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Russell's viper

russell's viper, russell's viper thailand
Russell's viper Daboia russelii is a species of venomous snake in the family Viperidae Daboia is a monotypic genus of venomous Old World vipers The single member species, D russelii, is found in Asia throughout the Indian subcontinent, much of Southeast Asia, southern China and Taiwan The species was named in honor of Patrick Russell 1726–1805, a Scottish herpetologist who first described many of India's snakes, and the name of the genus is from the Hindi word meaning "that lies hid", or "the lurker" Apart from being a member of the big four snakes in India, Daboia is also one of the genera responsible for causing the most snakebite incidents and deaths among all venomous snakes on account of many factors, such as their wide distribution, generally aggressive demeanor, and frequent occurrence in highly populated areas

Daboia russelli is commonly known as Russell's viper and chain viper, among other names


  • 1 Description
  • 2 Common names
  • 3 Geographic range
  • 4 Habitat
  • 5 Behavior
  • 6 Reproduction
  • 7 Prey
  • 8 Mimicry
  • 9 Venom
  • 10 Subspecies
  • 11 Taxonomy
  • 12 See also
  • 13 References
  • 14 Further reading
  • 15 External links


Russell's viper in Pune Zoo

D russelii can grow to a maximum total length body + tail of 166 cm 55 ft and averages about 120 cm 4 ft on mainland Asian populations, although island populations may be slightly smaller on average It is more slenderly built than most other vipers Ditmars 1937 reported the following dimensions for a "fair-sized adult specimen":

Total length 4 ft, 1 inch 124 cm
Length of tail 7 inches 18 cm
Girth 6 inches 15 cm
Width of head 2 inches 5 cm
Length of head 2 inches 5 cm

Russell's viper from the wild

The head is flattened, triangular, and distinct from the neck The snout is blunt, rounded, and raised The nostrils are large, each in the middle of a large, single nasal scale The lower edge of the nasal touches the nasorostral The supranasal has a strong crescent shape and separates the nasal from the nasorostral anteriorly The rostral is as broad as it is high

Head of the Russell's viper

The crown of the head is covered with irregular, strongly fragmented scales The supraocular scales are narrow, single, and separated by six to nine scales across the head The eyes are large, flecked with yellow or gold, and surrounded by 10–15 circumorbital scales The snake has 10–12 supralabials, the fourth and fifth of which are significantly larger The eye is separated from the supralabials by three or four rows of suboculars Of the two pairs of chin shields, the front pair is notably enlarged The two maxillary bones support at least two and at the most five or six pairs of fangs at a time: the first are active and the rest replacements The fangs attain a length of 165 mm 065 in in the average specimen

The body is stout, the cross-section of which is rounded to circular The dorsal scales are strongly keeled; only the lowest row is smooth Mid-body, the dorsal scales number 27–33 The ventral scales number 153–180 The anal plate is not divided The tail is short — about 14% of the total length — with the paired subcaudals numbering 41–68

Dorsally, the color pattern consists of a deep yellow, tan, or brown ground color, with three series of dark brown spots that run the length of the body Each of these spots has a black ring around it, the outer border of which is intensified with a rim of white or yellow The dorsal spots, which usually number 23–30, may grow together, while the side spots may break apart The head has a pair of distinct dark patches, one on each temple, together with a pinkish, salmon, or brownish V or X marking that forms an apex towards the snout Behind the eye is a dark streak, outlined in white, pink, or buff The venter is white, whitish, yellowish, or pinkish, often with an irregular scattering of dark spots

Common names

In English, common names of D russelii include Russell's viper, chain viper, Indian Russell's viper, common Russell's viper, seven pacer, chain snake, and scissors snake Previously, another common name was used to describe a subspecies that is now part of the synonymy of this form: Sri Lankan Russell's viper for D r pulchella

In the Indian Subcontinent, it is known as daboia दबौया in Hindi, Punjabi, and Hindustani;

bora বোড়া, chandra bora চন্দ্রবোড়া, or uloo bora উলূবোড়া in Bengali;

chitalo or khadchitalo in Gujarati;

kolakumandala or mandaladha haavu ಮಂಡಲದ ಹಾವು in Kannada;

gunas on Kashmiri;

raktamandali, chenathandan, vattakoora, rakta anali, or thavitta അണലി in Malayalam;

ghonas घोणस, घोण्या, tawarya in Marathi;

chandan bodaଚନ୍ଦନ ବୋଡା in Odia;

koraile in Sindhi;

thith polonga තිත් පොලඟා in Sinhala;

retha aunali or kannadi viriyan கண்ணாடி விரியன் in Tamil;

కాటుక రేకుల పాము katuka rekula paamu or రక్తపింజర raktha penjara/penjari in Telugu;

and pili kandhodi in Tulu

In Indochina, it is known as งูแมวเซา ngu maew sao in Thai

and mwe lewe in Burmese

Geographic range

Russell's viper from India

D russelii is found in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Pakistan, Cambodia, Tibet, China Guangxi, Guangdong, Taiwan and Indonesia Endeh, Flores, east Java, Komodo, and Lomblen Islands The type locality is listed as "India" More specifically, this would be the Coromandel Coast, by inference of Russell 1796

Brown 1973 mentions that it can also found in Vietnam, Laos, and on the Indonesian island of Sumatra Ditmars 1937 reportedly received a specimen from Sumatra, as well However, the distribution of this species in the Indonesian archipelago is still being elucidated

Within its range, it can be very common in some areas, but scarce in others In India, is abundant in Punjab, very common along the West Coast and its hills, in southern India and north to Bengal It is uncommon to rare in the Ganges valley, northern Bengal, and Assam It is prevalent in Myanmar It is also common in Thailand in Pattaya and other tourist towns where its main prey, rats, have abundant food


D russelii is not restricted to any particular habitat, but does tend to avoid dense forests The snake is mostly found in open, grassy or bushy areas, but may also be found in second growth forests scrub jungles, on forested plantations and farmland It is most common in plains, coastal lowlands, and hills of suitable habitat Generally, it is not found at altitude, but has been reported as far up as 2300–3000 m 7,500-9,800 ft Humid environments, such as marshes, swamps, and rain forests, are avoided

This species is often found in highly urbanized areas and settlements in the countryside, the attraction being the rodents commensal with man As a result, those working outside in these areas are most at risk of being bitten D russelii does not associate as closely with human habitation as Naja and Bungarus species cobras and kraits


D russelii is terrestrial and active primarily as a nocturnal forager However, during cool weather, it alters its behavior and becomes more active during the day

Adults are reported to be slow and sluggish unless pushed beyond a certain limit, after which they can become very aggressive Juveniles, though, are generally more nervous

When threatened, they form a series of S-loops, raise the first third of the body, and produce a hiss that is supposedly louder than that of any other snake When striking from this position, they can exert so much force that even a large individual can lift most of its body off the ground in the process These snakes are strong and may react violently to being picked up The bite may be a snap, or they may hang on for many seconds

Although this genus does not have the heat-sensitive pit organs common to the Crotalinae, it is one of a number of viperines that are apparently able to react to thermal cues, further supporting the notion that they, too, possess a heat-sensitive organ The identity of this sensor is not certain, but the nerve endings in the supranasal sac of these snakes resemble those found in other heat-sensitive organs

D russelii in Bangalore, India


D russelii is ovoviparous Mating generally occurs early in the year, although gravid females may be found at any time The gestation period is more than six months Young are produced from May to November, but mostly in June and July It is a prolific breeder Litters of 20–40 are common, although fewer offspring may occur, as few as one The reported maximum is 75 in a single litter At birth, juveniles are 215–260 mm 85–102 in in total length The minimum total length for a gravid female is about 100 cm 39 in It seems that sexual maturity is achieved in 2–3 years In one case, it took a specimen nearly 45 hours to give birth to 11 young


D russelii hunting

D russelii feeds primarily on rodents, especially murid species However, it will eat just about anything; including rats, mice, shrews, squirrels, lizards, land crabs, scorpions, and other arthropods Juveniles are crepuscular, feeding on lizards and foraging actively As they grow and become adults, they begin to specialize in rodents Indeed, the presence of rodents and lizards is the main reason they are attracted to human habitation

Juveniles are known to be cannibalistic


The rough-scaled sand boa, Gongylophis conicus, possibly mimics the appearance of D russelii

Some herpetologists believe, because D russelii is so successful as a species and has such a fearful reputation within its natural environment, another snake has come to mimic its appearance Superficially, the rough-scaled sand boa, Gongylophis conicus, has a color pattern that often looks like that of D russelii, though it is completely harmless


The quantity of venom produced by individual specimens of D russelii is considerable Reported venom yields for adult specimens range from 130–250 mg to 150–250 mg to 21–268 mg For 13 juveniles with an average total length of 79 cm 31 in, the average venom yield was 8–79 mg mean 45 mg

The LD50 in mice, which is used as a possible indicator of snake venom toxicity, is: 0133 mg/kg intravenous, 040 mg/kg intraperitoneal, about 075 mg/kg subcutaneous For most humans, a lethal dose is about 40–70 mg In general, the toxicity depends on a combination of five different venom fractions, each of which is less toxic when tested separately Venom toxicity and bite symptoms in humans vary within different populations and over time

Envenomation symptoms begin with pain at the site of the bite, immediately followed by swelling of the affected extremity Bleeding is a common symptom, especially from the gums and in the urine, and sputum may show signs of blood within 20 minutes after the bite The blood pressure drops, and the heart rate falls Blistering occurs at the site of the bite, developing along the affected limb in severe cases Necrosis is usually superficial and limited to the muscles near the bite, but may be severe in extreme cases Vomiting and facial swelling occur in about one-third of all cases Kidney failure renal failure also occurs in approximately 25-30 percent of untreated bites Severe disseminated intravascular coagulation also can occur in severe envenomations Early medical treatment and early access to antivenom can prevent and drastically reduce the chance of developing the severe/potentially lethal complications

Severe pain may last for 2–4 weeks Locally, it may persist depending on the level of tissue damage Often, local swelling peaks within 48–72 hours, involving both the affected limb and the trunk If swelling up to the trunk occurs within 1–2 hours, massive envenomation is likely Discoloration may occur throughout the swollen area as red blood cells and plasma leak into muscle tissue Death from septicaemia or kidney, respiratory, or cardiac failure may occur 1 to 14 days after the bite or even later

A study in The Lancet showed that out of a sample of people bitten by D russelii who survived, 29% of them suffered severe damage to their pituitary glands, which later resulted in hypopituitarism Other scientific studies support the hypothesis that D russelii bites can cause hypopituitarism

Because this venom is so effective at inducing thrombosis, it has been incorporated into an in vitro diagnostic test for blood clotting that is widely used in hospital laboratories This test is often referred to as dilute Russell's viper venom time dRVVT The coagulant in the venom directly activates factor X, which turns prothrombin into thrombin in the presence of factor V and phospholipid The venom is diluted to give a clotting time of 23 to 27 seconds and the phospholipid is reduced to make the test extremely sensitive to phospholipid The dRVVT test is more sensitive than the aPTT test for the detection of lupus anticoagulant an autoimmune disorder, because it is not influenced by deficiencies in clotting factors VIII, IX or XI

In India, the Haffkine Institute prepares a polyvalent antivenin that is used to treat bites from this species As of November 2016, a new antivenom was developed by the Costa Rican Clodomiro Picado Institute, and clinical trial phase in Sri Lanka


Subspecies Taxon author Common name Geographic range
D r russelii Shaw, 1797 Indian Russell's viper Across the Indian subcontinent to Sri Lanka
D r siamensis MA Smith, 1917 Eastern Russell's viper Sometimes treated as a species From Myanmar through Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia and southern China Also found in Taiwan


Using morphological and mitochondrial DNA data, Thorpe et al 2007 provided evidence that the eastern subspecies of D russelii should be considered a separate species, Daboia siamensis

A number of other subspecies may be encountered in literature, including:

Russell's Viper in Pune
  • D s formosensis Maki, 1931 – found in Taiwan considered a synonym of D siamensis
  • D s limitis Mertens, 1927 – found in Indonesia considered a synonym of D siamensis
  • D r pulchella Gray, 1842 – found in Sri Lanka considered a synonym of D r russelii
  • D r nordicus Deraniyagala, 1945 – found in northern India considered a synonym of D r russelii

The correct spelling of the species, D russelii, has been, and still is, a matter of debate Shaw & Nodder 1797, in their account of the species Coluber russelii, named it after Dr Patrick Russell, but apparently misspelled his name, using only one "L" instead of two Russell 1727–1805 was the author of An Account of Indian Serpents 1796 and A Continuation of an Account of Indian Serpents 1801 McDiarmid et al 1999 are among those who favor the original misspelling, citing Article 32c ii of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature Others, such as Zhao and Adler 1993 favor russellii

In the future, more species may be added to Daboia Obst 1983 reviewed the genus and suggested that it be extended to include Macrovipera lebetina, Vipera palaestinae, and V xanthina Groombridge 1980, 1986 united V palaestinae and Daboia as a clade based on a number of shared apomorphies, including snout shape and head color pattern Lenk et al 2001 found support for this idea based on molecular evidence, suggesting that Daboia not only include V palaestinae, but also M mauritanica and M deserti

See also

  • List of viperine species and subspecies
  • Viperinae by common name
  • Viperinae by taxonomic synonyms
  • Snakebite


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  2. ^ "Daboia" Integrated Taxonomic Information System Retrieved 31 July 2006 
  3. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael 2011 The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press xiii + 296 pp ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5 Daboia russelii, pp 229-230
  4. ^ Weiner ESC, Simpson JA editors 1991 The Compact Oxford English Dictionary: New Edition USA: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-861258-3
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  7. ^ a b Snakes of Thailand: Venomous snakes at Siam-Info Retrieved 20 October 2006
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  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Daniels JC 2002 Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians USA: Oxford University Press 252 pp ISBN 0-19-566099-4 Russell's viper, pp 148–151
  11. ^ Daboia russelii at the Reptariumcz Reptile Database Accessed 2 August 2007
  12. ^ a b Retrieved 20 October 2006
  13. ^ Captive Care of the Russell's viper at VenomousReptilesorg Retrieved 14 March 2007 Archived April 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Somaweera A 2007 Checklist of the Snakes of Sri Lanka Peradeniya, Sri Lanka: Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya PDF at Sri Lanka Reptile Retrieved 14 March 2007
  15. ^ a b Mehrtens JM 1987 Living Snakes of the World in Color New York: Sterling Publishers 480 pp ISBN 0-8069-6460-X
  16. ^ a b Brown JH 1973 Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas 184 pp LCCCN 73-229 ISBN 0-398-02808-7
  17. ^ a b United States Navy 1991 Poisonous Snakes of the World New York: United States Government/Dover Publications Inc 203 pp ISBN 0-486-26629-X
  18. ^ Daboia at MSN Encarta Accessed 26 September 2006 Archived 2009-10-31 Archived September 27, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Murthy TSN 1990 Illustrated Guide to the Snakes of the Western Ghats, India Calcutta: Zoological Survey of India 76 pp ASIN B0006F2P5C
  20. ^ Sri Lanka Wildlife Conservation Society – Checklists of the Snakes of Sri Lanka Retrieved 2 August 2007 Archived October 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ http://thailexasia/THAILEX/THAILEXENG/LEXICON/shtm#Siamese Russell's Viper
  22. ^ Belt P, Warrell DA, Malhotra A, Wüster W, Thorpe RS 1997 Russell's viper in Indonesia: snakebite and systematics In: Thorpe RS, Wüster W, Malhotra A editors Venomous Snakes: Ecology, Evolution and Snakebite Oxford: Clarendon Press Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 70: 219–234
  23. ^ Krochmal AR, Bakken GS August 2003 "Thermoregulation is the pits: use of thermal radiation for retreat site selection by rattlesnakes" J Exp Biol 206 Pt 15: 2539–45 doi:101242/jeb00471 PMID 12819261 
  24. ^ Krochmal AR, Bakken GS, LaDuc TJ 2004 "Heat in evolution's kitchen: evolutionary perspectives on the functions and origin of the facial pit of pitvipers Viperidae: Crotalinae" J Exp Biol 207 Pt 24: 4231–8 doi:101242/jeb01278 PMID 15531644 
  25. ^ York DS, Silver TM, Smith AA 1998 "Innervation of the supranasal sac of the puff adder" Anat Rec 251 2: 221–5 doi:101002/SICI1097-0185199806251:2<221::AID-AR10>30CO;2-Q PMID 9624452 
  26. ^ Russell’s Viper delivers 75 snakelets - Bangalore Mirror
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  30. ^ Thornhill, Ted 24 January 2012 "The snake bite that can reverse the effects of puberty if you manage to survive it" Daily Mail London 
  31. ^ Tunpe 1987 "Acute and Chronic Pituitary Failure Resembling Sheehan's Syndrome Following Bites by Russell's Viper in Burma" The Lancet 330 8562: 763–767 doi:101016/S0140-67368792500-1 PMID 2888987 
  32. ^ Tun-Pe; Warrell, D A; Tin-Nu-Swe; Phillips, R E; Moore, R A; Myint-Lwin; Burke, C W 1987 "Acute and chronic pituitary failure resembling Sheehan's syndrome following bites by Russell's viper in Burma" Lancet 2 8562: 763–767 doi:101016/s0140-67368792500-1 PMID 2888987 
  33. ^ Antonypillai, C N; Wass, J A H; Warrell, D A; Rajaratnam, H N 2010 "Hypopituitarism following envenoming by Russell's Vipers Daboia siamensis and D russelii resembling Sheehan's syndrome: First case report from Sri Lanka, a review of the literature and recommendations for endocrine management" QJM 104 2: 97–108 doi:101093/qjmed/hcq214 PMID 21115460 
  34. ^ Antiphospholipid Syndrome at SpecialtyLaboratories Retrieved 27 September 2006
  35. ^ Rodrigo M 2016 Trials to start for home-grown anti-venom Available at: http://wwwsundaytimeslk/161009/news/trials-to-start-for-home-grown-anti-venom-211742html
  36. ^ Checklist of Indian Snakes with English Common Names at University of Texas Retrieved 22 October 2006
  37. ^ Daboia russelii siamensis at Munich AntiVenom INdex MAVIN Retrieved 23 October 2006
  38. ^ Thorpe RS, Pook CE, Malhotra A 2007 "Phylogeography of the Russell's viper Daboia russelii complex in relation to variation in the colour pattern and symptoms of envenoming" Herpetological Journal 17: 209–18 
  39. ^ Lenk P, Kalyabina S, Wink M, Joger U April 2001 "Evolutionary relationships among the true vipers Reptilia: Viperidae inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences" Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 19 1: 94–104 doi:101006/mpev20010912 PMID 11286494 

Further reading

  • Hawgood BJ November 1994 "The life and viper of Dr Patrick Russell MD FRS 1727–1805: physician and naturalist" Toxicon 32 11: 1295–304 doi:101016/0041-01019490402-2 PMID 7886689 
  • Adler K, Smith HM, Prince SH, David P, Chiszar D 2000 "Russell's viper: Daboia russelii not Daboia russellii, due to Classical Latin rules" Hamadryad 25 2: 83–5 
  • Boulenger GA 1890 The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma Reptilia and Batrachia London: Secretary of State for India in Council Taylor and Francis, printers xviii + 541 pp "Vipera russellii", pp 420–421, Figure 123
  • Boulenger GA 1896 Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum Natural History Volume III, Containing theViperidæ London: Trustees of the British Museum Natural History Taylor and Francis, printers xiv + 727 pp + Plates I- XXV "Vipera russellii", pp 490–491
  • Breidenbach CH 1990 "Thermal cues influence strikes in pitless vipers" Journal of Herpetology Society for the Study of Reptiles and Amphibians 24 4: 448–50 doi:102307/1565074 JSTOR 1565074 
  • Cox M 1991 The Snakes of Thailand and Their Husbandry Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company 526 pp ISBN 0-89464-437-8
  • Daniels JC 2002 Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society/Oxford University Press viii + 238pp
  • Das I 2002 A Photographic Guide to Snakes and other Reptiles of India Sanibel Island, Florida: Ralph Curtis Books 144 pp ISBN 0-88359-056-5 Russell's viper, "Daboia russelii", p 60
  • Dimitrov GD, Kankonkar RC February 1968 "Fractionation of Vipera russelli venom by gel filtration I Venom composition and relative fraction function" Toxicon 5 3: 213–21 doi:101016/0041-01016890092-5 PMID 5640304 
  • Dowling HG 1993 "The name of Russell's viper" Amphibia-Reptilia 14 3: 320 doi:101163/156853893X00543 
  • Gharpurey K 1962 Snakes of India and Pakistan Bombay, India: Popular Prakishan 79 pp
  • Groombridge B 1980 A phyletic analysis of viperine snakes Ph-D thesis City of London: Polytechnic College 250 pp
  • Groombridge B 1986 "Phyletic relationships among viperine snakes" In: Proceedings of the third European herpetological meeting; 1985 July 5–11; Charles University, Prague pp 11–17
  • Jena I, Sarangi A 1993 Snakes of Medical Importance and Snake-bite Treatment New Delhi: SB Nangia, Ashish Publishing House 293 pp
  • Lenk P, Kalyabina S, Wink M, Joger U April 2001 "Evolutionary relationships among the true vipers Reptilia: Viperidae inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences" Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 19 1: 94–104 doi:101006/mpev20010912 PMID 11286494 
  • Mahendra BC 1984 "Handbook of the snakes of India, Ceylon, Burma, Bangladesh and Pakistan" Annals of Zoology Agra, India 22
  • Master RW, Rao SS July 1961 "Identification of enzymes and toxins in venoms of Indian cobra and Russell's viper after starch gel electrophoresis" J Biol Chem 236: 1986–90 PMID 13767976 
  • Minton SA Jr 1974 Venom Diseases Springfield, Illinois: CC Thomas Publishing 386 pp
  • Morris PA 1948 Boy's Book of Snakes: How to Recognize and Understand Them A volume of the Humanizing Science Series, edited by Jacques Cattell New York: Ronald Press viii + 185 pp Russell's viper, "Vipera russellii", pp 156–157, 182
  • Naulleau G, van den Brule B 1980 "Captive reproduction of Vipera russelli" Herpetological Review Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles 11: 110–2 
  • Obst FJ 1983 "Zur Kenntnis der Schlangengattung Vipera" Zoologische Abhandlungen Staatliches Museums für Tierkunde in Dresden 38: 229–35  in German
  • Reid HA 1968 "Symptomatology, pathology, and treatment of land snake bite in India and southeast Asia" In: Bucherl W, Buckley E, Deulofeu V editors Venomous Animals and Their Venoms Vol 1 New York: Academic Press pp 611–42
  • Shaw G, Nodder FP 1797 The Naturalist's Miscellany Volume 9 London: Nodder and Co 65 pp Coluber russelii, new species, Plate 291
  • Shortt 1863 "A short account of the viper Daboia elegans Vipera Russellii" Annals and Magazine of Natural History 11 3: 384–5 
  • Silva A de 1990 Colour Guide to the Snakes of Sri Lanka Avon Eng: R & A Books ISBN 1-872688-00-4  130 pp
  • Sitprija V, Benyajati C, Boonpucknavig V 1974 "Further observations of renal insufficiency in snakebite" Nephron 13 5: 396–403 doi:101159/000180416 PMID 4610437 
  • Smith MA 1943 The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-region Reptilia and Amphibia Vol III—Serpentes London: Secretary of State for India Taylor and Francis, printers xii + 583 pp "Vipera russelli", pp 482–485
  • Thiagarajan P, Pengo V, Shapiro SS October 1986 "The use of the dilute Russell viper venom time for the diagnosis of lupus anticoagulants" Blood 68 4: 869–74 PMID 3092888 
  • Maung-Maung-Thwin, Khin-Mee-Mee, Mi-Mi-Kyin, Thein-Than 1988 "Kinetics of envenomation with Russell's viper Vipera russelli venom and of antivenom use in mice" Toxicon 26 4: 373–8 doi:101016/0041-01018890005-0 PMID 3406948 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  • Mg-Mg-Thwin, Thein-Than, U Hla-Pe 1985 "Relationship of administered dose to blood venom levels in mice following experimental envenomation by Russell's viper Vipera russelli venom" Toxicon 23 1: 43–52 doi:101016/0041-01018590108-4 PMID 3922088 CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
  • Tweedie MWF 1983 The Snakes of Malaya Singapore: Singapore National Printers Ltd 105 pp ASIN B0007B41IO
  • Vit Z 1977 "The Russell's viper" Prezgl Zool 21: 185–8 
  • Wall F 1906 "The breeding of Russell's viper" Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 16: 292–312 
  • Wall F 1921 Ophidia Taprobanica or the Snakes of Ceylon Colombo, Ceylon : Colombo Museum HR Cootle, Government Printer xxii + 581 pp "Vipera russelli", pp 504–529, Figures 91-92
  • Whitaker R 1978 Common Indian Snakes New Delhi India: MacMillan 85 pp
  • Wüster W 1992 "Cobras and other herps in south-east Asia" British Herpetological Society Bulletin 39: 19–24 
  • Wüster W, Otsuka S, Malhotra A, Thorpe RS 1992 "Population Systematics of Russell's viper: A Multivariate Study" Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 47 1: 97–113 doi:101111/j1095-83121992tb00658x 
  • Zhao EM, Adler K 1993 Herpetology of China Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles 522 pp ISBN 0-916984-28-1

External links

  • Daboia russelii at the Reptariumcz Reptile Database Accessed 5 September 2007
  • Russell's viper at Michigan Engineering Accessed 5 September 2007
  • Russell's viper at SurvivalIQ Accessed 5 September 2007
  • Mark O'Shea in Sri Lanka at Mark O'Shea Accessed 5 September 2007
  • Common Poisonous Snakes in Taiwan at Formosan Fat Tire Accessed 5 September 2007
  • Video of Daboia russelii on YouTube Accessed 5 September 2007
  • Video of Daboia russelii feeding on YouTube Accessed 5 September 2007
  • Toxicology

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