Rurik dynasty


The Rurik dynasty or Rurikids Russian: Рю́риковичи, Ukrainian: Рю́риковичі, Belarusian: Ру́рыкавічы was a dynasty founded by the Varangian1 prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 8622 The Rurikids were the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus' after 862, as well as the successor principalities of Galicia-Volhynia after 1199, Chernigov, Vladimir-Suzdal, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and the founders of the Tsardom of Russia They ruled until 1598 and the Time of Troubles, following which they were succeeded by the Romanovs They are one of Europe's oldest royal houses, with numerous existing cadet branches

As a ruling dynasty, the Rurik dynasty held its own in some part of Russia for a total of twenty-one generations in male-line succession, from Rurik died 879 to Feodor I of Russia died 1598, a period of more than 700 years

Contents

  • 1 Origins
  • 2 History
    • 21 Descendants of Sviatoslav II of Kiev
    • 22 Descendants of Vsevolod I of Kiev
  • 3 Trade
  • 4 Skirmish with Byzantium
  • 5 Legacy
  • 6 Genetic studies of Rurikids
  • 7 Branches
  • 8 Family tree Rurik through Vladimir
  • 9 Main line from Vladimir to Yaroslav
  • 10 Vladimir's Czech wives
  • 11 Vladimir's other wives
  • 12 From Vladimir the great to Yuri I "Long-arm"
  • 13 Yuri the Long-Arm onwards
  • 14 Gallery
  • 15 See also
  • 16 References
  • 17 External links

Originsedit

Millennium of Russia monument in Novgorod with Rurik at the center and Vladimir the Great at the left and Dmitry Donskoy at the right both Rurikids

The Rurikid dynasty was founded in 862 by Rurik, a Varangian prince Folk history tells of the Finnic and Slavic tribes in the area calling on "'the Varangians ie Scandinavians, to the Rus' … The Chud, the Slovenes, the Krivichi and the Ves said "Our land is vast and abundant, but there is no order in it Come and reign as princes and have authority over us!"' Three brothers came with 'their kin' and 'all the Rus' in response to this invitation Rurik set up rule in Novgorod, giving more provincial towns to his brothers There is some ambiguity even in the Primary Chronicle about the specifics of the story, "hence their paradoxical statement 'the people of Novgorod are of Varangian stock, for formerly they were Slovenes'" However, archaeological evidence such as "Frankish swords, a sword chape and a tortoiseshell brooch" in the area suggest that there was, in fact, a Scandinavian population during the tenth century at the latest3 The "Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project" of FamilyTreeDNA commercial genetic genealogy company reports that Y-DNA testing of the descendants of Rurikids suggests their non-Slavic origin4

Historyedit

Rurik and his brothers founded a state that later historians called Kievan Rus′ By the middle of the twelfth century, Kievan Rus′ had dissolved into independent principalities, each ruled by different branches of the Rurik dynasty The dynasty followed agnatic seniority and the izgoi principle The Rurik dynasty underwent a major schism after the death of Yaroslav the Wise in 1054, dividing into three branches on the basis of descent from three successive ruling Grand Princes: Izyaslav 1024–1078, Svyatoslav 1027–1076, and Vsevolod 1030–1093 In addition, a line of Polotsk princes assimilated themselves with the princes of Lithuania In the 10th century the Council of Liubech made some amendments to a succession rule and divided Ruthenia into several autonomous principalities that had equal rights to obtain the Kiev throne

Vsevolod's line eventually became better known as the Monomakhovychi and was the predominant one The line of Svyatoslav later became known as Olegovychi and often laid claim to the lands of Chernihiv and Severia The Izyaslavychi who ruled Turov and Volhynia were eventually replaced by a Monomakhovychi branch

"The Rurikid dynasty… attempted to impose on their highly diverse polity the integrative concept of russkaia zemlia "the Rus′ land" and the unifying notion of a "Rus′ people" But "Kievan Rus′ was never really a unified polity It was a loosely bound, ill-defined, and heterogeneous conglomeration of lands and cities inhabited by tribes and populous groups whose loyalties were primarily territorial" This caused the Rurik dynasty to effectively dissolve into several sub-dynasties ruling smaller states in the 10th and 11th centuries These were the Olgoviches of Severia who ruled in Chernigov, Yuryeviches who controlled Vladimir-Suzdal, and Romanoviches in Galicia-Volhynia5

Descendants of Sviatoslav II of Kievedit

The Olgoviches descended from Oleg I of Chernigov, a son of Sviatoslav II of Kiev and grandson of Yaroslav the Wise They continued to rule until the early 14th century when they were torn apart by the emerging Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Grand Duchy of Moscow The line continued through Oleg's son Vsevolod II of Kiev, grandson Sviatoslav III of Kiev, great-grandson Vsevolod IV of Kiev and great-great grandson Michael of Chernigov, from whose sons the extant lines of the Olegoviches are descended, including the Massalsky, Gorchakov, Baryatinsky, Volkonsky and Obolensky, including Repnin

Descendants of Vsevolod I of Kievedit

Vsevolod I of Kiev was the father of Vladimir II Monomakh, giving rise to the name Monomakh for his progeny Two of Vladimir II's sons were Mstislav I of Kiev and Yuri Dolgorukiy

The Romanoviches were the line of Roman the Great, descended from Mstislav I of Kiev through his son Iziaslav II of Kiev and his grandson Mstislav II of Kiev, father of Roman the Great The older Monomakhovychi line that ruled Principality of Volhynia, they were eventually crowned kings of Galicia and Volhynia and ruled until 1323 Romanovychi displaced the older line of Izyaslavychi from Turov and Volhynia as well as Rostyslavychi from Galicia The last were two brothers of Romanovychi, Andrew and Lev II, who ruled jointly and were slain trying to repel Mongol incursions The Polish king, Władysław I the Elbow-high, in his letter to the Pope wrote with regret: "The two last Ruthenian kings, that had been firm shields for Poland from the Tatars, left this world and after their death Poland is directly under Tatar threat" Losing their leadership role, Rurikids, however, continued to play a vital role in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the later Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Most notably, the Ostrogski family held the title of Grand Hetman of Lithuania and strove to preserve the Ruthenian language and Eastern Orthodoxy in this part of Europe It is thought that the Drutsk and related princely families may also descend from Roman the Great

The Rostislaviches were the line of Rostislav I of Kiev, another son of Mstislav I of Kiev, who was Prince of Smolensk and a progenitor of the lines descending from the princes of Smolensk and Yaroslavl

The Yuryeviches were founded by Yuriy Dolgorukiy, the founder of Moscow and spread vastly in the north-east Yuri's son Vsevolod the Big Nest was Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal, a precursor state to the Grand Principality of Moscow and thus of the Russian Empire Vsevolod's son Konstantin of Rostov was Prince of Rostov and the progenitor of various "Rostov" princely lines Another son, Ivan Vsevolodich, was Prince of Starodub and progenitor of a number of extant lines, most notably the Gagarin line

Vsevolod's son Yaroslav II of Vladimir was the father of Alexander Nevsky, whose son Daniel of Moscow sired the ruling house of Moscow until the end of the 16th century

Beginning with the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the Muscovite branch used the title "Tsar of All Russia" and ruled over the Tsardom of Russia The death in 1598 of Tsar Feodor I ended the rule of the Rurik dynasty The dynasty was briefly revived in the person of Vasili IV of Russia, a descendant of Shuyskiy line of the Rurik dynasty, but he died without issue The unstable period known as the Time of Troubles succeeded Feodor's death and lasted until 1613

In that year, Mikhail I ascended the throne, founding the Romanov dynasty that would rule until 1762 and as Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov until the revolutions of 1917 Tsar Mikhail's first wife Maria Dolgorukova was of Rurikid stock but their marriage produced no children Emperor Peter III in 1762 brought fresh Rurikid blood to the Romanovs: he and his wife Catherine the Great both descended from the Rurik dynasty Catherine the Great descended from a daughter of Yaroslav I 978–1054 through her maternal grandfather, Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp6

Historian Vasily Tatishchev and filmmaker Jacques Tati also descended from Rurik

Tradeedit

In the early days of the Rurikid dynasty, the Kievan Rus' mainly traded with other tribes in Eastern Europe and Scandinavia "There was little need for complex social structures to carry out these exchanges in the forests north of the steppes So long as the entrepreneurs operated in small numbers and kept to the north, they did not catch the attention of observers or writers" The Rus' also had strong trading ties to Byzantium, particularly in the early 900s, as treaties in 911 and 944 indicate These treaties deal with the treatment of runaway Byzantine slaves and limitations on the amounts of certain commodities such as silk that could be bought from Byzantium The Rus' used log rafts floated down the Dnieper River by Slavic tribes for the transport of goods, particularly slaves to Byzantium7

Skirmish with Byzantiumedit

One of the largest military accomplishments of the Rurikid dynasty was the attack on Byzantium in 960 Pilgrims of the Rus' had been making the journey from Kiev to Constantinople for many years, and Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, believed that this gave them significant information about the arduous parts of the journey and where travelers were most at risk, as would be pertinent for an invasion This route took travelers through domain of the Pechenegs, journeying mostly by river In June 941, the Rus' staged a naval ambush on Byzantine forces, making up for their smaller numbers with small, maneuverable boats Interestingly, these boats were ill-equipped for the transportation of large quantities of treasure, suggesting that looting was not the goal The raid was led, according to the Primary Chronicle, by a king called Igor Three years later, the treaty of 944 stated that all ships approaching Byzantium must be preceded by a letter from the Rurikid prince stating the number of ships and assuring their peaceful intent This not only indicates fear of another surprise attack, but an increased Kievan presence in the Black Sea8

Legacyedit

Russian and Ukrainian historians have debated for many years about the legacy of the Rurikid dynasty The Russian view sees the Principality of Moscow as the sole heir to the Kievan Rus' civilization, this view is "resting largely on religious-ecclesiastical and historical-ideological claims" This view started in Moscow between the 1330s and the late 1850s The Ukrainian view was formulated somewhat later between the 1840s and the end of the 1930s and views the Ukrainian descendants of the Rurikid dynasty as its only true successors The Soviet theory "allotted equal rights to the Kievan inheritance to the Three Slavic peoples, that is the Russians, the Ukrainians, and the Belorussians"9

Genetic studies of Rurikidsedit

See also: List of haplogroups of historical and famous figures § N Y-DNA

According to the FamilyTreeDNA Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project, Rurik appears to have belonged to Y-DNA haplogroup N1c1, based on testing of his modern male line descendants10

Further genetic studies seem to indicate the existence of two major haplogroups among modern Rurikids: the descendants of Vladimir II Monomakh Monomakhoviches and some others are of N1c1 group 130 people or 68%, while the descendants of a junior prince from the branch of Oleg I of Chernigov Olgoviches and some others total 45 peoples or 24% are of R1a and R1b haplogroups typical for Slavic, Germanic, Nordic, Finnish, Baltic and Celticcitation needed peoples

Branchesedit

  • Monomakhovichi, princes of Pereyaslav
    • Izyaslavichi of Monomakh, princes of Volhynia, kings of Rus senior branch
    • Yurievichi, princes of Vladimir-Suzdal, Grand Princes of Moscow junior branch
    • Rostislavichi, princes of Smolensk middle branch
  • Rostislavichi of Halych, princes of Halych
  • Olgovichi, princes of Chernihiv
  • Izyaslavichi of Polotsk, princes of Polotsk
  • Izyaslavichi of Turov, princes of Turiv and Volhynia

Family tree Rurik through Vladimiredit

Main article: Rurik rulers family tree
              Rurik          
   
                                                     
                  Igor of Kiev   Olga of Kiev     Malk Lubchanin    
   
                                                                       
                           
              Predslava   Sviatoslav I   Malusha           Rogvolod   Dobrynya      
       
                                                                                   
                               
      Oleg   Yaropolk I   Greek nun   Anna Porphyrogenita   Vladimir the Great   Rogneda of Polotsk   Konstantin Dobrynich  
           
                                                                                         
          daughter of Bolesław I Chrobry   Sviatopolk I           Theofana   8 issues see below       Dobrynich line      
 
                                                                                     
                     

Main line from Vladimir to Yaroslavedit

Olof Skötkonung   Estrid of the Obotrites   Rogneda of Polotsk   Vladimir the Great                                                   Adela  
                                                           
                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                     
    Saint Anna   Yaroslav the Wise   Izyaslav of Polotsk   Mstislav   Vsevolod   Premislava   Mstislava   Predslava   Mstislav of Chernigov   Boris   Gleb   Stanislav   Sudislav
   
                                                                                     
        10 issues       Polotsk line                                           Eustaphius    

Vladimir's Czech wivesedit

                Olava   Vladimir the Great   Malfrida      
       
                                       
                    Vysheslav   Sviatoslav  

Vladimir's other wivesedit

                granddaughter of Otto the Great   Vladimir the Great                
               
                                                                 
                                     
    Maria Dobroniega   Casimir I   Agatha   Edward the Exile   out-marriage daughter   Margrave Bernard   Pozvizd
           

From Vladimir the great to Yuri I "Long-arm"edit

  • Vladimir the Great
  • Yaroslav the Wise, son of Vladimir the Great
  • Vsevolod I of Kiev, son of Yaroslav the Wise
  • Vladimir II Monomakh, son of Vsevolod I of Kiev
  • Yuri I "Dolgorukiy", ie Yuri "long-arm"
  • The lineage from Yuri I Long-arm onwards is given in the table below

Yuri the Long-Arm onwardsedit

Main articles: Grand Prince of Kiev, Grand Prince of Vladimir, List of rulers of Galicia and Volhynia, List of Ukrainian rulers, and List of Russian rulers

The following image shows the descent of the leading historically most powerful branch of the Rurikids, being the descendants of Vladimir II Monomakh through his sixth son Yuri Dolgorukiy known as "Yuri I" and "Yuri Long-arm":

Galleryedit

See alsoedit

  • Rulers of Kievan Rus'
  • Shum Gora
  • Vikings
  • Uí Ímair House of Ivar, contemporary Norse dynasty powerful in the Anglo-Celtic Isles
  • Grand Prince of Tver
  • Knyaz

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Rurik Norse leader Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  2. ^ Rurik Dynasty medieval Russian rulers Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  3. ^ Franklin, Simon, and Jonathan Shepherd The Emergence of Rus 750–1200 Harlow, Essex: Longman Group, Ltd, 1996 pp 38–39
  4. ^ Family Tree DNA's Rurik Dynasty DNA Project
  5. ^ Pelenski, Jaroslaw Pelenski The Contest for the Legacy of Kievan Rus′ New York: Columbia University Press, 1998 p 4
  6. ^ "Byloe Rossii" Ancestry of Catherine II the Great, Russian Empress 1729–1796: Descent from Rurik c 835–879, Prince of Novgorod in Russian The Past of Russia Retrieved 2014-05-07 
  7. ^ Franklin, Simon, and Jonathan Shepherd The Emergence of Rus 750–1200 Harlow, Essex: Longman Group, Ltd, 1996 pp 27–8; 127
  8. ^ Franklin, Simon, and Jonathan Shepherd The Emergence of Rus 750–1200 Harlow, Essex: Longman Group, Ltd, 1996 pp 112–119
  9. ^ Pelenski, Jaroslaw Pelenski The Contest for the Legacy of Kievan Rus' New York: Columbia University Press, 1998 p 2
  10. ^ Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project – News

External linksedit

  • Marek, Miroslav "Genealogy of the Rurik dynasty from Genealogyeu" GenealogyEU 
  • Genealogical chart of Dukes of Kiev


Rurik dynasty Information about

Rurik dynasty

Rurik dynasty
Rurik dynasty

Rurik dynasty Information Video


Rurik dynasty viewing the topic.
Rurik dynasty what, Rurik dynasty who, Rurik dynasty explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video