Rose madder


Rose madder is the commercial name sometimes used to designate a red paint made from the pigment madder lake, a traditional lake pigment extracted from the common madder plant Rubia tinctorum

Madder lake contains two organic red dyes: alizarin and purpurin123 As a paint, it has been described as "a fugitive, transparent, nonstaining, mid valued, moderately dull violet red pigment in tints and medum solutions, darkening to an impermanent, dull magenta red in masstone"45

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Other names
  • 3 Substitutes
  • 4 In art, entertainment, and media
  • 5 References
  • 6 Further reading

Historyedit

Madder has been cultivated as a dyestuff since antiquity in Central Asia, South Asia, and Egypt, where it was grown as early as 1500 BC Cloth dyed with madder root dye was found in the tomb of the Pharaoh Tutankhamun and on an Egyptian tomb painting from the Graeco-Roman period, diluted with gypsum to produce a pink color6 It was also found in ancient Greece in Corinth, and in Italy in the Baths of Titus and the ruins of Pompeii It is referred to in the Talmud as well as mentioned in writings by Dioscorides who referred to it as ἐρυθρόδανον, Hippocrates, and other literary figures, and in artwork where it is referred to as rubio and used in paintings by J M W Turner and as a color for ceramics In Spain, madder was introduced and then cultivated by the Moors7

The production of a lake pigment from madder seems to have been first invented by the ancient Egyptians8 Several techniques and recipes developed Ideal color was said to come from plants 18 to 28 months old that had been grown in calcareous soil, which is full of lime and typically chalky Most were considered relatively weak and extremely fugitive until 1804, when the English dye maker George Field9 refined the technique of making a lake from madder by treating it with alum and an alkali810 The resulting madder lake had a less fugitive color8 and could be used more efficaciously, for example by blending it into a paint Over the following years, other metal salts, including those containing chromium, iron, and tin, were found to be usable in place of alum to give madder-based pigments of various other colors

In 1827, the French chemists Pierre-Jean Robiquet and Colin began producing garancine, the concentrated version of natural madder They then found that madder lake contained two colorants, the red alizarin and the more rapidly fading purpurin Purpurin is only present in the natural form of madder and gives a distinctive orange/red generally warmer tone that pure synthetic alizarin does not Purpurin fluoresces yellow to red under ultraviolet light, while synthetic alizarin slightly shows violet11 Alizarin was discovered before purpurin, by heating the ground madder with acid and potash A yellow vapor crystallized into bright red needles: alizarin This alizarin concentrate comprises only 1% of the madder root

Natural rose madder supplied half the world with red, until 1868, when its alizarin component became the first natural dye to be synthetically duplicated by Carl Gräbe and Carl Liebermann Advances in the understanding of chemistry, such as chemical structures, chemical formulas, and elemental formulas, aided these Berlin-based scientists in discovering that alizarin had an anthracene base However, their recipe was not feasible for large-scale production; it required expensive and volatile substances, specifically bromine

William Perkin, the inventor of mauve, filed a patent in June 1869 for a new way to produce alizarin without bromine Gräbe, Liebermann, and Heinrich Caro filed a patent for a similar process just one day before Perkin did - yet both patents were granted, as Perkin's had been sealed first They divided the market in half: Perkin sold to the English market, and the scientists from Berlin to the United States and mainland Europe

Because this synthetic alizarin dye could be produced for a fraction of the cost of the natural madder dye, it quickly replaced all madder-based colorants then in use in, for instance, British army red coats that had been a shade of madder from the late 17th century to 1870, and French military cloth, often called "Turkey Red"12 In turn, alizarin itself has now been largely replaced by the more light-resistant quinacridone pigments originally developed at DuPont in 1958

It is still manufactured in traditional ways to meet the demands of the fine art marketcitation needed

Other namesedit

  • Alizarin's Chemical Composition: 1,2 dihydroxyanthraquinone C14H8O43
  • Alizarin Crimson, a paint very similar in color to Rose Madder Genuine but derived from synthetic Alizarin3
  • Lacca di robbia, Italian name2
  • Laque de garance, French name2
  • Natural Red 9 abbreviated NR9, Color Index name:2
  • Purpurin's Chemical Composition: 1,2,4 trihydroxyanthraquinone C14H8O53
  • Rose Madder Genuine, sometimes used to specify a paint derived from the root of the madder plant in the traditional manner13 It is still manufactured and used by some, but is too fugitive for professional artistic use4
  • Rose Madder Hue, sometimes used to specify a paint made from other pigments but meant to approximate the color of rose madder
  • Rubia Tinctorum L, the herbaceous perennial from which the rose madder pigment is derived
  • Turkey Red6

Substitutesedit

As all madder-based pigments are notoriously fugitive, artists have long sought a more permanent and lightfast replacement for rose madder and alizarin Recommended alternative pigments include:

  • Anthraquinone red PR177, a chemical cousin of Alizarin3
  • Benzamida Carmine PR1763
  • Perylene Maroon PR179, for mixing dull violets3
  • Pyrrole Rubine PR2643
  • Quinacridone Magenta PR122, for a brighter violet34
  • Quinacridone Pyrrolodone3
  • Quinacridone Rose PV19, for a brighter violet34
  • Quinacridone Violet PV19, particularly dark and reddish varieties3

In art, entertainment, and mediaedit

  • O'Brian, Patrick 1973 HMS Surprise novel  A fine fictional use of madder
  • Rose Madder is the title of a 1995 novel by Stephen King, in which a woman named Rose Daniels escapes her abusive husband and travels through time by entering a painting of a woman in a gown dyed with rose madder
  • Madder Red is the title of a 2009 song by Yeasayer on the album Odd Blood
  • Jonathon Keats uses the gradual fading of rose madder oil painting to record extremely extended light changes in his "millennium camera"14

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Murphy, Brian The Root of Wild Madder: Chasing the History, Mystery, and Lore of the Persian Carpet 
  2. ^ a b c d "Red" Color Index Pigment Codes, Color Index Number And Chemical Composition Artiscreationcom 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Red" Technical Information of Red Pigments Handprintcom 
  4. ^ a b c d "Magenta" Technical Information of Magenta Pigments Handprintcom 
  5. ^ Conley, Greg "How-To-Paint Tutorials: Pigments and Paints: What you make art with: Pigments: Fugitive Pigments" watercolorpaintingcom Retrieved December 9, 2015 
  6. ^ a b Gettens, Rutherford J& Stout, George L Stout & Forbes, Edward W Introduction 1947 Painting Materials A Short Encyclopedia 4th ed D Van Nostrand Company, Inc ISBN 0-486-21597-0 CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter link
  7. ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed 1911 "Madder" Encyclopædia Britannica 11th ed Cambridge University Press 
  8. ^ a b c "Resource Article on Reds and Crimsons" Winsornewtoncom 
  9. ^ Field's notes are held at the Courtauld Institute of Art See: http://wwwaim25acuk/cgi-bin/search2coll_id=4107&inst_id=2 accessed: 2007/09/05
  10. ^ Winsor & Newton's madder pigment is still made according to his process See http://wwwwinsornewtoncom/artnews/EN/artnewsletterA4_english03_2002pdf page 6 accessed: 2007/09/03 Note that Henry Charles Newton, founder of Winsor Newton, was his assistant and friend
  11. ^ Mouseion 1933 Les Rayons Ultra-Violet Applicques a l'Examen des Couleurs et des Agglutinants 
  12. ^ "Where did the Redcoat red dye come from" The First Foot Guards Retrieved 15 February 2011 
  13. ^ Simon Jennings 2003 Artist's Color Manual Chronicle Books ISBN 978-0-8118-4143-6 
  14. ^ Take a Picture It’ll Last Longer, Joey Eschrich, Slate, 5 March 2015

Further readingedit

  • "Red oil paints" Paintmakingcom 


Rose madder Information about


Rose madder
Rose madder

Rose madder Information Video


Rose madder viewing the topic.
Rose madder what, Rose madder who, Rose madder explanation

There are excerpts from wikipedia on this article and video



Random Posts

Social Accounts

Facebook Twitter VK
Copyright © 2014. Search Engine