a male Roman citizen and a female Roman citizen, so that a marriage between two Roman males or with a slave would have no legal standing in Roman law apart, presumably, from the arbitrary will of the emperor in the two aforementioned cases Furthermore, according to Susan Treggiari, "matrimonium was then an institution involving a mother, mater The idea implicit in the word is that a man took a woman in marriage, in matrimonium ducere, so that he might have children by her" Still, the lack of legal validity notwithstanding, there is a consensus among modern historians that same-sex relationships existed in ancient Rome, though the frequency and nature of "same-sex unions" during that period are obscure

In 342 AD, Christian emperors Constantius II and Constans issued a law in the Theodosian Code C Th 973 prohibiting same-sex marriage in Rome and ordering execution for those so married


A same-sex marriage between two men, Pedro Dias and Muño Vandilas, occurred on 16 April 1061 in the Galician municipality of Rairiz de Veiga in Spain They were married by a priest at a small chapel The historic documents about the church wedding were found at Monastery of San Salvador de Celanova


Writing in Harvard Magazine in 2013, legal historian Michael Klarman wrote that while there was a growth of gay rights activism in the 1970s United States, "Marriage equality was not then a priority" He argued that many gay people were not initially interested in marriage, deeming it to be a traditionalist institution, and that the search for legal recognition of same-sex relationships began in the late 1980s Others, such as Faramerz Dabhoiwala writing for The Guardian, say that the modern movement began in the 1990s

Denmark was the first country to recognize a legal relationship for same-sex couples, establishing "registered partnerships" in 1989 This gave those in same-sex relationships "most rights of married heterosexuals, but not the right to adopt or obtain joint custody of a child" In 2001, the Netherlands became the first country to permit same-sex marriages Since then same-sex marriages have been permitted and mutually recognized by Belgium 2003, Spain 2005, Canada 2005, South Africa 2006, Norway 2009, Sweden 2009, Portugal 2010, Iceland 2010, Argentina 2010, Denmark 2012, Brazil 2013, France 2013, Uruguay 2013, New Zealand 2013, the United Kingdom 2014, Luxembourg 2015, the United States 2015, Ireland 2015 and Colombia 2016 Same-sex marriage is to become legal in Finland on 1 March 2017 In Mexico, same-sex marriages are performed in a number of states and recognised in all thirty-one states In Nepal, their recognition has been judicially mandated but not yet legislated


Main article: Timeline of same-sex marriage
  • Netherlands 1 April
  • Belgium 1 June
  • Ontario 10 June
  • British Columbia 8 July
  • San Francisco, California 12 February, discontinued 11 March
  • Sandoval County, New Mexico 20 February, discontinued
  • New Paltz, New York 27 February, discontinued
  • Multnomah County, Oregon 3 March, discontinued 20 April
  • Asbury Park, New Jersey 5 March, discontinued 9 March
  • Quebec 19 March
  • Massachusetts 17 May
  • Yukon 14 July
  • Manitoba 16 September
  • Nova Scotia 24 September
  • Saskatchewan 5 November
  • Newfoundland and Labrador 21 December
  • New Brunswick 23 June
  • Spain 3 July
  • Canada 20 July
  • South Africa 30 November
  • California 16 June, discontinued 5 November
  • Connecticut 12 November
  • Norway 1 January
  • Iowa 27 April
  • Sweden 1 May
  • Coquille Indian Tribe 20 May
  • Vermont 1 September
  • New Hampshire 1 January
  • District of Columbia 3 March
  • Mexican Federal District 4 March
  • Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation 29 April
  • Portugal 5 June
  • Iceland 27 June
  • Argentina 22 July
  • New York 24 July
  • Suquamish Tribe 1 August
  • Alagoas 6 January
  • Quintana Roo 3 May
  • Denmark 15 June
  • Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Minas Gerais 11 July
  • Sergipe 15 July
  • Espírito Santo 15 August
  • Caribbean Netherlands 10 October
  • Bahia 26 November
  • Brazilian Federal District 1 December
  • Washington 6 December
  • Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe 9 December
  • Piauí 15 December
  • Maine 29 December
  • Maryland 1 January
  • São Paulo 16 February
  • Ceará 15 March
  • Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians 15 March
  • Paraná 26 March
  • Mato Grosso do Sul 2 April
  • Rondônia 26 April
  • Santa Catarina 29 April
  • Paraíba 29 April
  • Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians 8 May
  • Brazil 16 May
  • France 18 May
  • Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel 24 June
  • California 28 June
  • Delaware 1 July
  • Minnesota 1 August
  • Rhode Island 1 August
  • Grand Portage Band of Chippewa 1 August
  • Uruguay 5 August
  • New Zealand 19 August
  • Doña Ana County, New Mexico 21 August
  • Santa Fe County, New Mexico 23 August
  • Bernalillo County, New Mexico 26 August
  • San Miguel County, New Mexico 27 August
  • Valencia County, New Mexico 27 August
  • Taos County, New Mexico 28 August
  • Los Alamos County, New Mexico 4 September
  • Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation 5 September
  • Grant County, New Mexico 9 September
  • Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes 18 October
  • New Jersey 21 October
  • Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe 15 November
  • Hawaii 2 December
  • Australian Capital Territory 7 December, invalidated 12 December
  • New Mexico 19 December
  • Utah 20 December, discontinued 6 January 2014
  • Cook County, Illinois 21 February
  • England and Wales 13 March
  • Michigan 21 March, discontinued 22 March
  • Arkansas 9 May, discontinued 16 May
  • Oregon 19 May
  • Pennsylvania 20 May
  • Illinois 1 June
  • Akrotiri and Dhekelia 3 June
  • Wisconsin 6 June, discontinued 13 June
  • Indiana 25 June, discontinued 27 June
  • Puyallup Tribe of Indians 9 July
  • Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa 16 July
  • Confederated Tribes of Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Indians 10 August
  • Coahuila 17 September
  • Oklahoma 6 October
  • Virginia 6 October
  • Utah 6 October
  • Indiana 6 October
  • Wisconsin 6 October
  • Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa 6 October
  • Colorado 7 October
  • West Virginia 9 October
  • Nevada 9 October
  • Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribes 9 October
  • North Carolina 10 October
  • Alaska 12 October
  • Idaho 15 October
  • Arizona 17 October
  • Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation 17 October
  • Pascua Yaqui Tribe 17 October
  • Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community 17 October
  • San Carlos Apache Tribe 17 October
  • Wyoming 21 October
  • St Louis, Missouri 5 November
  • St Louis County, Missouri 6 November
  • Jackson County, Missouri 7 November
  • Douglas County, Kansas 12 November
  • Sedgwick County, Kansas 12 November
  • Eastern Shoshone Tribe 14 November
  • Northern Arapaho Tribe 14 November
  • Montana 19 November
  • Blackfeet Nation 19 November
  • South Carolina 20 November
  • Keweenaw Bay Indian Community 13 December
  • Scotland 16 December
  • Luxembourg 1 January
  • Miami-Dade County, Florida 5 January
  • Florida 6 January
  • Alabama 9 February, discontinued 4 March
  • Central Council of the Tlingit and Haida Indian Tribes of Alaska 24 February
  • Pitcairn Islands 14 May
  • Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians 15 May
  • Guam 9 June
  • Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin 10 June
  • Chihuahua 12 June
  • United States 26 June
  • Northern Mariana Islands 30 June
  • Sault Ste Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians 7 July
  • United States Virgin Islands 9 July
  • Guerrero 10 July
  • Puerto Rico 13 July
  • Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro 21 July
  • Ireland 16 November
  • Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon 18 November
  • Nayarit 23 December
  • Oglala Sioux Tribe 25 January
  • Stockbridge Munsee Community Band of Mohican Indians 2 February
  • Greenland 1 April
  • Colombia 28 April
  • Tulalip Tribes of Washington 6 May
  • Sonora 11 May, discontinued 18 May
  • Jalisco 12 May
  • Campeche 20 May
  • Colima 12 June
  • Michoacán 23 June
  • Morelos 5 July
  • Isle of Man 22 July
  • San Pedro Cholula, Puebla 18 September
  • British Antarctic Territory 13 October
  • Finland 1 March
  • Jersey
  • Guernsey
  • Faroe Islands
  • Ascension Island
  • Gibraltar

International organisations

European Court of Human Rights

In 2010, the European Court of Human Rights ECHR ruled on Schalk and Kopf v Austria, a case involving an Austrian same-sex couple who were denied the right to marry The court found that their human rights had not been violated, with a result of 3 votes for and 4 votes against

British judge Sir Nicolas Bratza, then head of the European Court of Human Rights, delivered a speech in 2012 that signalled the court was ready to declare same-sex marriage a "human right", as soon as enough countries fell into line

Article 12 of the European Convention on Human Rights states that: "Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right", not limiting marriage to those in a heterosexual relationship However, the ECHR stated in Schalk and Kopf v Austria that this provision was intended to limit marriage to heterosexual relationships, as it used the term "men and women" instead of "everyone"

European Union

On 12 March 2015, the European Parliament passed a non-binding resolution recognising the right to marry for those of the same sex as a human and civil rights issue

Same-sex marriage around the world

Main articles: Status of same-sex marriage and Same-sex union legislation
  • v
  • e
Worldwide laws regarding same-sex intercourse and freedom of expression and association
Same-sex intercourse legal Same-sex intercourse illegal
   Marriage1    Unenforced penalty
   Marriage recognized but not performed1    Imprisonment
   Civil unions1    Up to life in prison
   Unregistered cohabitation1    Death penalty
   Same-sex unions not recognized
   Laws restricting freedom of expression and association
Rings indicate areas where local judges have granted or denied marriages or imposed the death penalty in a jurisdiction where that is not otherwise the law or areas with a case-by-case application
1Some jurisdictions in this category may currently have other types of partnerships

Same-sex marriage became legal nationwide or in some parts in Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, France, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom the United States, and Uruguay The law in Finland is expected to take effect on 1 March 2017

The status of same-sex marriage is a complicated matter in a number of other nations In Mexico marriages are recognized by all sub-national jurisdictions and by the federal government On 3 June 2015, Mexico's Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation released a "jurisprudential thesis" declaring the current purpose of marriage, which is procreation, as unconstitutional and discriminatory towards same-sex relationships Courts nationwide must now authorize marriages between people of the same-sex through injunctions, a process slower and more expensive than opposite-sex marriage Israel does not recognize same-sex marriages performed in its territory, but same-sex marriages performed in foreign jurisdictions are recorded strictly "for statistical purposes", thereby avoiding official recognition of same-sex marriages by the state

Legal recognition


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Argentina Crowd in support of same-sex marriage in Buenos Aires

On 15 July 2010, the Argentine Senate approved a bill extending marriage rights to same-sex couples It was supported by the Government of President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner and opposed by the Catholic Church Polls showed that nearly 70% of Argentines supported giving gay people the same marital rights as heterosexuals The law came into effect on 22 July 2010 upon promulgation by the Argentine President


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Belgium Mayor of Liège, Willy Demeyer, officiating at the wedding of a gay couple

Belgium became the second country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriages when a bill passed by the Belgian Federal Parliament took effect on 1 June 2003 Originally, Belgium allowed the marriages of foreign same-sex couples only if their country of origin also allowed these unions, however legislation enacted in October 2004 permits any couple to marry if at least one of the spouses has lived in the country for a minimum of three months A 2006 statute legalized adoption by same-sex spouses


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Brazil Recognition of same-sex unions in South America   Marriage   Other type of partnership   Unrecognized   Same-sex marriage banned   Same-sex sexual activity illegal
  • v
  • e

Brazil's Supreme Court ruled in May 2011 that same-sex couples are legally entitled to legal recognition of cohabitation known as união estável, one of the two possible family entities in Brazilian legislation, it includes all family and married couple rights in Brazil – besides automatic opt-in for one of four systems of property share and automatic right to inheritance –, and was available for all same-sex couples since the same date, turning same-sex marriage legally possible as a consequence, and just stopping short of equalization of same-sex marriage potentially confusing, a civil marriage or casamento civil is often rendered as união civil in legal Brazilian Portuguese; a same-sex marriage is a casamento civil homoafetivo or an união civil homoafetiva

Between mid-2011 and May 2013, same-sex couples had their cohabitation issues converted into marriage in several Brazil states with the approval of a state judge All legal Brazilian marriages were always recognized all over Brazil

In November 2012, the Court of Bahia equalized marriage in the state of Bahia In December 2012, the state of São Paulo likewise had same-sex marriage allowed in demand by court order Same-sex marriages also became equalized in relation to opposite-sex ones between January 2012 and April 2013 by court order in Alagoas, Ceará, Espírito Santo, the Federal District, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraíba, Paraná, Piauí, Rondônia, Santa Catarina and Sergipe, and in Santa Rita do Sapucaí, a municipality in Minas Gerais; in Rio de Janeiro, the State Court facilitated its realization by district judges in agreement with the equalization instead of ordering notaries to accept same-sex marriages in demand as all others

On 14 May 2013, the Justice's National Council of Brazil issues a ruling requiring all civil registers of the country to perform same-sex marriages by a 14–1 vote, thus legalizing same-sex marriage in the entire country The resolution came into effect on 16 May 2013

In March 2013, polls suggested that 47% of Brazilians supported marriage equalization and 57% supported adoption equalization for same-sex couples Polls in June 2013 also supported the conclusion that the division of opinion between acceptance and rejection of same-sex marriage is in about equal halves When the distinction between same-sex unions that are not termed marriages in relation to same-sex marriage is made, the difference in the numbers of approval and disapproval is still insignificant, below 1%; the most frequent reason for disapproval is a supposed 'unnaturalness' of same-sex relationships, followed by religious beliefs


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Canada

Legal recognition of same-sex marriage in Canada followed a series of constitutional challenges based on the equality provisions of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms In the first such case, Halpern v Canada Attorney General, same-sex marriage ceremonies performed in Ontario on 14 January 2001 were subsequently validated when the common law, mixed-sex definition of marriage was held to be unconstitutional Similar rulings had legalized same-sex marriage in eight provinces and one territory when the 2005 Civil Marriage Act defined marriage throughout Canada as "the lawful union of two persons to the exclusion of all others"


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Colombia

Same-sex marriage has been legal in Colombia since April 2016 The country's Constitutional Court ruled, on 28 April 2016 that same-sex couples are allowed to enter into civil marriages in the country and that judges and notaries are barred from refusing to perform same-sex weddings On 7 April 2016, the Court ruled that marriage doesn't only apply to opposite-sex couples Almost all advances in relationship recognition rights for same-sex couples has come from sweeping rulings of the Court A series of rulings by the court that started in February 2007 meant that same-sex couples could apply for all the rights that heterosexual couples have in de facto unions uniones de hecho

On 26 July 2011, the Constitutional Court of Colombia ordered the Congress to pass the legislation giving same-sex couples similar rights to marriage by 20 June 2013 If such a law were not passed by then, same-sex couples would be granted these rights automatically

In October 2012, Senator Armando Benedetti introduced a bill legalizing same-sex marriage It initially only allowed for civil unions, but he amended the text The Senate's First Committee approved the bill on 4 December 2012 On 24 April 2013, the bill was defeated in the full Senate on a 51–17 vote

On 24 July 2013, a civil court judge in Bogotá declared a male same-sex couple legally married, after a ruling on 11 July 2013 accepting the petition This was the first same-sex couple married in Colombia

In September 2013, two civil court judges married two same-sex couples The first marriage was challenged by a conservative group, and it was initially annulled Nevertheless, in October a High Court Tribunal Supremo de Bogotá maintained the validity of that marriage


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Denmark

On 7 June 2012, the Folketing Danish parliament approved new laws regarding same-sex civil and religious marriage These laws permit same-sex couples to get married in the Church of Denmark The bills received Royal Assent on 12 June and took effect on 15 June 2012 Denmark was previously the first country in the world to legally recognize same-sex couples through registered partnerships in 1989

On 26 May 2015, Greenland, one of Denmark's three constituent countries in the Realm of Denmark, unanimously passed a law legalising same-sex marriage The first same-sex couple to marry in Greenland married on 1 April 2016, the day the law went into effect

On 17 November 2015, in the Faroe Islands, a same-sex marriage bill entered Parliament The first reading of the bill was on 24 November 2015 The bill passed its second reading by 19 votes to 14 on 26 April 2016 and was approved at its third reading on 29 April 2016 The law still requires ratification in the Danish Parliament

Laws regarding same-sex partnerships in Europe   Marriage   Foreign marriages recognized   Other type of partnership   Unregistered cohabitation   Unrecognized   Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples Includes laws that have not yet gone into effect
  • v
  • e


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Finland

Registered partnerships have been legal in Finland since in 2002 In 2010, Minister of Justice Tuija Brax said her Ministry was preparing to amend the Marriage Act to allow same-sex marriage by 2012 On 27 February 2013, the bill was rejected by the Legal Affairs Committee of the Finnish Parliament on a vote of 9–8 A citizens' initiative was launched to put the issue before the Parliament of Finland The initiative gathered the required 50,000 signatures of Finnish citizens in one day and exceeded 107,000 signatures by the time the media reported the figures The campaign collected 166,000 signatures and the initiative was presented to the Parliament in December 2013 The initiative went to introductory debate on 20 February 2014 and was sent again to the Legal Affairs Committee On 25 June, the bill was rejected by the Legal Affairs Committee on a vote of 10–6 and the third time on 20 November 2014, by 9–8 It faced the first vote in full session on 28 November 2014, which passed the bill 105–92 The bill passed the second and final vote by 101–90 on 12 December 2014, and was signed by the President on 20 February 2015 The law will take effect on 1 March 2017 It was the first time a citizens' initiative has been approved by the Finnish Parliament


Main article: Same-sex marriage in France

Following the election of François Hollande as President of France in May 2012 and the subsequent legislative election in which the Socialist party took a majority of seats in the French National Assembly, the new Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault stated that a same-sex marriage bill had been drafted and would be passed The government introduced a bill to legalize same-sex marriage, Bill 344, in the National Assembly on 17 November 2012 Article 1 of the bill defining marriage as an agreement between two people was passed on 2 February 2013 in its first reading by a 249–97 vote On 12 February 2013, the National Assembly approved the entire bill in a 329–229 vote

On 12 April 2013, the upper house of the French parliament voted to legalise same-sex marriage On 23 April 2013 the law was approved by the National Assembly in a 331–225 vote Law No2013-404 grants same-sex couples living in France, including foreigners provided at least one of the partners has their domicile or residence in France, the legal right to get married The law also allows the recognition in France of same-sex couples' marriages that occurred abroad before the bill's enactment

Following the announcement of the French parliament's vote results, those in opposition to the legalisation of same-sex marriage in France participated in public protests In both Paris and Lyon, violence erupted as protesters clashed with police; the issue has mobilised right-wing forces in the country, including neo-Nazis

The main right-wing opposition party UMP challenged the law in the Constitutional Council, which had one month to rule on whether the law conformed to the Constitution The Constitutional Council had previously ruled that the issue of same-sex marriage was one for the legislature to decide and there was only little hope for UMP to overturn the parliament's vote

On 17 May 2013, the Constitutional Council declared the bill legal in its entire redaction President Hollande signed it into law on 18 May 2013


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Iceland

Same-sex marriage was introduced in Iceland through legislation establishing a gender-neutral definition of marriage introduced by the coalition government of the Social Democratic Alliance and Left-Green Movement The legislation was passed unanimously by the Icelandic Althing on 11 June 2010, and took effect on 27 June 2010, replacing an earlier system of registered partnerships for same-sex couples Prime Minister Jóhanna Sigurðardóttir and her partner were among the first married same-sex couples in the country


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Ireland

Ireland held a referendum on 22 May 2015 The referendum proposed to add to the Irish Constitution: "marriage may be contracted in accordance with law by two persons without distinction as to their sex" The proposal approved; with 62% of voters supporting same-sex marriage On 29 August 2015 the Irish President, Michael D Higgins, signed the result of the May referendum into law which made Ireland the first country in the world to approve same-sex marriage at a nationwide referendum Same-sex marriage became formally legally recognised in Ireland on 16 November 2015 Prior to this, the Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010 allowed same sex couples to enter civil partnerships The Act came into force on 1 January 2011 and gave same-sex couples rights and responsibilities similar to, but not equal to, those of civil marriage


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Luxembourg

The Parliament approved a bill to legalise same-sex marriage on 18 June 2014 The law was published in the official gazette on 17 July and took effect on 1 January 2015 On 15 May 2015, Luxembourg became the first country in the EU that has a prime minister who is in a same sex marriage, and the second one in Europe Prime minister Xavier Bettel married Gauthier Destenay, with whom he had been in a civil partnership since 2010


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Mexico State recognition of same-sex relationships in Mexico   Same-sex marriage   Legalization not implemented, though required by 5+ court orders supporting SSM   Partial precedent of 1–4 court orders supporting SSM

Same-sex couples can marry in Mexico City and in the states of Campeche, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit and Quintana Roo as well as in some municipalities in Guerrero, Querétaro and Puebla In individual cases, same-sex couples have been given judicial approval to marry in all other states Since August 2010, same-sex marriages performed within Mexico are recognized by the 31 states without exception

On 21 December 2009, the Federal District's Legislative Assembly legalized same-sex marriages and adoption by same-sex couples The law was enacted eight days later and became effective in early March 2010 On 10 August 2010, the Mexican Supreme Court ruled that while not every state must grant same-sex marriages, they must all recognize those performed where they are legal

On 28 November 2011, the first two same-sex marriages occurred in Quintana Roo after it was discovered that Quintana Roo's Civil Code did not explicitly prohibit same-sex marriage, but these marriages were later annulled by the Governor of Quintana Roo in April 2012 In May 2012, the Secretary of State of Quintana Roo reversed the annulments and allowed for future same-sex marriages to be performed in the state

On 11 February 2014, the Congress of Coahuila approved adoptions by same-sex couples and a bill legalizing same-sex marriages passed on 1 September 2014 making Coahuila the second state to reform its Civil Code to allow for legal same-sex marriages It took effect on 17 September, and the first couple married on 20 September

On 12 June 2015, the Governor of Chihuahua announced that his administration would no longer oppose same-sex marriages within the state The order was effective immediately, thus making Chihuahua the third state to legalize such unions

On 3 June 2015, the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation released a "jurisprudential thesis" which deems the state-laws defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman unconstitutional The ruling standardized court procedures across Mexico to authorize same-sex marriages However, the process is still lengthy and more expensive than that for an opposite-sex marriage, as the ruling did not invalidate any state laws, meaning gay couples will be denied the right to wed and will have to turn to the courts for individual injunctions However, given the nature of the ruling, judges and courts throughout Mexico must approve any application for a same-sex marriage The official release of the thesis was on 19 June 2015, which took effect on 22 June 2015

On 25 June 2015, following the Supreme Court's ruling striking down district same-sex marriage bans, the Civil Registry of Guerrero announced that they had planned a collective same-sex marriage ceremony for 10 July 2015 and indicated that there would have to be a change to the law to allow gender-neutral marriage, passed through the state Legislature before the official commencement The registry announced more details of their plan, advising that only select registration offices in the state would be able to participate in the collective marriage event The state Governor instructed civil agencies to approve same-sex marriage licenses On 10 July 2015, 20 same-sex couples were married by Governor Rogelio Ortega in Acapulco On 13 January 2016, the head of the Civil Registry of Acapulco announced that all marriages that took place on 10 July 2015 by the Governor and his wife were void and not legal as same-sex marriage is not legal in Guerrero, unless couples are granted amparo beforehand On 13 February 2016, however, the head of Guerrero's State Civil Registry department announced that same-sex couples could marry in any of the jurisdictions that want to marry the couples and criticised Acapulco's Civil Registry and other civil registries throughout the state for not allowing these kinds of weddings

On 17 December 2015, the Congress of Nayarit approved a bill legalizing same-sex marriage In January 2016, the Mexican Supreme Court declared Jalisco's Civil Code unconstitutional for limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples, effectively legalizing same-sex marriage in the state On 10 May 2016, the Congress of Campeche passed a same-sex marriage bill On 18 May 2016, both Michoacán and Morelos passed bills allowing for same-sex marriage to be legal On 25 May 2016, a bill to legalize same-sex marriage in Colima was approved by the state Congress

On 17 May 2016, the President of Mexico, Enrique Peña Nieto, signed an initiative to change the country's constitution, which would legalize same-sex marriage throughout Mexico pending congressional approval


Main article: Same-sex marriage in the Netherlands

The Netherlands was the first country to extend marriage laws to include same-sex couples, following the recommendation of a special commission appointed to investigate the issue in 1995 A same-sex marriage bill passed the House of Representatives and the Senate in 2000, taking effect on 1 April 2001

In the Dutch Caribbean special municipalities of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, marriage is open to same-sex couples A law enabling same-sex couples to marry in these municipalities passed and came into effect on 10 October 2012 The Caribbean countries Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, forming the remainder of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, do not perform same-sex marriages, but must recognize those performed in the Netherlands proper

  Same-sex marriage   Other type of partnership   No recognition   Homosexuality illegal

New Zealand

Main article: Same-sex marriage in New Zealand

On 14 May 2012, Labour Party MP Louisa Wall stated that she would introduce a private member's bill, the Marriage Definition of Marriage Amendment Bill, allowing same-sex couples to marry The bill was submitted to the members' bill ballot on 30 May 2012 It was drawn from the ballot and passed the first and second readings on 29 August 2012 and 13 March 2013, respectively The final reading passed on 17 April 2013 by 77 votes to 44 The bill received Royal Assent from the Governor-General on 19 April and took effect on 19 August 2013

New Zealand marriage law only applies to New Zealand proper and the Ross Dependency in Antarctica Other New Zealand territories, including Cook Islands, Niue and Tokelau, have their own marriage law and do not perform nor recognise same-sex marriage


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Norway

Same-sex marriage became legal in Norway on 1 January 2009 when a gender-neutral marriage bill was enacted after being passed by the Norwegian Parliament in June 2008 Norway became the first Scandinavian country and the sixth country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage

Gender-neutral marriage replaced Norway's previous system of registered partnerships for same-sex couples Couples in registered partnerships are able to retain that status or convert their registered partnership to a marriage No new registered partnerships may be created


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Portugal See also: De facto union in Portugal

Portugal created de facto unions união de facto in legal European Portuguese similar to common-law marriage for cohabiting opposite-sex partners in 1999, and extended these unions to same-sex couples in 2001 However, the 2001 extension did not allow for same-sex adoption, either jointly or of stepchildren

On 8 January 2010, Parliament approved — 126 votes in favor, 97 against and 7 abstentions — a bill legalizing same-sex marriage The Portuguese President promulgated the law on 8 April 2010 and the law was effective on 5 June 2010, making Portugal the eighth country to legalize nationwide same-sex marriage; however, adoption was still denied for same-sex couples

On 24 February 2012, Parliament rejected two bills allowing same-sex couples to adopt children

On 17 May 2013, the Portuguese Parliament approved a bill to recognise some adoption rights for same-sex couples in the first reading A bill granting adoption rights to same-sex parents and carers, as well as in-vitro fertilisation for lesbian relationships, was introduced in Parliament by then opposition Socialist and Left Block parties on 16 January 2015 On 22 January, Parliament rejected the proposals

Finally in December 2015, the Portuguese Parliament approved a bill to recognise adoptions rights for same-sex couples

Same-sex wedding in South Africa, 2007

South Africa

Main article: Same-sex marriage in South Africa

Legal recognition of same-sex marriages in South Africa came about as a result of the Constitutional Court's decision in the case of Minister of Home Affairs v Fourie The court ruled on 1 December 2005 that the existing marriage laws violated the equality clause of the Bill of Rights because they discriminated on the basis of sexual orientation The court gave Parliament one year to rectify the inequality The Civil Union Act was passed by the National Assembly on 14 November 2006, by a vote of 230 to 41 It became law on 30 November 2006 South Africa is the fifth country, the first in Africa, and the second outside Europe, to legalize same-sex marriage


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Spain

Spain was the third country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage, which has been legal since 3 July 2005, and was supported by the majority of the Spanish people In 2004, the nation's newly elected Socialist government, led by President José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, began a campaign for its legalization, including the right of adoption by same-sex couples After much debate, the law permitting same-sex marriage was passed by the Cortes Generales Spain's bicameral parliament on 30 June 2005 King Juan Carlos, who by law has up to 30 days to decide whether to grant Royal Assent to laws, indirectly showed his approval by signing it on 1 July 2005, the same day it reached his desk The law was published on 2 July 2005 In 2013, Pew Research Center declared Spain the most tolerant country of the world with homosexuality However, the studies did not include the Benelux or the Scandinavian countries


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Sweden

Same-sex marriage in Sweden has been legal since 1 May 2009, following the adoption of a new, gender-neutral law on marriage by the Swedish Parliament on 1 April 2009, making Sweden the seventh country in the world to open marriage to same-sex couples nationwide Marriage replaced Sweden's registered partnerships for same-sex couples Existing registered partnerships between same-sex couples remained in force with an option to convert them into marriages

United Kingdom

Recognition of same-sex unions in the Lesser Antilles Main article: Same-sex marriage in the United Kingdom

Since 2005 same-sex couples have been allowed to enter into civil partnerships, a separate union providing the legal consequences of marriage In 2006 the High Court rejected a legal bid by a British lesbian couple who had married in Canada to have their union recognised as a marriage in the UK rather than a civil partnership In September 2011, the Coalition government announced its intention to introduce same-sex civil marriage in England and Wales by the May 2015 general election However, unlike the Scottish Government's consultation, the UK Government's consultation for England and Wales did not include provision for religious ceremonies In May 2012, three religious groups Quakers, Liberal Judaism and Unitarians sent a letter to David Cameron, asking that they be allowed to solemnise same-sex weddings

In June 2012, the UK Government completed the consultation to allow civil marriage for same-sex couples in England and Wales In its response to the consultation, the Government said that it also intended "to enable those religious organisations that wish to conduct same-sex marriage ceremonies to do so, on a permissive basis only" In December 2012, the Prime Minister, David Cameron, announced that, whilst he favoured allowing same-sex marriage within a religious context, provision would be made guaranteeing no religious institution would be required to perform such ceremonies On 5 February 2013, the House of Commons debated the Marriage Same Sex Couples Bill, approving it in a 400–175 vote at the second reading The third reading took place on 21 May 2013, and was approved by 366 votes to 161 On 4 June 2013, the bill received its second reading in the House of Lords, after a blocking amendment was defeated by 390 votes to 148 On 15 July 2013, the Bill was given a third reading by the House of Lords, meaning that it had been passed, and so it was then returned to Commons for the consideration of Lords' amendments On 16 July 2013 the Commons accepted all of the Lords' amendments On 17 July 2013, the bill received royal assent becoming the Marriage Same Sex Couples Act 2013 The first same-sex marriages took place on 29 March 2014

The Scottish Government conducted a three-month-long consultation which ended on 9 December 2011 and the analysis was published in July 2012 Unlike the consultation held in England and Wales, Scotland considered both civil and religious same-sex marriage Whilst the Scottish Government is in favour of same-sex marriage, it stated that no religious body would be forced to hold such ceremonies once legislation is enacted The Scottish consultation received more than 77,000 responses, and on 27 June 2013 the Government published the bill In order to preserve the freedom of both religious groups and individual clergy, the Scottish Government believed it necessary for changes to be made to the Equality Act 2010 and communicated with the UK Government on this matter; thus, the first same-sex marriages in Scotland did not occur until this had taken place Although the Scottish bill concerning same-sex marriage had been published, the 'Australian' reported that LGBT rights campaigners, celebrating outside the UK Parliament on 15 July 2013 for the clearance of the Marriage Same Sex Couples Bill in the House of Lords, declared that they would continue the campaign to extend same-sex marriage rights to both Scotland and Northern Ireland, rather than solely Northern Ireland, where there are no plans to introduce such legislation On 4 February 2014, the Scottish Parliament overwhelmingly passed legislation legalising same-sex marriage The bill received royal assent as the Marriage and Civil Partnership Scotland Act 2014 on 12 March 2014 The law took effect on 16 December 2014, with the first same-sex weddings occurring for those converting their civil partnerships into marriage Malcolm Brown and Joe Schofield from Tullibody were scheduled to be the first to be declared husband and husband just after midnight on 31 December, following a Humanist ceremony, but they were superseded by couples marrying on 16 December Nonetheless, Brown and Schofield were married on Hogmanay

The Northern Ireland Executive has stated that it does not intend to introduce legislation allowing for same-sex marriage in Northern Ireland Same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions are treated as civil partnerships

United States

Main articles: Same-sex marriage in the United States and Same-sex marriage legislation in the United States On the morning of June 26, 2015 outside the Supreme Court, the crowd reacts to the Court's decision

The movement to obtain civil marriage rights and benefits for same-sex couples in the United States began in the 1970s and in 1971 the United States Supreme Court dismissed a case, Baker v Nelson claiming such right on appeal, establishing it as a precedent as it came from mandatory appellate review The issue did not become prominent in US politics until the 1993 Hawaii Supreme Court decision in Baehr v Lewin that declared that state's prohibition to be unconstitutional During the 21st century, public support for same-sex marriage has grown considerably, and national polls conducted since 2011 show that a majority of Americans support legalizing it On 17 May 2004, Massachusetts became the first US state and the sixth jurisdiction in the world to legalize same-sex marriage following the Supreme Judicial Court's decision in Goodridge v Department of Public Health six months earlier

Before the legalization of same-sex marriage in any US jurisdiction, the US Congress passed the Defense of Marriage Act DOMA in 1996, attempting to define marriage for the first time solely as a union between a man and a woman for all federal purposes, and allowing states to refuse to recognize such marriages created in other states

President Barack Obama announced on 9 May 2012, that "I think same-sex couples should be able to get married" Obama also supported the full repeal of DOMA, and called the state constitutional bans on same-sex marriage in California 2008 and North Carolina 2012 unnecessary In 2011, the Obama Administration concluded that DOMA was unconstitutional and directed the US Justice Department DOJ to stop defending the law in court Subsequently, Eric Cantor, Republican majority leader in the US House of Representatives, announced that the House would defend DOMA The law firm hired to represent the House soon withdrew from defending the law, requiring the House to retain replacement counsel In the past two decades, public support for same-sex marriage has steadily increased, and polls indicate that more than half of Americans support same-sex marriage Voters in Maine, Maryland and Washington approved same-sex marriage by referendum on 6 November 2012

On 26 June 2013, the US Supreme Court ruled in United States v Windsor Section 3 of DOMA was unconstitutional for allowing the federal government of the United States to deny federal recognition of same-sex marriage licenses, if it is recognized or performed in a state that allows same-sex marriage Two years later on the same day, the US Supreme Court ruled in Obergefell v Hodges that state level bans on same-sex marriage to be unconstitutional as well, legalizing same-sex marriage throughout the entire US proper and all incorporated territories

On 6 October 2014, the US Supreme Court denied review of five writ petitions from decisions of appellate courts finding constitutional right to same-sex marriage The immediate effect was to increase to 25 the number of states allowing same-sex marriage

On 26 June 2015, the US Supreme Court ruled 5–4 in Obergefell v Hodges that states cannot prohibit the issuing of marriage licenses to same-sex couples, or to deny recognition of lawfully performed out-of-state marriage licenses to same-sex couples This ruling invalidated same-sex marriage bans in any US State and certain territories Prior to this ruling, same-sex marriages were legally performed in 37 US states, the District of Columbia, Guam as well as some Native American tribes

Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg officiated at a same-sex wedding during the 2013 Labor Day weekend in what is believed to be a first for a member of the Supreme Court

A poll conducted in 2014 showed a record high of 59% of the American people supporting legal recognition for same-sex marriage


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Uruguay

Uruguay's Chamber of Deputies passed a bill on 12 December 2012, to extend marriage rights to same-sex couples The Senate passed the bill on 2 April 2013, but with minor amendments On 10 April 2013, the Chamber of Deputies passed the amended bill by a two-thirds majority 71–22 The president promulgated the law on 3 May 2013 and it took effect on 5 August

National debates


Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Andorra

On 31 March 2014, the Social Democratic Party introduced a bill to legalize same-sex marriage On 29 May 2014, the bill was rejected by Parliament


Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Australia

Australian federal law currently bans recognition of same-sex marriages Civil unions/partnerships are available in the Australian Capital Territory and Queensland, while domestic registered partnerships are available in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia Western Australia and the Northern Territory both only offer de facto unions for same-sex couples, and committed same-sex couples in all states and territories are recognised as de facto unions which provide most of the benefits and recognition of marriage under federal law

On 22 October 2013, a bill was passed by the Australian Capital Territory ACT legalising same-sex marriage in the ACT However, the High Court found that the change was never valid and an official reversal of the bill was announced on 12 December 2013 The High Court established that such a change to ACT legislation could not operate concurrently with the federal Marriage Act

There have been many attempts to legalise same-sex marriage in the federal Parliament The Coalition Government, narrowly re-elected at the July 2016 federal election, has pledged to hold a plebiscite on the issue in 2016 or 2017 The opposition Labor Party supports same-sex marriage but allows its parliamentary members a conscience vote on same-sex marriage legislation


Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Austria

On 20 November 2013, the opposition party The Greens introduced a bill in Parliament that would legalise same-sex marriage It was sent to the Judiciary Committee on 17 December 2013 The bill was supposed to be debated in Autumn 2014, but was delayed by the ruling coalition


The national debate on same-sex marriage in Bermuda started around the introduction of sexual orientation to the British Overseas Dependent Territory's BODT Human Rights Act of 1981 This happened in 2013, prompted by calls from an advocacy group call Two Words and a Comma This addition started a movement in support of marriage equality in the BODT Churches in Bermuda formed an alliance to petition the government to be permitted to discriminate against the LGBT community, with their concerns including that not doing so might lead to legalization of same-sex marriage The group Preserve Marriage was created with the position "that marriage in Bermuda should remain defined and upheld as a special union ordained by God between a man and a woman" This group lobbied the One Bermuda Alliance OBA into tabling changes to the Matrimonial Act to "strengthen" the notion that marriage is between one man and one woman; a change that the Bermuda Human Rights Commission BHRC says will "undermine the integrity of the Human Rights Act” Also, the OBA has called for a non-binding referendum to get national consensus on the question of marriage equality The response from the BHRC was:

We specifically reject the notion that the opinion of the majority should impinge on the right of equal treatment for minorities We are also disappointed that the decision to hold a referendum will serve to lengthen the timeline by which the Government can fulfill its obligations to its citizens who deserve equality under the law

A non-binding referendum on both same-sex marriage and same-sex civil unions took place on 23 June 2016, and while a majority voted against both same-sex marriage and same-sex civil unions, there was not a high enough voter turnout for the referendum to be valid Following the referendum, two same-sex couples promised to go to the courts if they are not allowed to wed The Bermuda Supreme Court is expected to rule on a same-sex couple’s case, which seeks to allow them to marry, before 4 November 2016


Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Chile

Michelle Bachelet, the President of Chile, who was elected to a second term in March 2014, has promised to work for the implementation of same-sex marriage and has a majority in both houses of Congress Previously, she said, "Marriage equality, I believe we have to make it happen" Polling shows majority support for same-sex marriage among Chileans

On 10 December 2014, a group of senators, from various parties, joined LGBT rights group MOVILH Homosexual Movement of Integration and Liberation in presenting a bill to allow same-sex marriage and adoption to Congress MOVILH has been in talks with the Chilean Government to seek an amiable solution to the pending marriage lawsuit brought against the state before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights MOVILH has suggested that they would drop the case if Bachelet's Congress keeps their promise to legislate same-sex marriage President Bachelet stated before a United Nations General Assembly panel in September 2016 that the Chilean Government would submit a same-sex marriage bill to Congress in the first half of 2017

Meanwhile, on 28 January 2015, the National Congress approved a bill recognizing civil unions for same-sex and opposite-sex couples offering some of the rights of marriage Bachelet signed the bill on 14 April, and it came into effect on 22 October

A poll carried out during September 2015 by the pollster Cadem Plaza Pública found that 60% of Chileans support same-sex marriage, whilst 36% are against it


Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in China

The Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China explicitly defines marriage as the union between one man and one woman No other form of civil union is recognized The attitude of the Chinese Government towards homosexuality is believed to be "three nos": "No approval; no disapproval; no promotion" The Ministry of Health officially removed homosexuality from its list of mental illnesses in 2001

Li Yinhe, a sociologist and sexologist well known in the Chinese gay community, has tried to legalize same-sex marriage several times, including during the National People's Congress in 2000 and 2004 Legalization for Same-Sex Marriage 《中国同性婚姻合法化》 in 2000 and the Same-Sex Marriage Bill 《中国同性婚姻提案》 in 2004 According to Chinese law, 35 delegates' signatures are needed to make an issue a bill to be discussed in the Congress Her efforts failed due to lack of support from the delegates CPPCC National Committee spokesman Wu Jianmin when asked about Li Yinhe's proposal, said that same-sex marriage was still too "ahead of its time" for China He argued that same-sex marriage was not recognized even in many Western countries, which are considered much more liberal in social issues than China This statement is understood as an implication that the Government may consider recognition of same-sex marriage in the long run, but not in the near future

On 5 January 2016, a court in Changsha, southern Hunan Province, agreed to hear the lawsuit of 26-year-old Sun Wenlin filed in December 2015 against the Bureau of Civil Affairs of Furong District for its June 2015 refusal to let him marry his 36-year-old male partner, Hu Mingliang On 13 April 2016, with hundreds of same-sex marriage supporters outside, the Changsha court ruled against Sun, who vowed to appeal, citing the importance of his case for LGBT progress in China

Costa Rica

Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Costa Rica

On 19 March 2015, a bill to legalize same-sex marriage was introduced to the Legislative Assembly by Deputy Ligia Elena Fallas Rodríguez from the Broad Front On 10 December 2015, the organization Front for Equal Rights Frente Por los Derechos Igualitarios and a group of deputies presented another bill

On 10 February 2016, the Constitutional Court of Costa Rica announced it would hear a case seeking to legalize same-sex marriage in the country and declare the same-sex marriage ban unconstitutional

El Salvador

Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in El Salvador

In August 2016, a lawyer in El Salvador filed a lawsuit before the country's Supreme Court asking for the nullification of Article 11 of the Family Code which defines marriage as a heterosexual union Labeling the law as discriminatory and explaining the lack of gendered terms used in Article 34 of the Constitution’s summary of a marriage, the lawsuit seeks to allow same-sex couples the right to wed


Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Germany

Since 1 August 2001, Germany has registered partnerships Eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaft for same-sex couples, providing most but not all rights of marriage In 2004, this act was amended to include adoption rights stepchild adoption only and to reform previously cumbersome dissolution procedures with regard to division of property and alimony Attempts to give equal rights to registered partners or to legalize same-sex marriage have generally been blocked by the CDU/CSU, the main party in government since 2005 All other main parties SPD, The Greens, The Left and FDP support full LGBT equality The Federal Constitutional Court of Germany has issued various rulings in favor of equal rights for same-sex registered partners such as joint tax filing benefits, requiring the governing coalition to change the law


Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in India

Same-sex marriage is not explicitly prohibited under Indian law and at least one couple has had their marriage recognised by the courts In April 2014, Medha Patkar of the Aam Aadmi Party stated that her party supports the legalisation of same-sex marriage


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Israel

Israel's High Court of Justice ruled to recognize foreign same-sex marriages for the limited purpose of registration with the Administration of Border Crossings, Population and Immigration, however this is merely for statistical purposes and grants no state-level rights; Israel does not recognize civil marriages performed under its own jurisdiction A bill was raised in the Knesset parliament to rescind the High Court's ruling, but the Knesset has not advanced the bill since December 2006 A bill to legalize same-sex and interfaith civil marriages was defeated in the Knesset, 39–11, on 16 May 2012

In November 2015, the National LGBT Taskforce of Israel petitioned the Supreme Court of Israel to allow same-sex marriage in the country, arguing that the refusal of the rabbinical court to recognise same-sex marriage should not prevent civil courts from performing same-sex marriages The court did not immediately rule against the validity of the petition


Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Italy

On 9 April 2014, the Civil Court of Grosseto ordered that a same-sex marriage contracted abroad be recognised in the municipality

The cities of Bologna, Naples and Fano began recognizing same-sex marriages from other jurisdictions in July 2014, followed by Empoli, Pordenone, Udine and Trieste in September, and Florence, Piombino, Milan and Rome in October, and by Bagheria in November Other cities that are considering similar laws include Cagliari, Livorno, Syracuse, Pompei and Treviso

A January 2013 Datamonitor poll found that 541% of respondents were in favour of same-sex marriage A May 2013 Ipsos poll found that 42% of Italians supported allowing same-sex couples to marry and adopt children An October 2014 Demos poll found that 55% of respondents were in favour of same-sex marriage, with 42% against

On 25 February 2016, the Italian Senate passed a bill allowing civil unions with 173 senators in favour and 73 against That same bill was approved by the Chamber of Deputies on 11 May 2016 with 372 deputies in favour and 51 against The President of Italy signed the bill into law on 22 May 2016 and the law went into effect on 5 June 2016


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Japan

Same-sex marriage is not legal in Japan Article 24 of the Japanese Constitution states that "Marriage shall be based only on the mutual consent of both sexes and it shall be maintained through mutual cooperation with the equal rights of husband and wife as a basis" Article 24 was created to establish the equality of both sexes in marriage, in opposition to the pre-war legal situation whereby the husband/father was legally defined as the head of household and marriage require permission from the male head of the family The wording, however, inadvertently defined marriage as the union of man and woman

51% of the Japanese population supports same-sex marriage, according to the latest poll carried out in 2015


Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Latvia

On 27 May 2016, the Constitutional Court of Latvia overturned an administrative court decision which refused an application to register a same-sex marriage in the country A Supreme Court press spokeswoman said that the court agrees with the administrative court that current regulations do not allow for same-sex marriages to be legally performed in Latvia However, the matter should have been considered in a context not of marriage, but of registering familial partnership Furthermore, it would have been impossible to conclude whether the applicants' rights were violated or not unless their claim is accepted and reviewed in a proper manner The Supreme Court will now decide whether the refusal was in breach of the Latvian Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights


Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Malta

Malta has recognized same-sex unions since April 2014, following the enactment of the Civil Unions Bill, first introduced in September 2013 It established civil unions with same rights, responsibilities, and obligations as marriage, including the right of joint adoption and recognition of foreign same sex marriage Parliament gave final approval to the legislation on 14 April 2014 by a vote of 37 in favour and 30 abstentions President Marie Louise Coleiro Preca signed it into law on 16 April The first foreign same sex marriage was registered on 29 April 2014 and the first civil union was performed on 14 June 2014


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Nepal

In November 2008, Nepal's highest court issued final judgment on matters related to LGBT rights, which included permitting same-sex couples to marry Same-sex marriage and protection for sexual minorities were to be included in the new Nepalese Constitution required to be completed by 31 May 2012 However, the Legislature was unable to agree on the Constitution before the deadline and was dissolved after the Supreme Court ruled that the term could not be extended


Same-sex marriages and civil unions are currently not recognized by the state, the illegal insurgent Communist Party of the Philippines performs same-sex marriages in territories under its control since 2005

In October 2016, Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines Pantaleon Alvarez announced he will file a civil union bill in Congress


Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Poland

In Poland, the national debate regarding recognition of same-sex marriage is conducted along the debate about civil partnerships In a 2013 opinion poll conducted by CBOS, 72% of Poles were against same-sex marriage


Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Slovenia

Slovenia recognises registered partnerships for same-sex couples

In December 2014, the eco-socialist United Left party introduced a bill amending expansion of the definition of marriage in the 1976 Marriage and Family Relations Act to include same-sex couples In January 2015, the Government expressed no opposition to the bill In February 2015, the bill was passed with 11 votes to 2 In March, the Assembly passed the bill in a 51–28 vote On 10 March 2015, the National Council rejected a motion to require the Assembly to vote on the bill again, in a 14–23 vote Opponents of the bill launched a petition for a referendum and managed to collect 40,000 signatures Then Parliament voted to block the referendum with a clarification that it would be against the Slovenian Constitution to vote about matters concerning human rights Finally the Constitutional Court ruled against the banning of the referendum 5–4 and the referendum was to be held on 20 December 2015

In the referendum, 634% of the voters voted against the law, rendering Parliament's same-sex marriage act invalid

South Korea

Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in South Korea

In July 2015, Kim Jho Kwang-soo and his partner, Kim Seung-Hwan, filed a lawsuit seeking legal status for their marriage after their marriage registration form was rejected by the local authorities in Seoul On 25 May 2016, a South Korean district court ruled against the couple and argued that without clear legislation a same-sex union can not be recognized as a marriage The couple quickly filed an appeal against the district court ruling Their lawyer, Ryu Min-Hee, announced that two more same-sex couples had filed separate lawsuits in order to be allowed to wed


Main article: Registered partnership in Switzerland

A same-sex marriage bill is pending in Parliament after the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, in December 2013, opposed a Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland's initiative banning same-sex marriage The Committee for Legal Affairs of the National Council approved this parliamentary initiative by 12:1 and 1 abstention on 20 February 2015 On 1 September 2015, the upper house's Legal Affairs Committee voted 7 to 5 to proceed with the initiative The National Council's Legal Affairs Committee can now draft an act

In a poll in June 2013 for ifop, 63% approved same-sex marriage After the National Council's Committee of Law Affairs' decision to approve same-sex marriage, two opinion polls released on 22 February 2015 showed a support of 54% Léger Marketing for Blick and 71% GfS Zürich for SonntagsZeitung allowing same-sex couples to marry and adopt children

In March 2015, the Swiss Federal Council released a Governmental report about marriage and new rights for families It opens the possibility to introduce registered partnerships for straight couples as well as same-sex marriage for gay and lesbian couples The Swiss President Simonetta Sommaruga in charge of the Federal Department of Justice and Police also stated she hoped personally that gay and lesbian couples would soon be allowed to marry

The Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland CVP/PDC started in 2011 with gathering signatures for a popular initiative entitled "For the couple and the family - No to the penalty of marriage" This initiative would change article 14 of the Swiss Federal Constitution and aimed to put equal fiscal rights and equal social security benefits between married couples and unmarried cohabiting couples However, the text aimed to introduce as well in the Constitution for the first time ever the definition of marriage, which would be the sole "union between a man and a woman" On 19 June 2015, the parliament recommending voters to reject the initiative The Federal Council also recommended rejecting the initiative The Swiss people voted on the Christian Democrats' proposal in a referendum on 28 February 2016 and rejected it by 508% of the votes


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Taiwan

On 22 December 2014, a proposed amendment to the Civil Code which would legalize same-sex marriage was due to go under review by the Judiciary Committee If the amendment passes the committee stage it will then be voted on at the plenary session of the Legislative Yuan in 2015 The amendment, called the marriage equality amendment, would insert neutral terms into the Civil Code replacing ones that imply heterosexual marriage, effectively legalizing same-sex marriage It would also allow same-sex couples to adopt children Yu Mei-nu of the Democratic Progressive Party DPP, who is the convener of the current legislative session, has expressed support for the amendment as have more than 20 other DPP lawmakers as well as two from the Taiwan Solidarity Union and one each from the Kuomintang and the People First Party Taiwan would become the first country in Asia to legalize same-sex marriage if the Civil Code is amended

Results of a new poll, carried out between August and October 2015, revealed that 71% of the Taiwanese population support same-sex marriage

Tsai Ing-wen, the President of Taiwan since May 2016, announced her support of same-sex marriage in November 2015


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Thailand

A same-sex-marriage bill before the Thai Parliament has bipartisan support, but as of April 2014 has been stalled due to the political crisis in the country In the second half of 2014, reports emerged that a draft bill called the Civil Partnership Act will be submitted to the junta-appointed Thai Parliament


Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Turkey

In the process of rewriting the Turkish Constitution, the opposition party BDP called for the liberalization of marriage policies to include same-sex marriage The largest opposition party in the Turkish Parliament, CHP, supported the idea The largest party in parliament, the AKP, opposes same-sex marriage, although Premier Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, the leader of the AKP, supported full equal rights for LGBT citizens in 2002, the year he launched his party In response to a request from BDP, a parliamentary discussion of same-sex marriage is anticipated when all political parties gather in committees to establish a new constitution In 2013, a poll of Turkish attitudes towards sexuality, 36% of Turks supported same-sex marriages In 2015, research revealed that 80% of the Turkish population is against same-sex marriage


Main article: Recognition of same-sex unions in Venezuela

In April 2016, the Supreme Court announced it would hear a lawsuit which seeks to declare Article 44 of the Civil Code unconstitutional for outlawing same-sex marriage


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Vietnam

In Vietnam, currently only a marriage between a man and a woman is recognized Vietnam's Ministry of Justice began seeking advice on legalizing same-sex marriage from other governmental and non-governmental organizations in April and May 2012, and planned to further discuss the issue at the National Assembly in Spring 2013 However, in February 2013, the Ministry of Justice requested that the National Assembly avoid action until 2014 At a hearing to discuss marriage law reforms in April 2013, deputy minister of health Nguyen Viet Tien proposed that same-sex marriage be made legal immediately

The Vietnamese Government abolished an administrative fine imposed on same-sex weddings in 2013 The policy was enacted on 11 November 2013 The 100,000–500,000 VND $24USD fine will be abolished Although same-sex marriages are not permitted in Vietnam, the policy will decriminalize the relationship, habitual privileges such as household registry, property, child raising, and co-habitual partnerships are recognized

In June 2013, the National Assembly began formal debate on a proposal to establish legal recognition for same-sex marriage On 24 September 2013, the Government issued the decree abolishing the fines on same-sex marriages The decree took effect on 11 November 2013 On 27 May 2014, the National Assembly's Committee for Social Affairs removed the provision giving legal status and some rights to cohabiting same-sex couples from the government's bill to amend the Law on Marriage and Family The bill was approved by the National Assembly on 19 June 2014

On 1 January 2015, the 2014 Law on Marriage and Family officially went into effect It states that while Vietnam allows same-sex weddings, it will not offer legal recognition or protection to unions between people of the same sex

International organizations

The terms of employment of the staff of international organizations not commercial in most cases are not governed by the laws of the country where their offices are located Agreements with the host country safeguard these organizations' impartiality

Despite their relative independence, few organizations recognize same-sex partnerships without condition The agencies of the United Nations recognize same-sex marriages if and only if the country of citizenship of the employees in question recognizes the marriage In some cases, these organizations do offer a limited selection of the benefits normally provided to mixed-sex married couples to de facto partners or domestic partners of their staff, but even individuals who have entered into a mixed-sex civil union in their home country are not guaranteed full recognition of this union in all organizations However, the World Bank does recognize domestic partners

Other arrangements

Civil unions

Main article: Civil union Many advocates, such as this protester at a demonstration in New York City against California Proposition 8, reject the notion of civil unions, describing them as inferior to the legal recognition of same-sex marriage

Civil union, civil partnership, domestic partnership, registered partnership, unregistered partnership, and unregistered cohabitation statuses offer varying legal benefits of marriage As of June 2016, countries that have an alternative form of legal recognition other than marriage on a national level are: Andorra, Australia, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan various cities, Liechtenstein, San Marino, Slovenia, Switzerland, Taiwan all special municipalities and some counties and provincial cities and the United Kingdom Northern Ireland, Jersey and Gibraltar Malta has established civil unions with the same rights and responsibilities as marriage, differing only in name Additionally, thirteen countries which have legalized same-sex marriage still have an alternative form of legal recognition for same-sex couples: Argentina, Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Finland, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, the United Kingdom and Uruguay

They are also available in parts of the United States California, Hawaii, Illinois, New Jersey, Nevada, Oregon and Wisconsin In some countries with these legal recognitions, the actual benefits are minimal Many people consider civil unions, even those that grant equal rights, inadequate because they create a separate status, and believe they should be replaced by gender-neutral marriage

Non-sexual same-sex marriage


Main article: LGBT rights in Kenya

Female same-sex marriage is practiced among the Gikuyu, Nandi, Kamba, Kipsigis, and to a lesser extent neighboring peoples Approximately 5–10% of women are in such marriages However, this is not seen as homosexual, but is instead a way for families without sons to keep their inheritance within the family The laws criminalizing homosexuality are generally specific to men, though in 2010 the prime minister called for women to be arrested as well


Main article: Same-sex marriage in Nigeria

In Nigeria, homosexual activity between men, but not between women, is illegal In 2006, Nigerian President Olusegun Obasanjo introduced legislation that prohibits same-sex marriages and criminalizes anyone who "performs, witnesses, aids or abets" such ceremonies Among the Igbo people and probably other peoples in the south of the country, there are circumstances where a marriage between women is considered appropriate, such as when a woman has no child and her husband dies, and she takes a wife to perpetuate her inheritance and family lineage


See also: LGBT rights opposition

While few societies have recognized same-sex unions as marriages, the historical and anthropological record reveals a large range of attitudes towards same-sex unions ranging from praise, through full acceptance and integration, sympathetic toleration, indifference, prohibition and discrimination, to persecution and physical annihilation Opponents of same-sex marriages have argued that same-sex marriage, while doing good for the couples that participate in them and the children they are raising, undermines a right of children to be raised by their biological mother and father Some supporters of same-sex marriages take the view that the government should have no role in regulating personal relationships, while others argue that same-sex marriages would provide social benefits to same-sex couples The debate regarding same-sex marriages includes debate based upon social viewpoints as well as debate based on majority rules, religious convictions, economic arguments, health-related concerns, and a variety of other issues


Main articles: LGBT parenting and Same-sex marriage and the family

Scientific literature indicates that parents' financial, psychological and physical well-being is enhanced by marriage and that children benefit from being raised by two parents within a legally recognized union either a mixed-sex or same-sex union As a result, professional scientific associations have argued for same-sex marriage to be legally recognized as it will be beneficial to the children of same-sex parents or carers

Scientific research has been generally consistent in showing that lesbian and gay parents are as fit and capable as heterosexual parents, and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as children reared by heterosexual parents According to scientific literature reviews, there is no evidence to the contrary

Legal status of adoption by same-sex couples around the world:   Joint adoption allowed1   Second-parent adoption allowed2   No laws allowing adoption by same-sex couples 1In Finland a law will come into force in 2017
2In Estonia a law will come into force in 2016


Main article: LGBT adoption

All states that allow same-sex marriage also allow the joint adoption of children by people of the same sex, with the exceptions of Guerrero, Jalisco, Nayarit and Quintana Roo in Mexico In addition, Andorra, Austria, Israel and Malta as well as several subnational jurisdictions which do not recognize same-sex marriage nonetheless permit joint adoption by unmarried same-sex couples: Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia in Australia, Veracruz in Mexico as well as Bermuda, Gibraltar, Guernsey and Jersey in the United Kingdom Some additional states allow stepchild adoption by those who are in a same-sex relationship but are unmarried: Croatia, Germany, Estonia, Slovenia and Switzerland

More than 16,000 same-sex couples are raising an estimated 22,000 adopted children in the United States

Same-sex couples are raising 4% of all adopted children in the United States

Surrogacy and IVF treatment

Main article: Assisted reproductive technology

A gay or bisexual man has the option of surrogacy, the process in which a woman bears a child for another person through artificial insemination or carries another woman's surgically implanted fertilized egg to birth A lesbian or bisexual woman has the option of artificial insemination

Transgender and intersex people

See also: Transgender, Legal aspects of transsexualism, Intersex, and Intersex human rights

When sex is defined legally, it may be defined by any one of several criteria: the XY sex-determination system, the type of gonads, the type of external sexual features, or the person's social identification Consequently, both transgender and intersex individuals may be legally categorized into confusing gray areas, and could be prohibited from marrying partners of the "opposite" sex or permitted to marry partners of the "same" sex due to legal distinctions This could result in long-term marriages, as well as recent same-sex marriages, being overturned

The problems of defining gender by the existence/non-existence of gonads or certain sexual features is complicated by the existence of surgical methods to alter these features Estimates run as high as one percent of live births exhibiting some degree of sexual ambiguity, and between 01% and 02% of live births being ambiguous enough to become the subject of specialist medical attention, including sometimes involuntary surgery to address their sexual ambiguity

In any legal jurisdiction where marriages are defined without distinction of a requirement of a male and female, these complications do not occur In addition, some legal jurisdictions recognize a legal and official change of gender, which would allow a transgender male or female to be legally married in accordance with an adopted gender identity

In the United Kingdom, the Gender Recognition Act 2004 allows a person who has lived in their chosen gender for at least two years to receive a gender recognition certificate officially recognizing their new gender Because in the United Kingdom marriages were until recently only for mixed-sex couples and civil partnerships are only for same-sex couples, a person must dissolve his/her civil partnership before obtaining a gender recognition certificate, and the same was formerly true for marriages in England and Wales, and still is in other territories Such people are then free to enter or re-enter civil partnerships or marriages in accordance with their newly recognized gender identity In Austria, a similar provision requiring transsexual people to divorce before having their legal sex marker corrected was found to be unconstitutional in 2006

In Quebec prior to the legalization of same-sex marriage, only unmarried people could apply for legal change of gender With the advent of same-sex marriage, this restriction was dropped A similar provision including sterilization also existed in Sweden, but was phased out in 2013

In the United States, transgender and intersex marriages typically run into similar complications As definitions and enforcement of marriage are defined by the states, these complications vary from state to state, as some of them prohibit legal changes of gender


Main article: Divorce of same-sex couples

In the United States of America, before the case of Obergefell v Hodges couples in same-sex marriages could only obtain a divorce in jurisdictions that recognized same-sex marriages, with some exceptions

Religious views

Further information: Religious views on same-sex marriage

Religion plays a prominent role in discourse about same-sex marriage, and several religious organizations and churches have expressed a range of official positions Religious views on same-sex marriage are closely related to religious views on homosexuality While the majority of world religions stand in opposition, the number of denominations accepting and conducting same-sex marriages has increased in the 2000s and 2010s

Among Christians, the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, and various Protestant denominations, such as Seventh-day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses, take official positions opposing same-sex marriage Some Protestant groups, like the Episcopal Church, the Presbyterian Church USA, and the United Church of Christ, and some Catholic ones, such as the Old Catholic Church US Province, support allowing those of the same sex to marry or conduct same-sex marriage ceremonies Some individual churches have committed to marriage equality in opposition to their denominations' stances In 2016, a survey found that 64% of white mainline Protestants in the United States favor allowing gays and lesbians to legally wed

A majority of Muslim and Orthodox Jewish leaders oppose same-sex marriage, while Conservative, Reform, and Reconstructionist Jewish rabbinical groups affirm its validity Though Buddhism is considered to be ambivalent on the subject as a whole, particular Buddhists have supported marriage equality, as do a variety of other religious traditions

Religious freedom

One source of controversy is whether same-sex marriage affects freedom of religion Some religious organizations may refuse to provide employment, public accommodations, adoption services, and other benefits to same-sex couples Some governments include freedom of religion provisions in marriage equality laws

Judicial and legislative

Main article: Conflict of marriage laws § Same-sex marriage

There are differing positions regarding the manner in which same-sex marriage has been introduced into democratic jurisdictions A "majority rules" position holds that same-sex marriage is valid, or void and illegal, based upon whether it has been accepted by a simple majority of voters or of their elected representatives In contrast, a civil rights view holds that the institution can be validly created through the ruling of an impartial judiciary carefully examining the questioning and finding that the right to marry regardless of the gender of the participants is guaranteed under the civil rights laws of the jurisdiction

See also

  • LGBT rights by country or territory
  • List of same-sex married couples
  • Religion and sexuality
  • Same-sex union legislation
Documentaries and literature
  • A Union in Wait
  • Freedom to Marry
  • Marriage Equality USA
  • Marriage Under Fire
  • Pursuit of Equality
  • The Case Against 8
  • The Gay Marriage Thing
  • Boy Meets Boy musical
  • Adelphopoiesis "brother-making"
  • The Leveret Spirit
  • Timeline of same-sex marriage
  • LGBT portal
  • Sexuality portal


  1. ^ a b c Including Denmark proper and Greenland Same-sex marriage is currently not lawful in the Faroe Islands
  2. ^ a b Campeche, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Quintana Roo and Mexico City as well as in some municipalities in Guerrero, Querétaro and Puebla Same-sex marriages performed in these jurisdictions are recognized throughout Mexico
  3. ^ a b c The Netherlands proper Same-sex marriages performed there are recognized in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten
  4. ^ a b c New Zealand proper
  5. ^ a b c Legal in England and Wales and Scotland, notably not recognized in Northern Ireland Legal in one of the three Crown dependencies; the Isle of Man Legal in the overseas territories of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, the British Antarctic Territory, the Pitcairn Islands and Ascension Island
  6. ^ a b c 50 states, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands and some tribal jurisdictions Some tribal jurisdictions do not recognize same-sex marriage In the United States, Congress not the federal courts has legal authority over Indian country Thus, unless Congress passes a law regarding same-sex marriage for Indian tribes, federally recognized American Indian tribes have the legal right to form their own marriage laws


  1. ^ "Poll shows growing support for same-sex marriage" Sydney Morning Herald 15 July 2014 Retrieved 22 May 2015 
  2. ^ "For several years a majority of Australians have supported marriage equality" Australian Marriage Equality Incorporated Retrieved 22 May 2015 
  3. ^ See
    • Newport, Frank "For First Time, Majority of Americans Favor Legal Gay Marriage" Gallup Retrieved 25 September 2012 
    • "Support for Same‐Sex Marriage in Latin America" PDF Vanderbilt University Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  4. ^ Gross, Aeyal 30 June 2015 "Why Gay Marriage Isn't Coming to Israel Any Time Soon" Haaretz Online Retrieved 29 December 2015 
  5. ^ Taylor, Pamela K 31 July 2009 "Marriage: Both Civil and Religious" The Washington Post Retrieved 15 July 2014 
  6. ^ Smith, Susan K 30 July 2009 "Marriage a Civil Right, not Sacred Rite" The Washington Post Retrieved 20 September 2012 
  7. ^ "Decision in Perry v Schwarzenegger" PDF Retrieved 6 August 2010 
  8. ^ Handbook of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Administration and Policy — Page 13, Wallace Swan – 2004
  9. ^ a b American Psychological Association 2004 "Resolution on Sexual Orientation and Marriage" PDF Archived from the original PDF on 11 May 2011 Retrieved 10 November 2010 
  10. ^ American Sociological Association "American Sociological Association Member Resolution on Proposed US Constitutional Amendment Regarding Marriage" Archived from the original on 12 August 2007 Retrieved 10 November 2010 
  11. ^ a b "Brief of the American Psychological Association, The California Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy as amici curiae in support of plaintiff-appellees – Appeal from United States District Court for the Northern District of California Civil Case No 09-CV-2292 VRW Honorable Vaughn R Walker" PDF Retrieved 5 November 2010 
  12. ^ a b c d e "Marriage of Same-Sex Couples  – 2006 Position Statement" PDF Canadian Psychological Association Archived from the original PDF on 7 July 2012 Retrieved 28 September 2012 
  13. ^ a b Pawelski JG, Perrin EC, Foy JM, et al July 2006 "The effects of marriage, civil union, and domestic partnership laws on the health and well-being of children" Pediatrics 118 1: 349–64 doi:101542/peds2006-1279 PMID 16818585  available online: http://pediatricsaappublicationsorg/cgi/content/full/118/1/349
  14. ^ "Brief of Amici Curiae American Anthropological Association et al, supporting plaintiffs-appellees and urging affirmance – Appeal from United States District Court for the Northern District of California Civil Case No 09-CV-2292 VRW Honorable Vaughn R Walker" PDF Retrieved 5 November 2010 
  15. ^ a b American Anthropological Association 2004 "Statement on Marriage and the Family" Retrieved 2015-09-18 
  16. ^ "Marriage Equality" Garden State Equality Retrieved 24 July 2012 
  17. ^ "Marriage 101" Freedom to Marry Retrieved 28 September 2012 
  18. ^ Pratt, Patricia 29 May 2012 "Albany area real estate and the Marriage Equality Act" Albany Examiner Retrieved 25 December 2012 On July 24, 2011 the Marriage Equality Act became a law in New York State forever changing the state's legal view of what a married couple is 
  19. ^ "Vote on Illinois marriage equality bill coming in January: sponsors" Chicago Phoenix 13 December 2012 Retrieved 23 December 2012 
  20. ^ "Commission endorses marriage and adoption equality" Human Right Commission New Zealand nd Archived from the original on 2 December 2012 Retrieved 23 December 2012 
  21. ^ Mulholland, Helene 27 September 2012 "Ed Miliband calls for gay marriage equality" The Guardian London Retrieved 23 December 2012 
  22. ^ Ring, Trudy 20 December 2012 "Newt Gingrich: Marriage Equality Inevitable, OK" The Advocate Los Angeles He noted to HuffPo that he not only has a lesbian half-sister, LGBT rights activist Candace Gingrich, but has gay friends who've gotten married in Iowa, where their unions are legal Public opinion has shifted in favor of marriage equality, he said, and the Republican Party could end up on the wrong side of history if it continues to go against the tide 
  23. ^ "State lacks authority to redefine marriage, says bishop" Catholic News Agency CNA 7 June 2013 Retrieved 20 December 2013 
  24. ^ Will Rabbe 18 July 2013 "Redefining marriage, one dictionary at a time" MSNBC Retrieved 20 December 2013 
  25. ^ "Ten Arguments From Social Science Against Same-Sex Marriage" FRCorg Family Research Council Archived from the original on 28 September 2015 Retrieved 4 January 2016 it is unlikely that homosexual marriage would domesticate men in the way that heterosexual marriage does 
  26. ^ a b Wemple, Erik 25 February 2008 "Washington Times Scare Quotes Are History" Washington City Paper Retrieved 28 July 2008 
  27. ^ Harper, Robyn 6 June 2012 "When I Get Married, Will It Be a 'Gay Marriage'" Huffington Post Retrieved 28 September 2012 
  28. ^ Harper, Robyn 30 June 2012 "My Marriage Won't Be a 'Gay Marriage'" Yahoo! Archived from the original on 28 September 2012 Retrieved 28 September 2012 
  29. ^ Fedorak, Shirley A 2008 Anthropology matters! , Ont: University of Toronto Press pp Ch 11; p 174 ISBN 1442601086 
  30. ^ a b Gough, Kathleen E Jan–Jun 1959 "The Nayars and the Definition of Marriage" The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 89 1: 23–34 doi:102307/2844434 Retrieved 28 September 2012 
  31. ^ Murray, Stephen O; Roscoe, Will 2001 Boy-wives and female husbands : studies of African homosexualities 1st pbk ed New York: St Martin's ISBN 0312238290 
  32. ^ Njambi, Wairimu; O'Brien, William Spring 2001 "Revisiting "Woman-Woman Marriage": Notes on Gikuyu Women" NWSA Journal 12 1: 1–23 doi:101353/nwsa20000015 Retrieved 28 September 2012 
  33. ^ "Dictionaries take lead in redefining modern marriage" The Washington Times 24 May 2004 Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  34. ^ "Webster Makes It Official: Definition of Marriage Has Changed" American Bar Association Retrieved 28 September 2012 
  35. ^ Redman, Daniel 7 April 2009 "Noah Webster Gives His Blessing: Dictionaries recognize same-sex marriage—who knew" Slate magazine Retrieved 28 September 2012 
  36. ^ Dershowitz, Alan M 3 December 2003 "Government Should Quit the Marriage Business" Los Angeles Times Retrieved 8 March 2007 
  37. ^ "Board of Advisors" Ruth Institute Archived from the original on 4 October 2009 Retrieved 6 October 2009 
  38. ^ Morse, Jennifer Roback 20 May 2004 "Not a Social Contract" National Review Archived from the original on 29 October 2006 Retrieved 8 March 2007 
  39. ^ Kincaid, Cliff 26 February 2004 "Honest Versus Slanted Journalism" Accuracy In Media Retrieved 8 March 2007 
  40. ^ Cline, Austin "Washington Times Dismisses Gay "Marriages"" Aboutcom Retrieved 8 March 2007 
  41. ^ "The Divine Institution of Marriage" The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Retrieved 28 September 2012 
  42. ^ "Bishops discuss religious liberty, marriage, finances at annual meeting" Catholic New Service Baltimore Retrieved 24 July 2012 
  43. ^ "Marriage Protection Sunday: Churches encouraged to address 'gay marriage'" Baptist Press 19 May 2006 Retrieved 30 September 2011 
  44. ^ "Same-sex marriage and children's well-being: Research roundup" Journalist's Resource 26 June 2015 Retrieved 29 December 2015 
  45. ^ Hasin, Deborah "Lesbian, gay, bisexual individuals risk psychiatric disorders from discriminatory policies" Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health Retrieved 20 September 2012 
  46. ^ Brian Mustanski 22 March 2010 "New study suggests bans on gay marriage hurt mental health of LGB people" Psychology Today Retrieved 8 November 2010 
  47. ^ Rauch, Jonathan "For Better or Worse The Case for Gay and Straight Marriage" The New Republic via jonathanrauchcom Retrieved 20 September 2012 
  48. ^ Rauch, Jonathan 2004 Gay Marriage: Why It Is Good for Gays, Good for Straights, and Good for America New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC
  49. ^ a b c Pawelski, J G; Perrin, E C; Foy, J M; Allen, C E; Crawford, J E; Del Monte, M; Kaufman, M; Klein, J D; Smith, K; Springer, S; Tanner, J L; Vickers, D L 2006 "The Effects of Marriage, Civil Union, and Domestic Partnership Laws on the Health and Well-being of Children" Pediatrics 118 1: 349–364 doi:101542/peds2006-1279 PMID 16818585 
  50. ^ Herek, Gregory M "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective" American Psychologist, Vol 616, September 2006, 607–621
  51. ^ Contact: Elaine Justice: 4047270643 "Study Links Gay Marriage Bans to Rise in HIV infections" Emory University Retrieved 5 November 2010 
  52. ^ Peng, Handie "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Public Health and Welfare" academiaedu Retrieved 11 February 2012 
  53. ^ Francis, AM; Mialon, HM March 2010 "Tolerance and HIV" PDF Journal of Health Economics 29 2: 250–267 doi:101016/jjhealeco200911016 PMID 20036431 Retrieved 19 July 2010 
  54. ^ a b c Newport, Frank "For First Time, Majority of Americans Favor Legal Gay Marriage" Gallup Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  55. ^ "Public Opinion: Nationally" australianmarriageequalitycom Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  56. ^ "Gay Life in Estonia" globalgayzcom Archived from the original on 16 July 2012 Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  57. ^ Jowit, Juliette 12 June 2012 "Gay marriage gets ministerial approval" The Guardian London Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  58. ^ "Most Irish people support gay marriage, poll says" PinkNews 24 February 2011 Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  59. ^ "Law and Civil Rights" PollingReportcom POLLING REPORT, INC 2013 Retrieved 27 April 2013 
  60. ^ "Survey – Generations at Odds: The Millennial Generation and the Future of Gay and Lesbian Rights" Public Religion Research Institute Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  61. ^ "Pew Forum: Part 2: Gay Marriage" Pew Research Center Archived from the original on 10 September 2012 Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  62. ^ Poirier, Justine "Same-Sex Marriage: Let's Make a Change" Montréalités Justice Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  63. ^ "Data Points: Support for Legal Same-Sex Marriage" The Chronicle of Higher Education 16 March 2010 Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  64. ^ "Support for Same‐Sex Marriage in Latin America" PDF Vanderbilt University Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  65. ^ Shaw criticises Boswell's methodology and conclusions as disingenuous Shaw, Brent July 1994 "A Groom of One's Own" The New Republic: 43–48 Archived from the original on 7 May 2006 Retrieved 25 June 2009 
  66. ^ Boswell, John 1995 Same-sex unions in premodern Europe New York: Vintage Books pp 80–85 ISBN 0-679-75164-5 
  67. ^ Frier, Bruce "Roman Same-Sex Weddings from the Legal Perspective" University of Michigan Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  68. ^ Bunson, M, Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire,Infobase Publishing, 2009, p 259
  69. ^ Dio Cassius Epitome 805, 8014, 8015, 8016; Herodian Roman History 561–562 Old Translation of passage at: http://penelopeuchicagoedu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/80html http://wwwtertullianorg/fathers/herodian_05_book5htm
  70. ^ Scarre, Chris 1995 Chronicles of the Roman Emperors London: Thames and Hudson Ltd p 151 ISBN 0-500-05077-5 
  71. ^ Williams, CA, Roman Homosexuality: Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 2009, p 284
  72. ^ a b Nero missed her so greatly that, on learning of a woman who resembled her, he sent for her and kept her; but later he caused a boy of the freedmen, whom he used to call Sporus, "he formally "married" Sporus, and assigned the boy a regular dowry according to contract;" qv, Suetonius Nero 28; Dio Cassius Epitome 6228 Old Translation of passage at:http://penelopeuchicagoedu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/62html
  73. ^ Dio Cassius Epitome 6228, 6213 Old Translation of passage at: http://penelopeuchicagoedu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/62html
  74. ^ Corbett, The Roman Law of Marriage Oxford, 1969, pp 24–28; Treggiari, Roman Marriage Oxford, 1991, pp 43–49; "Marriages where the partners had conubium were marriages valid in Roman law iusta matrimonia" Compare Ulpian Tituli Ulpiani 53–5: "Conubium is the capacity to marry a wife in Roman law Roman citizens have conubium with Roman citizens, but with Latins and foreigners only if the privilege was granted There is no conubium with slaves"; compare also Gaius Institutionum 1:55–56, 67, 76–80
  75. ^ Treggiari, Roman Marriage Oxford, 1991, p 5
  76. ^ Eskridge, William N Oct 1993 "A History of Same-Sex Marriage" Virginia Law Review 79 7 The Romans may have accorded some same-sex unions the legal or cultural status of marriage 
  77. ^ Kuefler, Mathew 2007 "The Marriage Revolution in Late Antiquity: The Theodosian Code and Later Roman Marriage Law" Journal of Family History 32 4: 343–370 doi:101177/0363199007304424 
  78. ^ MJA "El primer matrimonio homosexual de Galicia se ofició en 1061 en Rairiz de Veiga" Retrieved 27 February 2011 
  79. ^ "How Same-Sex Marriage Came to Be" March–April 2013 Retrieved 28 March 2015 
  80. ^ "The secret history of same-sex marriage" The Guardian 23 January 2015 Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  81. ^ Rule, Sheila 2 October 1989 "Rights for Gay Couples in Denmark" New York Times Retrieved 19 August 2013 
  82. ^ "Same-sex marriage around the world" CBC News Toronto 26 May 2009 Retrieved 6 October 2009 
  83. ^ "Legislative record of the same-sex marriage bill in Dutch" senaatbe Belgian Senate Retrieved 25 September 2012  and "Legislative record of the same-sex marriage bill in French" senaatbe Belgian Senate Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  84. ^ "Portugal's president signs gay marriage bill" CBC News Toronto Associated Press 17 May 2010 Retrieved 5 November 2010 
  85. ^ "Argentina legalizes same-sex marriage" CNN Buenos Aires CNN 16 July 2010 Retrieved 7 April 2016 
  86. ^ "Colombia Legalizes Gay Marriage, Huge Victory for LGBTI Rights" teleSUR Caracas, Venezuela Reuters 7 April 2016 Retrieved 7 April 2016 
  87. ^ "Nepal approves same-sex marriage" Hindustan Times New Delhi 19 November 2008 Retrieved 5 November 2010 
  88. ^ a b Native American tribes challenge Oklahoma gay marriage ban, Al Jazeera, 22 October 2013
  89. ^ a b Stuart, Hunter 22 October 2013 "Gay Couple Married In Oklahoma: Jason Pickel, Darren Black Bear Tie The Knot Despite State Ban" Huffingtonpostcom Retrieved 6 January 2014 
  90. ^ a b "HUDOC - European Court of Human Rights" Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  91. ^ Antoine Buyse 24 June 2010 "Strasbourg court rules that states are not obliged to allow gay marriage" The Guardian Retrieved 8 November 2013 
  92. ^ Christopher Booker 9 February 2013 "Gay marriage: the French connection" The Telegraph London Retrieved 8 November 2013 
  93. ^ Jamie Clarke 6 June 2013 "Gay marriage politically, rather than ethically motivated" So So Gay So So Gay Ltd Retrieved 8 November 2013 
  94. ^ "Sir Nicholas Bratza" Press Complaints Commission Press Complaints Commission 2013 Retrieved 8 November 2013 
  95. ^ "European Convention on Human Rights" PDF ECHRcoeint European Court of Human Rights Archived from the original PDF on 3 July 2014 Retrieved 25 July 2015 
  96. ^ "UKIP and Tories abstain on EU motion to recognise same-sex marriage" PinkNews Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  97. ^ "Texts adopted - Thursday, 12 March 2015 - Annual report on human rights and democracy in the world 2013 and the EU policy on the matter - P8_TA-PROV20150076" Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  98. ^ "Annual report on human rights and democracy in the world 2013 and the EU policy on the matter" Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  99. ^ "Church of England's centuries-old teaching on marriage 'up for discussion' to accommodate same-sex couples" telegraphcouk 
  100. ^ Wall, Allan "Mexican Supreme Court Advances Gay Marriage Agenda" News With Views Retrieved 9 February 2012 The ruling 5 August 2010, upheld the Mexico City same-sex marriage law as being constitutional The vote on that ruling was 8 to 2 Five days latethe Supreme Courtdecreed that same-sex marriages performed in Mexico City are valid marriages throughout all of Mexico 
  101. ^ a b Randal C Archibold & Paulina Villegas 14 June 2015 "With Little Fanfare, Mexican Supreme Court Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage" New York Times Retrieved 16 June 2015 
  102. ^ "Israeli Minister backs down on definition of marriage" Archived from the original on 2007-09-14 
  103. ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei 16 July 2010 "Argentina Approves Gay Marriage, in a First for Region" The New York Times Retrieved 9 February 2012 
  104. ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei 13 July 2010 "Argentina Senate to Vote on Gay Marriage" The New York Times 
  105. ^ "Cristina Kirchner signs bill legalizing same-sex couples' marriage" mercopresscom 
  106. ^ "Belgium legalizes gay marriage" UPI 31 January 2003 
  107. ^ "Belgium moves to allow gay adoption" Euronews 2 December 2005 
  108. ^ "Brazil's supreme court recognizes gay partnerships" Reuters 5 May 2011 Retrieved 16 February 2012 
  109. ^ "Brazilian judge gives male couple approval for what court says is country's first gay marriage" The Washington Post 27 June 2011 Archived from the original on 2 July 2011 
  110. ^ "Provimento Conjunto trata de união homoafetiva" Tribunal de Justiça do Estado da Bahia official web site of the state supreme court Archived from the original on 27 September 2013 
  111. ^ "Bahia já pode oficializar casamento homoafetivo" Bahia24/7 in Portuguese 27 November 2012 Retrieved 27 November 2012 
  112. ^ "Norma do TJ obriga cartórios de SP a registrar casamento gay" Folha de S Paulo 19 December 2012 
  113. ^ "CNJ obriga cartórios a celebrar casamento entre homossexuais" Estadaocombr 14 May 2013 Retrieved 5 April 2014 
  114. ^ "G1 - Decisão do CNJ obriga cartórios a fazer casamento homossexual - notícias em Política" Política Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  115. ^ "Jornal do Brasil" Jornal do Brasil Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  116. ^ Portuguese DIÁRIO DA JUSTIÇA CONSELHO NACIONAL DE JUSTIÇA Edição nº 89/2013
  117. ^ Portuguese Regra que obriga cartórios a fazer casamento gay vale a partir do dia 16
  118. ^ Almost half of Brazilian internet users support gay marriage – The Christian Post in Portuguese Portuguese
  119. ^ 62% of people aren't approving of gay marriage, according to poll – Telelistas Portuguese
  120. ^ A majority of Brazilians is against same-sex marriage and regards church as the most trustworthy institution, reveals research – Gospel+ Portuguese
  121. ^ Tiempo, Casa Editorial El "Corte Constitucional da el sí definitivo y avala el matrimonio gay - Justicia - El Tiempo" eltiempocom 
  122. ^ "Colombia legalizes same-sex marriage" Deutsche Welle 28 April 2016 
  123. ^ "Corte legaliza el matrimonio entre parejas del mismo sexo" W Radio 28 April 2016 
  124. ^ "Histórico: Colombia tiene matrimonio homosexual" El Tiempo 7 April 2016 
  125. ^ "Colombia says 'I do' to gay marriage" The City Paper Bogota 7 April 2016 
  126. ^ "Colombia high court rules in favor of same-sex marriage" Washington Blade 7 April 2016 
  127. ^ "Colombia Legalizes Gay Marriage, Huge Victory for LGBTI Rights" TeleSur English 7 April 2016 
  128. ^ Decision C-029 of 2009
  129. ^ Colombian court confirms equal rights for same-sex couples, Pink News, 30 January 2009
  130. ^ DECISION C-577/11 The homosexuals have the right to form a family
  131. ^ "Colombian court says Congress must decide on gay marriage" CNN 27 July 2011 
  132. ^ Spanish "Matrimonio gay" empieza a ser tramitado en Senado
  133. ^ "Gay marriage bill passes first hurdle - Colombia Politics" Colombia Politics Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  134. ^ Spanish Por primera vez una comisión del Congreso aprueba el matrimonio gay
  135. ^ "Colombia lawmakers reject controversial gay marriage bill" Reuters 24 April 2013 
  136. ^ Spanish Juez aplica norma del matrimonio civil a pareja gay y cita a contrayentes con dos testigos Retrieved 12 July 2013
  137. ^ "Carlos y Gonzalo, la primera pareja gay "civilmente casada", pero sin matrimonio" in Spanish RCN Radio 2013-07-24 Retrieved 2014-04-05 
  138. ^ Andrew Potts 2013-10-01 "Judges allow first same-sex marriages in Colombia" Gay Star News Retrieved 2014-04-05 
  139. ^ "Rechazan tutela que tumbaba primer matrimonio gay en el país" EltiempoCom 2013-10-24 Retrieved 2014-04-05 
  140. ^ "CM& la noticia" Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  141. ^ Sanners, Peter 7 June 2012 "Gay marriage legalised" The Copenhagen Post Archived from the original on 18 August 2012 Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  142. ^ The Registered Partnership Act
  143. ^ Rule, Sheila 2 October 1989 "Rights for Gay Couples in Denmark" The New York Times Retrieved 7 June 2012
  144. ^ Danish
  145. ^ "Parliament in Greenland unanimously approves same-sex marriage" Pink News 27 May 2015 
  146. ^ "Første homoseksuelle par viet i kirken" Greenlandic Bradcasting Corporation 1 April 2016 Archived from the original on 2 April 2016 
  147. ^ wwwknassarcom, Knassar - the new media web partner "Hjúnarbandslógin løgd fyri tingið - Føroyski portalurin - portalfo" portalfo 
  148. ^ Faroese Dagsskráin 2015 - Týsdagur, 24 November 2015, kl 10:00
  149. ^ Gregersen, Árni 27 April 2016 "Uppskot um at samkynd kunnu giftast samtykt" in Faroese info Retrieved 27 April 2016 
  150. ^ "Faroe Islands approves same-sex unions" EUobserver 28 April 2016 Retrieved 28 April 2016 
  151. ^ "Løgtingið" logtingfo 
  152. ^ "Faroe Islands legalizes same-sex marriage" SDGLNcom 30 April 2016 
  153. ^ Faroese 19/2015 Uppskot til rikislógartilmæli um at seta í gildi fyri Føroyar partar av broytingum í hjúnabandslógini og rættarvirknaðarlógini
  154. ^ Faroese Hjúnarbandslógin løgd fyri tingið
  155. ^ a b "Finnish Parliament approves same-sex marriage" Yle 28 November 2014 Retrieved 28 November 2014 
  156. ^ "Gender-Neutral Marriage Law Possible by 2012" Finnish Broadcasting Company Retrieved 1 October 2010 
  157. ^ McCormick, Joseph Patrick 1 March 2013 "Finland: Parliamentary committee narrowly rejects equal marriage bill" PinkNewscouk web Retrieved 10 August 2013 
  158. ^ "Petitioners take gay marriage bill to Parliament" Yle Retrieved 11 April 2013 
  159. ^ "Initiative for equal Marriage Act presented to Parliament" Helsinki Times 13 December 2013 
  160. ^ "Torstain täysitunnossa kansalaisaloite tasa-arvoisesta avioliittolaista" in Finnish Parliament of Finland 20 February 2014 Retrieved 20 February 2014 
  161. ^ "Eduskunnan työjärjestys" in Finnish Ministry of Justice of Finland Retrieved 20 February 2014 
  162. ^ "Legal committee votes against gay marriage" Yle 25 June 2014 
  163. ^ "Second vote approval of gender-neutral marriage bill" Yle 12 December 2014 
  164. ^ "President signs gender-neutral marriage law" Yle 20 February 2015 Retrieved 24 February 2015 
  165. ^ "Gay Marriage Will Soon Become Legal in France, Big Win for LGBT Rights in Europe" AFP Archived from the original on 28 December 2012 Retrieved 3 August 2013 
  166. ^ "France's parliament passes gay marriage bill" CBC News 12 February 2013 Retrieved 24 April 2013 
  167. ^ "French senate votes to legalise gay marriage" BBC News 12 April 2013 Retrieved 24 April 2013 
  168. ^ "Same-sex marriage: French parliament approves new law" BBC News Europe 23 April 2013 Retrieved 23 April 2013 
  169. ^ Lesur, Lionel; Lisa A Linsky; McDermott Will & Emery 13 June 2013 "France Allows Same-Sex Marriages" The National Law Review Retrieved 20 June 2013 
  170. ^ "Hollande calls for calm as gay marriage opponents vow to fight on in France" Euronews 24 April 2013 Retrieved 25 April 2013 
  171. ^ "Décision n° 2010–92 QPC du 28 janvier 2011" Les décisions Conseil Constitutionel Retrieved 24 April 2013 
  172. ^ Communiqué de presse – 2013-669 DC – Loi ouvrant le mariage aux couples de personnes de même sexe, Constitutional Council of France, retrieved on 17 May 2013
  173. ^ "Iceland passes gay marriage law in unanimous vote" Reuters 11 June 2010 Retrieved 16 July 2010 
  174. ^ "New gay marriage law in Iceland comes into force" Icenews 28 June 2010 Retrieved 16 July 2010 
  175. ^ "Iceland PM weds as gay marriage legalised" The Daily Telegraph London 28 June 2010 
  176. ^ "President signs same-sex marriage into Constitution" The Irish Times 29 August 2015 Retrieved 22 September 2015 
  177. ^ "Ireland says Yes to same-sex marriage" RTE 23 May 2015 
  178. ^ "Same-sex marriage is now legal in Republic of Ireland" BBC News 16 November 2015 
  179. ^ "Partnership laws come into force" The Irish Times 1 January 2011 
  180. ^ "Feu vert pour le mariage gay au Luxembourg" Chamber of Deputies Luxembourg 18 June 2014 Retrieved 18 June 2014 
  181. ^ French Mémorial A n° 125 de 2014
  182. ^ "Luxemburger Wort" Wortlu Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  183. ^ "Chroniclelu" Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  184. ^ "Mexico City's gay marriage law takes effect" MSNBC Associated Press 4 March 2010 Retrieved 6 March 2010 
  185. ^ "Supreme court rules gay weddings valid in all Mexico" BBC News 10 August 2010 
  186. ^ Santana, Rosa 17 April 2012 "Anula gobernador de Quintana Roo dos bodas gay; lo acusan de homofóbico" Proceso in Spanish Comunicación e Información, SA de CV Retrieved 20 April 2012 
  187. ^ Varillas, Adriana 3 May 2012 "Revocan anulación de bodas gay en QRoo" El Universal in Spanish Retrieved 13 June 2012 
  188. ^ "Aprueban matrimonios gay en Coahuila" Vangardiacommx 1 September 2014 
  189. ^ "First Gay Couple Marries In Coahuila, Mexico" On Top Magazine 21 September 2014 
  190. ^ Mexico state of Chihuahua officially approves same-sex marriage, 2015-06-12 
  191. ^ Mexican state to allow same-sex marriage, 2015-06-12 
  192. ^ "Mexico supreme court says state laws limiting marriage to man and woman unconstitutional" Minneapolis Star Tribune 12 June 2015 Archived from the original on 14 June 2015 
  193. ^ Mexico avalara matrimonio gay partir lunes, 2015-06-19 
  194. ^ La Jornada "A partir de julio, en Guerrero se permitirá casarse a parejas del mismo sexo" Lajornadaguerrerocommx Retrieved 2015-07-03 
  195. ^ Trujillo, Javier 29 June 2015 "Invitan a boda colectiva del mismo sexo en Acapulco" in Spanish Acapulco, Mexico: Milenio Retrieved 30 June 2015 
  196. ^ "Se casan 20 parejas en boda colectiva de personas del mismo sexo en Guerrero" in Spanish Acapulco, Mexico: El Sur 11 July 2015 Retrieved 11 July 2015 
  197. ^ "Inválidos 20 matrimonios gays en Acapulco: Registro Civil - El Big Data" elbigdatamx 
  198. ^ Spanish Pueden casarse parejas del mismo sexo en las bodas del Día del Amor, informa el Registro Civil
  199. ^ "Aprueba el Congreso de Nayarit los matrimonios gay" in Spanish La Jornada 17 December 2015 Retrieved 18 December 2015 
  200. ^ Jervis, Joe 26 January 2016 "MEXICO: Same-Sex Marriage Legalized In Jalisco State After Unanimous Ruling By Supreme Court" joemygodcom 
  201. ^ "Mexico: Campeche Becomes 7th Mexican State with Same-Sex Marriage" The Perchy Bird Blog 10 May 2016 
  202. ^ "Aprueban en el Congreso de Michoacán el matrimonio igualitario" cronicacommx 
  203. ^ "Aprueba Morelos matrimonio igualitario" reformacom 
  204. ^ Spanish DECRETO No 103 Colima, Col, Sábado 11 de Junio del año 2016
  205. ^ "Mexico President Backs Same-Sex Marriage Nationwide" CNN 18 May 2016 Retrieved 18 May 2016 
  206. ^ "Same-Sex Dutch Couples Gain Marriage and Adoption Rights" The New York Times 20 December 2000 Retrieved 30 September 2011 
  207. ^ "Aanpassingswet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba" in Dutch Government of the Netherlands 1 September 2010 Retrieved 18 December 2010 
  208. ^ Hartevelt, John; Levy, Dayna 14 May 2012 "MP drafting gay marriage bill" Fairfax media via Stuffconz Retrieved 19 April 2013 
  209. ^ "Marriage Definition of Marriage Amendment Bill – Proposed Members' Bills – Legislation" New Zealand Parliament 30 May 2012 Retrieved 19 April 2013 
  210. ^ Shuttleworth, Kate; Young, Audrey 29 August 2012 "Marriage bill passes first reading" The New Zealand Herald Retrieved 19 April 2013 
  211. ^ Watkins, Tracy 14 March 2013 "Passions fly as MPs vote on gay marriage" Fairfax Media via Stuffconz Retrieved 19 April 2013 
  212. ^ "NZ legalises same-sex marriage" ABC News Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  213. ^ "Gay marriage bill passed" Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  214. ^ "Marriage legislation becomes law" Radio New Zealand 19 April 2013 Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  215. ^ "Gay marriage becomes a reality" Newstalk ZB 19 August 2013 Retrieved 19 August 2013 
  216. ^ "Norway adopts gay marriage law" Agence France-Presse via Google 11 June 2008 Archived from the original on 13 September 2012 Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  217. ^ "New law in Norway grants gay couples marriage rights" USA Today Washington DC 17 June 2008 Retrieved 30 September 2011 
  218. ^ "Historia con Mapas - Atlas & Maps" Archived from the original on 18 May 2015 Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  219. ^ "Same-sex marriage in Portugal" Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  220. ^ Lusa News 24 February 2012 "GAY RIGHTS: LAWMAKERS DEFEAT ADOPTION BILL FOR COUPLES" Portugal Daily View Portugal Daily View Retrieved 24 October 2013 
  221. ^ Portugal Expands Adoption Rights for Gay Couples, ABC News, The Associated Press, 17 May 2013
  222. ^ "Portugal allows limited adoption rights for same-sex gay couples" LGBTQ Nation Associated Press 17 May 2013 Retrieved 25 July 2015 
  223. ^ "Same-sex couples win adoption rights for partners' children in Portugal" GayStarNews 17 May 2013 Retrieved 25 July 2015 
  224. ^ Duffy, Nick 11 January 2015 "Portugal: Opposition party to table same-sex adoption bill" Pink News Retrieved 25 July 2015 
  225. ^ "Portuguese parliament votes against gay couples adopting" Agence France-Presse MSN News 22 January 2015 Retrieved 25 July 2015 
  226. ^ News, ABC "International News: Latest Headlines, Video and Photographs from Around the World -- People, Places, Crisis, Conflict, Culture, Change, Analysis and Trends" gocom 
  227. ^ "Portuguese parliament backs adoption by gay couples" yahoocom 
  228. ^ "Portugal just equalised its adoption laws for gay couples" pinknewscouk 
  229. ^ "Spain approves liberal gay marriage law" St Petersburg Times 1 July 2005 Retrieved 8 January 2007 
  230. ^ Giles, Ciaran 21 April 2005 "Spain: Gay marriage bill clears hurdle" Planetoutcom Archived from the original on 27 December 2007 Retrieved 22 December 2006 
  231. ^ "Spain's new government to legalize gay marriage" SignonSanDiegocom Reuters 15 April 2004 Archived from the original on 13 October 2009 Retrieved 14 December 2009 
  232. ^ "Disposiciones Generales" PDF in Spanish Boletin Oficial del Estado 2 June 2005 Retrieved 8 January 2007 
  233. ^ "The Global Divide on Homosexuality" Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project 4 June 2013 Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  234. ^ Dazed "Spain is the world's most LGBT-friendly country" Dazed Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  235. ^ "Sweden allows same-sex marriage" BBC News 2 April 2009 
  236. ^ "Church of Sweden says yes to gay marriage" The Local 22 October 2009 Archived from the original on 11 January 2012 Retrieved 24 July 2012 
  237. ^ Green, Jessica 16 September 2011 "Government proposes introducing gay marriage after Cameron intervention" Pink News Retrieved 28 September 2012 
  238. ^ "Religious groups urge David Cameron to maintain equal marriage support" PinkNews Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  239. ^ Travis, Alan 17 February 2011 "Gay marriages and heterosexual civil partnerships may soon be welcomed" The Guardian London Retrieved 18 February 2011 
  240. ^ "Equal marriage consultation" Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  241. ^ "Gay marriage: David Cameron backs church role" BBC News Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  242. ^ Andrew Sparrow 5 February 2013 "MPs vote overwhelmingly in favour of gay marriage" London: Guardian Retrieved 5 February 2013 
  243. ^ "Gay marriage: Commons passes Cameron's plan" BBC News 21 May 2013 Retrieved 21 May 2013 
  244. ^ "Lords Hansard text for 4 Jun 201304 Jun 2013 pt 0002" Publicationsparliamentuk 4 June 2013 Retrieved 6 January 2014 
  245. ^ a b "Same-sex marriage becomes law in England and Wales" BBC News 17 July 2013 Retrieved 17 July 2013 
  246. ^ "Same-sex marriage now legal as first couples wed" BBC News Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  247. ^ "Consultation sees 50,000 responses" The Scotsman Edinburgh 10 December 2011 Retrieved 9 February 2012 
  248. ^ "Scottish Parliament Website" Scottish Government Retrieved 9 February 2012 
  249. ^ "Same sex marriage" Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  250. ^ "Scotland's gay marriage bill published at Holyrood" BBC News Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  251. ^ Andrew Woodcock 16 July 2013 "Gay marriage moves a step closer in UK" The Australian Retrieved 16 July 2013 
  252. ^ "Scotland's same-sex marriage bill is passed" BBC News Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  253. ^ "Thursday 13 March 2014 – Announcements – Scottish Parliament" scottishparliamentuk 13 March 2014 
  254. ^ "Scotland's same-sex marriage bill is passed" BBC News 4 February 2014 Retrieved 14 March 2014 
  255. ^ "Same-sex marriage becomes legal in Scotland" Scotsman 16 December 2014 
  256. ^ "Scotland's First Same-Sex Marriages To Take Place On Hogmanay" BuzzFeed Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  257. ^ "Malcolm Brown and Joe Schofield will be first married gay couple - Stirling & Central - News" STV News Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  258. ^ Gumbel, Andrew "The Great Undoing" The Advocate Retrieved 9 July 2012 
  259. ^ "Same Sex Marriage Laws – History" National Conference of State Legislatures Retrieved 1 August 2012 
  260. ^ LAX, JEFFREY R August 2009 "Gay Rights in the States: Public Opinion and Policy Responsiveness" PDF American Political Science Review 103 3: 67–86 doi:101017/S0003055409990050 Retrieved 20 December 2011 
  261. ^ Silver, Nate 9 May 2012 "Support for Gay Marriage Outweighs Opposition in Polls" New York Times Retrieved 28 October 2012 
  262. ^ Belluck, Oam 17 May 2004 "With Festive Mood, Gay Weddings Begin in Massachusetts" New York Times Retrieved 11 January 2014 
  263. ^ "US CODE: Title 1,7 Definition of "marriage" and "spouse"" Cornell University 7 April 2010 Retrieved 5 November 2010 
  264. ^ Swaine, Jon 9 May 2012 "Barack Obama endorses gay marriage" The Daily Telegraph London Retrieved 9 April 2013 
  265. ^ "Obama Affirms Support for Same-Sex Marriage" ABC News 9 May 2012 
  266. ^ Gast, Phil 9 May 2012 "Obama announces he supports same-sex marriage" CNN Retrieved 10 May 2012 
  267. ^ Nakamura, David 19 July 2011 "Obama backs bill to repeal Defense of Marriage Act" The Washington Post Retrieved 25 July 2015 
  268. ^ Harris, Chris 1 November 2008 "Did Barack Obama Answer Your Question" MTV Retrieved 1 February 2010 
  269. ^ "North Carolina Gay Marriage Ban: Obama Says He's 'Disappointed'" The Huffington Post Associated Press 8 May 2012 Retrieved 23 July 2012 
  270. ^ Savage, Charlie 23 February 2011 "Obama Shifts Course on Defense of Marriage Act" The New York Times 
  271. ^ Shear, Michael D 25 April 2011 "Law Firm Backs Out of Defending Marriage Act" The Caucus New York Times blog 
  272. ^ "ABC News/Washington Post poll: Strong Support for Gay Marriage Now Exceeds Strong Opposition – 23 May 2012" PDF Retrieved 16 September 2012 
  273. ^ "CNN Opinion Research – May 29–31, 2012" PDF Retrieved 16 September 2012 
  274. ^ Jacobs, Deborah L 7 November 2012 "Gay Marriage Scores Victories In All Four States That Considered It, But Tough Road Lies Ahead" Forbes Retrieved 23 December 2012 
  275. ^ "Opinions recap: Giant step for gay marriage" SCOTUSblog 26 June 2013 Retrieved 6 January 2014 
  276. ^ "US 21st country to allow same-sex marriage nationwide" CNN 26 June 2015 
  277. ^ "Certiorari Denied" PDF 
  278. ^ Liptak, Adam 6 October 2014 "Supreme Court Clears Way for Gay Marriage in 5 States" New York Times Retrieved 6 October 2014 
  279. ^ Wolf, Richard 26 June 2015 "Supreme Court strikes down bans on same-sex marriage" USA Today Retrieved 26 June 2015 
  280. ^ Liptak, Adam 26 June 2015 "Gay Marriage Backers Win Supreme Court Victory" nytimescom Retrieved 26 June 2015 
  281. ^ Wolf, Richard 26 June 2015 "Timeline: Same-sex marriage through the years" USA TODAY 
  282. ^ "Justice Ginsburg to Officiate at Same-Sex Wedding" Associated Press Archived from the original on 3 September 2013 Retrieved 30 August 2013 
  283. ^ "Michael Kaiser—Newly Married by Justice Ginsburg—on Love, Marriage, and What's Coming Up for the Kennedy Center" 4 September 2013 
  284. ^ "Support for same-sex marriage hits new high; half say Constitution guarantees right" The Washington Post 5 March 2014 Retrieved 5 April 2014 
  285. ^ "Diputados aprobó el matrimonio igualitario Pasada la mediano" Noticias in Spanish Diario UNoticias 12 December 2012 Retrieved 31 July 2013 
  286. ^ "Same-sex marriage bill comes into force in Uruguay" BBC News Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  287. ^ "El PS presenta una proposició de llei per permetre el matrimoni gai" in Catalan Diari Bondia 31 March 2014 Retrieved 26 April 2014 
  288. ^ "El PS entra una proposició de llei per regular el matrimoni homosexual" in Catalan Ràdio i Televisió d'Andorra 31 March 2014 Retrieved 26 April 2014 
  289. ^ Catalan DA diu NO al matrimoni gai
  290. ^ Catalan DA rebutja el text del PS sobre el matrimoni gai i en fa un d’alternatiu
  291. ^ Adam Withnall 12 December 2013 "Australia: Gay marriage law reversed by high court less than a week after first weddings" The Independent London Retrieved 15 December 2013 
  292. ^ "Nationalrat: Grüne bringen Antrag zur Ehe-Öffnung für Lesben und Schwule ein" Thinkoutsideyourboxnet 20 November 2013 
  293. ^ German Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, Änderung
  294. ^ German Abstimmung über Ehe-Öffnung ohne Klubzwang
  295. ^ "MPs approve historic Human Rights Act changes | The Royal Gazette:Bermuda Politics" The Royal Gazette Retrieved 2016-04-11 
  296. ^ "Church leaders seek freedom to discriminate against homosexuals on religious grounds | The Royal Gazette:Bermuda News" The Royal Gazette Retrieved 2016-10-07 
  297. ^ "Preserve Marriage in Bermuda - Home" wwwpreservemarriagebm Retrieved 2016-04-11 
  298. ^ "Human Rights concern over new law | The Royal Gazette:Bermuda Politics" The Royal Gazette Retrieved 2016-04-11 
  299. ^ "House: Same-sex referendum tabled by Dunkley | The Royal Gazette:Bermuda Politics" The Royal Gazette Retrieved 2016-04-11 
  300. ^ "Decision To Hold Referendum Is 'Disappointing' - Bernewscom" Bernewscom Retrieved 2016-04-11 
  301. ^ "Voters roundly reject same-sex marriage - The Royal Gazette:Bermuda News" royalgazettecom 
  302. ^ "Same-sex couples set for court fight - The Royal Gazette:Bermuda Same-Sex Referendum - Mobile" royalgazettecom 
  303. ^ "Government to defend refusal to marry gay couple - The Royal Gazette:Bermuda Court" royalgazettecom 
  304. ^ Morgan, Joe 12 March 2014 "Chile expected to legalize gay marriage" Gay Star News Retrieved 10 April 2014 
  305. ^ "Estudio Nacional de Opinión Pública, Junio–Julio 2011 Tema especial: Educación" Cepchilecl Archived from the original on 16 January 2014 Retrieved 11 April 2014 
  306. ^ "El proyecto de ley de matrimonio igualitario llega al Parlamento de Chile" Cáscara Amarga 2014-12-11 Retrieved 2014-12-11 
  307. ^ "Chile's President Plans to Send Gay Marriage Bill to Congress in 2017" VOA & Reuters 21 September 2016 
  308. ^ "Chile recognises same-sex civil unions" BBCcom BBC News 
  309. ^ Esposito, Anthony "Socially-conservative Chile approves civil unions" Reuters Retrieved 28 January 2015 
  310. ^ Derechos de parejas homosexuales
  311. ^ "政协发言人称同性婚姻太超前 李银河提案再受挫_新闻中心_新浪网" Newssinacomcn Retrieved 22 May 2012 
  312. ^ "Chinese Court Rules Against Gay Couple Seeking To Get Married" The Two-Way 13 April 2016 
  313. ^ SpanishProyecto de ley N°19508
  314. ^ Spanish Proyecto de organizaciones sociales para Matrimonio Igualitario ya está en la Asamblea Legislativa
  315. ^ Spanish 12 Diputados respaldan proyecto de ley para permitir matrimonio gay
  316. ^ Spanish Proyecto de Ley Matrimonio Igualitario by Frente Por los Derechos Igualitarios
  317. ^ "Sala IV admite para estudio 2 recursos de inconstitucionalidad contra prohibición de matrimonio gay - AmeliaRuedacom" ameliaruedacom 
  318. ^ Bird, The Perchy 19 August 2016 "Same-sex Marriage Lawsuit Filed in El Salvador" wordpresscom 
  319. ^ "Lesbian marriages in India" despardescom Archived from the original on 3 February 2014 Retrieved 11 April 2014 
  320. ^ Joe Morgan 11 April 2014 "India 'party of the people' promises to legalize gay sex, marriage" Gay Star News Retrieved 11 April 2014 
  321. ^ Harkov, Lahav 16 May 2012 "Knesset rejects marriage equality bill" The Jerusalem Post Retrieved 28 May 2012 
  322. ^ "NGO petitions High Court to allow same-sex marriage in Israel" The Jerusalem Post 2 November 2015 
  323. ^ "Grosseto, il tribunale al Comune: 'Riconoscete quel matrimonio gay'" La Repubblica in Italian 9 April 2014 Retrieved 9 April 2014 
  324. ^ "Nozze gay all'estero, c'è la firma del sindaco: saranno trascritte in Comune" La Repubblica in Italian 22 July 2014 Retrieved 22 July 2014 
  325. ^ "Matrimoni gay, via alle trascrizioni: Roberto e Miguel la prima coppia" La Repubblica in Italian 25 June 2014 Retrieved 25 June 2014 
  326. ^ "Via libera del sindaco Barnini ai matrimoni gay Emanata una direttiva" in Italian Gonewsit 15 September 2014 Retrieved 15 September 2014 
  327. ^ "Matrimoni gay presto possibili a Pordenone" Messaggero Veneto in Italian 15 September 2014 Retrieved 15 September 2014 
  328. ^ "Udine dice sì alla trascrizione dei matrimoni gay" in Italian IlFriuliit 29 September 2014 Retrieved 29 September 2014 
  329. ^ "Primo sì al registro delle nozze gay" Corriere Fiorentino in Italian 2 October 2014 Retrieved 2 October 2014 
  330. ^ "Matrimoni gay, c'è l'ok del consiglio comunale di Piombino" in Italian Il Tirreno 2 October 2014 Retrieved 2 October 2014 
  331. ^ "è festa a Bagheria: trascritto il primo matrimonio gay" Palermo Today in Italian 13 November 2014 Retrieved 13 November 2014 
  332. ^ "Nozze gay all'estero, prime richieste di trascrizione a Milano: 'Pisapia, basta chiacchiere'" La Repubblica in Italian 22 September 2014 Retrieved 22 September 2014 
  333. ^ "Nozze gay: il 54% degli italiani è favorevole, sondaggio Datamonitor" in Italian L'Huffington Post 7 January 2013 Retrieved 7 January 2013 
  334. ^ French Enquête sur la droitisation des opinions publiques européennes
  335. ^ "Nozze gay, per la prima volta oltre la metà degli italiani dice sì" in Italian La Repubblica 2014-10-12 
  336. ^ "Unioni civili, Camera approva: è legge Renzi: "Battaglia da fare senza contare voti"" in Italian La Repubblica 2016-05-11 Retrieved 2016-05-11 
  337. ^ The Constitution of Japan Tokyo 3 November 1946 Retrieved 4 June 2015 
  338. ^ "Majority of Japanese Support Same-Sex Marriage, Poll Shows" Bloomberg 29 November 2015 
  339. ^ "Supreme Court rules same-sex marriage request will be considered" Public broadcasting of Latvia 27 May 2016 
  340. ^ a b "Aġġornat: Ryan u Jaime jirreġistraw l-ewwel żwieġ gay f'Malta - TVM" TVM Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  341. ^ "Nepal charter to grant gay rights" Hindustan Times 19 January 2010 Archived from the original on 23 January 2010 Retrieved 1 February 2010 
  342. ^ Nelson, Dean 19 January 2010 "Nepal 'to stage gay weddings on Everest'" The Daily Telegraph London Retrieved 1 February 2010 
  343. ^ Chapagain, Kiran; Yardley, Jim 31 May 2012 "Legislature in Nepal Disbands in Failure" The New York Times Retrieved 1 June 2012 
  344. ^ "'Love is love in communist movement'" Inquirernet Retrieved 19 July 2016 
  345. ^ "Same-sex marriage legalization eyed in PH - News" asianjournalcom 
  346. ^ "BODNAR, SEARS, LEGIERSKI, LISICKI: Małżeństwa par jednopłciowych Nowy etap" in Polish Kultura Liberalna Retrieved 3 July 2015 
  347. ^ "Dlaczego nie małżeństwa Sąd nad homofobią" in Polish Ruch LGBT Retrieved 3 July 2015 
  348. ^ Feliksiak, Michał February 2013 "Stosunek do praw gejów i lesbijek oraz związków partnerskich" PDF Centrum Badania Opinii Społecznej Retrieved 30 June 2014 
  349. ^ "Pobudniki referenduma uspeli, sprememba zakona o zakonski zvezi zavrnjena" in Slovenian 20 December 2015 Retrieved 20 December 2015 
  350. ^ "South Korean court rejects film director's same-sex marriage case" The Guardian 25 May 2016 
  351. ^ Duffy, Nick 26 May 2016 "South Korea set for more court battles over same-sex marriage ban" Pink News 
  352. ^ French 13468 – Initiative parlementaire Mariage civil pour tous, Swiss Parliament, retrieved 18 June 2014
  353. ^ French Entrée en matière sur le projet de loi sur les avoirs de potentats, National Council, retrieved 20 February 2015
  354. ^ "Ständerat sagt Ja zur Homo-Ehe" Blickch 1 September 2015 
  355. ^ French , ifop, retrieved 18 June 2014
  356. ^ German Mehrheit der Schweizer für Ehe zwischen Homosexuellen, blickch, retrieved on 22 February 2015
  357. ^ German 71 Prozent der Schweizer für Homo-Ehe, sonntagszeitungch, retrieved on 22 February 20152015
  358. ^ French Rapport du Conseil fédéral - Modernisation du droit de la famille, Federal Department of Justice and Police, retrieved on 27 May 2015
  359. ^ French Sommaruga espère que les homosexuels pourront bientôt se marier, L'Hebdo, retrieved on 27 May 2015
  360. ^ "Eidgenössische Volksinitiative 'Für Ehe und Familie - gegen die Heiratsstrafe'" adminch 
  361. ^ Arrêté fédéral concernant l’initiative populaire «Pour le couple et la famille – Non à la pénalisation du mariage», adminch
  362. ^ Bundesrat gegen CVP-Initiative, 18 November 2015, queerch
  363. ^ Bundesrat lanciert Abstimmungskampf zur Volksinitiative gegen die «Heiratsstrafe», 17 November 2015, adminch
  364. ^ Kriminelle Ausländer, Gotthard und Heiratsstrafe, 7 October 2014, NZZ
  365. ^ Tax break for married couples rejected, 28 February 2016, Swissinfoch
  366. ^ Lii Wen 2014-12-21 "Gay marriage proposal set for review" Taipei Times Retrieved 2014-12-21 
  367. ^ "Nearly two thirds of Taiwan supports marriage equality, survey finds" PinkNews 30 November 2015 
  368. ^ "Watch: Taiwan presidential frontrunner officially endorses marriage equality" gaystarnewscom 2 November 2015 
  369. ^ "Thai marriage equality bill unable to proceed due to political crisis" LGBT Weekly 10 April 2014 Retrieved 24 April 2014 
  370. ^ "Same-sex marriage may come true under Thai junta" Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  371. ^ "BDP'nin eşcinsel evlilik isteği tartışılıyor" Haber10 Retrieved 24 July 2012 
  372. ^ GL, Kaos "LGBT Initiative from Prime Minister Erdoğan!" ILGA Europe Archived from the original on 24 July 2012 Retrieved 24 July 2012 
  373. ^ "Bekâret ve eşcinsellik" Radikal Retrieved 10 February 2013 
  374. ^ "Türkiye'nin yüzde 80'i eşcinsel evliliğe karşı" İhlas Haber Ajansı in Turkish 22 July 2015 
  375. ^ "The Struggle isn't Over": Venezuela Moves Towards Marriage Equality" Venezuelanalysiscom 5 May 2016 
  376. ^ "Vietnam government consults on same-sex marriage" 20 June 2012 Retrieved 26 January 2013 
  377. ^ "Vote on same-sex marriage in Vietnam likely to be delayed until 2014" 
  378. ^ Thomas Maresca 30 April 2013 "Vietnam: Flawed on Human Rights, but a Leader in Gay Rights" The Atlantic Retrieved 12 May 2013 
  379. ^ "Vietnam ends same-sex marriage fines | Bangkok Post: breakingnews" Bangkok Post Retrieved 6 January 2014 
  380. ^ SSarkar, Gay Star News 13 October 2013'It's final Gay wedding fines to go in Vietnam' http://wwwgaystarnewscom/article/it%E2%80%99s-final-gay-wedding-fines-go-vietnam131013 retrieved 13 Oct 2013
  381. ^ "The latest entertainment news for Australia's LGBTIQ community" Gay News Network Retrieved 6 January 2014 
  382. ^ Tuoi Tre Newspaper "Vietnam to remove fines on same-sex marriage" Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  384. ^ Vietnamese Một số điểm mới về xử phạt vi phạm hành chính tại Nghị định số 110/2013/NĐ-CP Archived 17 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  385. ^ "Vietnamese lawmakers back down on giving rights to same-sex couples" Gay Star News 
  386. ^ "Vietnam's Proposed Marriage Law Disappoints LGBT Activists" VOA Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  387. ^ "Vietnam allows surrogacy within families, denies same-sex marriage" Thanh Nien Daily Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  388. ^ Tuoi Tre Newspaper "Vietnam removes ban on same sex marriage" Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  389. ^ "Vietnam set to lift gay marriage ban" Marilyn Stowe Blog Retrieved 26 July 2015 
  390. ^ "UN Secretary-General Bulletin" PDF United Nations Retrieved 25 September 2012 
  391. ^ "Jobs — Compensation & Benefits" The World Bank Group Retrieved 8 March 2007 
  392. ^ Towle, Andy "NYC Protest and Civil Rights March Opposing Proposition 8" Towleroad Retrieved 28 September 2012 
  393. ^ Williams, Steve "Which Countries Have Legalized Gay Marriage" Care2com newsbbccouk as source Retrieved 20 February 2012 
  394. ^ "Civil Unions law will give same sex couples same rights, duties, as married couples" timesofmaltacom 14 October 2013 Retrieved 17 April 2014 
  395. ^ Camilleri, Neil 17 April 2014 "President signs 'gay marriage' Bill" Malta Independent Retrieved 17 April 2014 
  396. ^ French Loi du 9 juillet 2004 relative aux effets légaux de certains partenariats
  397. ^ French Loi n° 99-944 du 15 novembre 1999 relative au pacte civil de solidarité
  398. ^ German Gesetz zur Einführung des gesetzlichen Zusammenwohnens
  399. ^ "Civil Partnership Act 2004" legislationgovuk 
  400. ^ "Same-Sex Marriage, Civil Unions and Domestic Partnerships" National Conference of State Legislatures Retrieved 20 February 2012 
  401. ^ Ramstack, Tom 11 January 2010 "Congress Considers Outcome of DC Gay Marriage Legislation" AHN 
  402. ^ Bohrer, John R 14 December 2006 "NJ Civil Unions: Nothing to Celebrate" Huffington Post 
  403. ^ Gender and Language in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2013:35
  404. ^ Fleshman, Michael "African gays and lesbians combat bias: An 'invisible' minority seeks legal safeguards, acceptance" United Nations Archived from the original on 12 February 2012 Retrieved 28 September 2012 
  405. ^ Igwe, Leo 19 June 2009 "Tradition of same gender marriage in Igboland" Nigerian Tribune Archived from the original on 11 January 2010 
  406. ^ a b Laurie, Timothy 3 June 2015, Bigotry or biology: the hard choice for an opponent of marriage equality, The Drum 
  407. ^ Blankenhorn, David 19 September 2008 "Protecting marriage to protect children" Los Angeles Times Retrieved 6 October 2009 
  408. ^ "See discussion of prenuptial and postmarital agreements at Findlaw" Familyfindlawcom Retrieved 5 November 2010 
  409. ^ Dale Carpenter is a prominent spokesman for this view For a better understanding of this view, see Carpenter's writings at http://wwwindegayforumorg/staff/show/91html
  410. ^ Lamb, PhD, Michael "Expert Affidavit for US District Court D Mass 2009" PDF Gay & Lesbian Advocates & Defenders Retrieved 24 July 2012 
  411. ^ "Pediatricians group backs gay marriage" lansingstateournalcom 22 March 2013 Retrieved 11 April 2013 
  412. ^ a b "Pediatricians: Gay Marriage Good for Kids' Health" newsdiscoverycom 22 March 2013 Retrieved 11 April 2013 
  413. ^ "Elizabeth Short, Damien W Riggs, Amaryll Perlesz, Rhonda Brown, Graeme Kane: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender LGBT Parented Families – A Literature Review prepared for The Australian Psychological Society" PDF Retrieved 5 November 2010 
  414. ^ "Brief of the American Psychological Association, The California Psychological Association, The American Psychiatric Association, and The American Association of Marriage and Family Therapy as Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiff-Appellees" PDF United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit Retrieved 28 September 2012 
  415. ^ Herek GM September 2006 "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: a social science perspective" PDF The American Psychologist 61 6: 607–21 doi:101037/0003-066X616607 PMID 16953748 Archived from the original PDF on 10 June 2010 
  416. ^ Biblarz, Timothy J; Stacey, Judith February 2010 "How Does the Gender of Parents Matter" PDF Journal of Marriage and Family 72 1: 3–22 doi:101111/j1741-3737200900678x 
  417. ^ "Brief presented to the Legislative House of Commons Committee on Bill C38" PDF Canadian Psychological Association Retrieved 28 September 2012 
  418. ^ User, Super "LGBT Adoption Statistics | Gay Adoption | Same Sex Adoption" wwwlifelongadoptionscom Retrieved 2016-02-13 
  419. ^ "Gay Adoption Facts | Families are created with love" gayadoptionorg Retrieved 2016-02-13 
  420. ^ The Fertility Sourcebook, Third Edition – Page 245, M Sara Rosenthal – 2002
  421. ^ An Introduction to Family Social Work – Page 348, Donald Collins, Catheleen Jordan, Heather Coleman – 2009
  422. ^ Fausto-Sterling et al, 2000
  423. ^ "How common is intersex" Intersex Society of North America Retrieved 8 March 2007 
  424. ^ Bockting, Walter, Autumn Benner, and Eli Coleman "Gay and Bisexual Identity Development Among Female-to-Male Transsexuals in North America: Emergence of a Transgender Sexuality" Archives of Sexual Behavior 385 October 2009: 688–701 Academic Search Premier EBSCO 29 September 2009
  425. ^ "Austria gets first same-sex marriage" 365gaycom 5 July 2006 Archived from the original on 17 October 2007 Retrieved 20 July 2008 
  426. ^ Schwartz, John 18 September 2009 "US Defends Marriage Law" The New York Times Retrieved 29 September 2009 
  427. ^ Matthew S Coleman, Esq 16 September 2015 "Obergefell v Hodges" Einhorn Harris Retrieved 8 November 2015 
  428. ^ "Pope: Abortion, Gay Marriage among World's Greatest Threats" USA Today May 14, 2010 
  429. ^ "2013 Assembly Statement on Marriage and Sexuality" assemblyofbishopsorg Retrieved 24 July 2015 
  430. ^ "Position Statement on Homosexuality" Annual Council of the General Conference Executive Committee Seventh-day Adventist Church Statements October 3, 1999 Retrieved 2012-04-06 
  431. ^ "Does God Approve of Same-Sex Marriage" Awake!: 27 April 8, 2005 
  432. ^
    • "Sweden Allows Gay Weddings" BBC News October 22, 2009 Retrieved February 28, 2015 
    • "You May Now Kiss the Groom" CPH Post Online June 14, 2012 Retrieved July 26, 2015 
    • "Stances of Faiths on LGBT Issues: Alliance of Baptists" Human Rights Campaign Retrieved May 14, 2016 
    • "United Church Endorses Gay Marriage" CBC News Canada August 14, 2003 Retrieved February 28, 2015 
    • "Marriage Equality" United Church of Christ 
    • Zaimov, Stoyan November 2, 2015 "Church of Norway Votes in Favor of Gay Marriage" The Christian Post 
    • Van Marter, Jerry L June 19, 2014 "Assembly Approves Allowing Pastors to Perform Same-Gender Marriage Where Legal, Sends Proposed Constitutional Amendment Changing Marriage Definition" Presbyterian Church USA Retrieved July 26, 2015 
    • Conger, George July 1, 2015 "The Episcopal Church Approves Religious Weddings for Gay Couples after Controversial Debate" The Washington Post 
    • Bushfield, Antony May 5, 2016 "Steve Chalke's Oasis Church to Offer Gay Marriages" Premier 
    • Italian Pecoraro, Gaetano August 27, 2010 "Coppie gay, storica apertura della Chiesa valdese, ma si aspetta ancora una legge" Il Fatto Quotidiano 
    • Dutch "Remonstranten en Boomsma krijgen homo-emancipatieprijs" Trouw January 25, 2010 Archived from the original on January 5, 2016 Retrieved April 4, 2016 
  433. ^ "The Old Catholic Church: Province of the United States" 
  434. ^ "The Eucharistic Catholic Church / Eglise Catholique Euch" Net Ministries Network 
  435. ^ Carlson, Amelia January 14, 2016 "First Baptist Church Memphis Approves Gay Marriage and Ordination" WMC Action News 5 
  436. ^ Connor, Eric November 24, 2015 "After Same-Sex Wedding, Baptists Sever Ties with Greenville Church" Greenville Online 
  437. ^ Kola, Fiorela May 23, 2016 "Goshen Church Passes Vote to Allow Same-Sex Marriages" WNDU 16  
  438. ^ "Changing Attitudes on Gay Marriage" Pew Research Center May 12, 2016 Retrieved August 18, 2016 
  439. ^ Brown, Jonathan July 7, 2009 "Homosexuality and Same-Sex Marriage in Islam" Patheos Retrieved July 26, 2015 
  440. ^ "Muslim Leaders Stand against Gay Marriage" The Telegraph May 18, 2013 Retrieved May 21, 2016 
  441. ^ Sales, Ben June 4, 2012 "Conservative Rabbinic Group Issues Guidelines for Same-Sex Wedding Rituals" JTA: Jewish Telegraphic Agency 
  442. ^ Bhikkhu, Mettanando July 13, 2005 "Religion and Same-Sex Marriage" The Buddhist Channel 
  443. ^ Potts, Andrew M April 19, 2012 "Buddhists Come Out for Equality" Star Observer Retrieved February 28, 2015 
  444. ^ Wilson, Jeff "'All Beings Are Equally Embraced By Amida Buddha': Jodo Shinshu Buddhism and Same-Sex Marriage in the United States" Journal of Global Buddhism 13 2012: 31-59 Accessed May 14, 2016
  445. ^ O'Brien, Barbara June 30, 2015 "Same-Sex Marriage and Buddhism" Aboutcom 
  446. ^ Masci, David; Lipka, Michael December 21, 2015 "Where Christian Churches, Other Religions Stand on Gay Marriage" Pew Research Center 
  447. ^ "Banned in Boston" The Weekly Standard 5 May 2006 Retrieved 5 November 2010 
  448. ^ "The Supreme Court decision" CBC News Toronto Archived from the original on 14 October 2010 Retrieved 5 November 2010 
  449. ^ Wilson, Robin J; Laycock, Douglas; Picarello, Anthony R 2008 Same-sex marriage and religious liberty: emerging conflicts Washington, DC: Beckett Fund for Religious Liberty ISBN 0-7425-6326-X 
  450. ^ Humphreys, J July 2006 "The Civil Partnership Act 2004, Same-Sex Marriage and the Church of England" Ecclesiastical Law Journal 8 8: 289–306 doi:101017/S0956618X0000644X 
  451. ^ "Minister: No conscience clause for registrars opposed to same-sex marriage" 20 February 2013 
  452. ^ "Gay Rights, Religious Liberties: A Three-Act Story" Washington DC: NPR Retrieved 5 November 2010 
  453. ^ Steinfels, Peter 22 May 2009 "Same-Sex Marriage Laws Pose Protection Quandary" The New York Times 
  454. ^ Leff, Lisa 4 December 2008 "Poll: Calif gay marriage ban driven by religion" USA Today Associated Press Archived from the original on 8 December 2008  CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown link archived here
  455. ^ Mirchandani, Rajesh 12 November 2008 "Divisions persist over gay marriage ban" BBC News 


  • Boswell, John 1995 The Marriage of Likeness: Same-sex Unions in Pre-modern Europe New York: Simon Harper and Collins ISBN 0-00-255508-5 
  • Boswell, John 1994 Same-sex Unions in Premodern Europe New York: Villard Books ISBN 0-679-43228-0 
  • Brownson, James V 2013 Bible, Gender, Sexuality: Reforming the Church’s Debate on Same-Sex Relationships Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Company ISBN 978-0-8028-6863-3 
  • Calò, Emanuele 2009 Matrimonio à la carte — Matrimoni, convivenze registrate e divorzi dopo l'intervento comunitario Milano: Giuffrè 
  • Caramagno, Thomas C 2002 Irreconcilable Differences Intellectual Stalemate in the Gay Rights Debate Westport, CT: Praeger ISBN 0-275-97721-8 
  • Cere, Daniel 2004 Divorcing Marriage: Unveiling the Dangers in Canada's New Social Experiment Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press ISBN 0-7735-2895-4 
  • Chauncey, George 2004 Why Marriage: The History Shaping Today's Debate over Gay Equality New York: Basic Books ISBN 0-465-00957-3 
  • Dobson, James C 2004 Marriage Under Fire Sisters, Or: Multnomah ISBN 1-59052-431-4 
  • George, Robert P; Elshtain, Jean Bethke, eds 2006 The Meaning of Marriage: Family, State, Market, And Morals Dallas: Spence Publishing Company ISBN 1-890626-64-3 
  • Goss, Robert E; Strongheart, Amy Adams Squire, eds 2008 Our Families, Our Values: Snapshots of Queer Kinship New York, NY: The Harrington Park Press, An Imprint of the Haworth Press, Inc ISBN 1-56023-910-7 
  • Larocque, Sylvain 2006 Gay Marriage: The Story of a Canadian Social Revolution Toronto: James Lorimer & Company ISBN 1-55028-927-6 
  • Laycock, Douglas; Picarello, Anthony Jr; Wilson, Robin Fretwell, eds 2008 Same-Sex Marriage and Religious Liberty: Emerging Conflicts Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc ISBN 0-7425-6326-X 
  • López, Robert Oscar; Edelman, Rivka, eds 2015 Jephthas's Daughters Innocent casualities in the war for "family equality" CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform ISBN 978-1-5058-1078-3 
  • Moats, David 2004 Civil Wars: A Battle For Gay Marriage New York, NY: Harcourt, Inc ISBN 0-15-101017-X 
  • Oliver, Marilyn Tower 1998 Gay and lesbian rights: a struggle Enslow Publishers ISBN 978-0-89490-958-0 
  • Rauch, Jonathan 2004 Gay Marriage: Why It Is Good for Gays, Good for Straights, and Good for America New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company, LLC ISBN 0-8050-7815-0 
  • Smart, Carol; Heaphy, Brian; Einarsdottir, Anna 2013 Same sex marriages: new generations, new relationships Genders and sexualities in the social sciences Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 9780230300231 
  • Spedale, Darren 2006 Gay Marriage: For Better or For Worse What We've Learned From the Evidence New York: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-518751-2 
  • Sullivan, Andrew, ed 2004 Same-Sex Marriage: Pro and Con — A Reader, Revised Updated Edition New York, NY: Vintage Books, a division of Random House, Inc ISBN 1-4000-7866-0 
  • Truluck, Rembert S 2000 Steps to Recovery from Bible Abuse Gaithersburg, MD: Chi Rho Press, Inc ISBN 1-888493-16-X 
  • Wolfson, Evan 2004 Why Marriage Matters: America, Equality, and Gay People's Right to Marry New York: Simon & Schuster ISBN 0-7432-6459-2 

External links

  • Same-sex marriage at DMOZ
  • "Same-Sex Marriage, Civil Unions, and Domestic Partnerships collected news and commentary" The New York Times 
  • "Same-sex marriage" JURIST 
  • Considerations Regarding Proposals to Give Legal Recognition to Unions between Homosexual Persons
  • "Same-Sex Marriage: Developments in the Law", Emily Doskow, NOLO
  • US Census Gay Marriage Statistics from April 1999
  • Same-Sex Marriage A Selective Bibliography of the Legal Literature

same sex marriage, same sex marriage articles, same sex marriage essay, same sex marriage in the bible, same sex marriage in the philippines, same sex marriage laws, same sex marriage pros and cons, same sex marriage ruling by supreme court, same sex marriage states, same sex marriage states 2018

Same-sex marriage Information about

Same-sex marriage

  • user icon

    Same-sex marriage beatiful post thanks!


Same-sex marriage
Same-sex marriage
Same-sex marriage viewing the topic.
Same-sex marriage what, Same-sex marriage who, Same-sex marriage explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video

Random Posts

Amorphous metal

Amorphous metal

An amorphous metal also known as metallic glass or glassy metal is a solid metallic material, usuall...
Arthur Lake (bishop)

Arthur Lake (bishop)

Arthur Lake September 1569 – 4 May 1626 was Bishop of Bath and Wells and a translator of the King Ja...
John Hawkins (author)

John Hawkins (author)

Sir John Hawkins 29 March 1719 – 21 May 1789 was an English author and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson a...
McDonnell Douglas MD-12

McDonnell Douglas MD-12

The McDonnell Douglas MD-12 was an aircraft design study undertaken by the McDonnell Douglas company...