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RIM-161 Standard Missile 3

rim-161 standard missile 3, rim-161 standard missile-3 block iia
The RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 SM-3 is a ship-based missile system used by the United States Navy to intercept short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles as a part of Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System4 Although primarily designed as an anti-ballistic missile, the SM-3 has also been employed in an anti-satellite capacity against a satellite at the lower end of low Earth orbit5 The SM-3 is primarily used and tested by the United States Navy and also operated by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force

Contents

  • 1 Motivation and development
  • 2 Operation and performance
  • 3 Variants
  • 4 Operational history
    • 41 United States
      • 411 Missile defense
      • 412 Anti-satellite
    • 42 Japan
    • 43 NATO host countries
      • 431 Poland
      • 432 Romania
  • 5 Operators
    • 51 Current operators
    • 52 Potential operators
  • 6 Gallery
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

Motivation and developmentedit

The SM-3 evolved from the proven SM-2 Block IV design The SM-3 uses the same solid rocket booster and dual thrust rocket motor as the Block IV missile for the first and second stages and the same steering control section and midcourse missile guidance for maneuvering in the atmosphere To support the extended range of an exo-atmospheric intercept, additional missile thrust is provided in a new third stage for the SM-3 missile, containing a dual pulse rocket motor for the early exo-atmospheric phase of flight6

Initial work was done to adapt SM-3 for land deployment "Aegis ashore" to especially accommodate the Israelis, but they then chose to pursue their own system, the NATO code-name Arrow 3 A group in the Obama administration envisioned a European Phased Adaptive Approach EPAA and SM-3 was chosen as the main vector of this effort because the competing US THAAD does not have enough range and would have required too many sites in Europe to provide adequate coverage Compared to the GMD's Ground-Based Interceptor however, the SM-3 Block I has about  1⁄5 to  1⁄6 of the range A significant improvement in this respect, the SM-3 Block II variant widens the missile's diameter from 034 m 135 in to 53 m 21 in, making it more suitable against intermediate-range ballistic missiles7

The highly modified Block IIA missile shares only the first-stage motor with the Block I The Block IIA was "designed to allow for Japan to protect against a North Korean attack with fewer deployed ships" but it is also the key element of the EPAA phase 3 deployment in Europe The Block IIA is being jointly developed by Raytheon and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries; the latter manages "the third-stage rocket motor and nose cone" The US budgeted cost to date is $151 billion for the Block IIA8

Operation and performanceedit

The ship's AN/SPY-1 radar finds the ballistic missile target and the Aegis weapon system calculates a solution on the target When the missile is ordered to launch, the Aerojet MK 72 solid-fuel rocket booster launches the SM-3 out of the ship's Mark 41 vertical launching system VLS The missile then establishes communication with the launching ship Once the booster burns out, it detaches, and the Aerojet MK 104 solid-fuel dual thrust rocket motor DTRM takes over propulsion through the atmosphere The missile continues to receive mid-course guidance information from the launching ship and is aided by GPS data The ATK MK 136 solid-fueled third-stage rocket motor TSRM fires after the second stage burns out, and it takes the missile above the atmosphere if needed The TSRM is pulse fired and provides propulsion for the SM-3 until 30 seconds to intercept

At that point the third stage separates, and the Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile LEAP kinetic warhead KW begins to search for the target using pointing data from the launching ship The Aerojet throttleable divert and attitude control system TDACS allows the kinetic warhead to maneuver in the final phase of the engagement The KW's sensors identify the target, attempt to identify the most lethal part of the target and steers the KW to that point If the KW intercepts the target, it provides 130 megajoules 96,000,000 ft·lbf, 31 kg TNT equivalent of kinetic energy at the point of impact9

Independent studies by some physics experts have raised some significant questions about the missile's success rate in hitting targets101112 In a published response, the Defense Department claimed that these findings were invalid, as the analysts used some early launches as their data, when those launches were not significant to the overall program13 The DoD stated:

the first tests used prototype interceptors; expensive mock warheads weren't used in the tests since specific lethality capability wasn't a test objective—the objective was to hit the target missile Contrary to the assertions of Postol and Lewis, all three tests resulted in successful target hits with the unitary ballistic missile target destroyed This provided empirical evidence that ballistic missile intercepts could in fact be accomplished at sea using interceptors launched from Aegis ships

After successful completion of these early developmental tests, the test program progressed from just "hitting the target" to one of determining lethality and proving the operationally configured Aegis SM-3 Block I and SM-3 Block 1A system These tests were the MDA's most comprehensive and realistic test series, resulting in the Operational Test and Evaluation Force's October 2008 evaluation report stating that Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Block 04 36 System was operationally effective and suitable for transition to the Navy

Since 2002, a total of 19 SM-3 missiles have been fired in 16 different test events resulting in 16 intercepts against threat-representative full-size and more challenging subscale unitary and full-size targets with separating warheads In addition, a modified Aegis BMD/SM-3 system successfully destroyed a malfunctioning US satellite by hitting the satellite in the right spot to negate the hazardous fuel tank at the highest closure rate of any ballistic missile defense technology ever attempted

The authors of the SM-3 study cited only tests involving unitary targets, and chose not to cite the five successful intercepts in six attempts against separating targets, which, because of their increased speed and small size, pose a much more challenging target for the SM-3 than a much larger unitary target missile They also did not mention the fact the system is successfully intercepting targets much smaller than probable threat missiles on a routine basis, and have attained test scores that many other Defense Department programs aspire to attain13

In an October 25, 2012 test, a SM-3 Block IA failed to intercept a SRBM14 In May 2013 however a SM-3 Block IB was successful against a "complex, separating short-range ballistic missile target with a sophisticated separating mock warhead", making it "the third straight successful test of Raytheon's SM-3 Block IB, after a target was missed on its first intercept attempt in September 2011"15

On 4 October 2013, an SM-3 Block IB eliminated the medium-range ballistic missile target at the highest altitude of any test to date The test was the 26th successful intercept for the SM-3 program and the fifth back-to-back successful test of the SM-3 Block IB missile Post-mission data showed that the intercept was slightly lower than anticipated, but the systems adjusted to ensure the missile intercepted the target The SM-3 Block IB is expected to be delivered for service in 201516

On 6 June 2015, an SM-3 Block IIA was successfully tested The test evaluated the performance of the missile's nosecone, steering control, and the separation of its booster, and second and third stages No intercept was planned, and no target missile was launched17 In October 2016, Russian officials claimed research simulations of US ballistic missile defense systems showed the SM-3 Block IIA was capable of intercepting missiles not only at the middle stage of their flight path, but earlier in the initial acceleration stage before the separation of their warheads18 On 3 February 2017, USS John Paul Jones, using its onboard Aegis Missile Defense System and a Standard Missile-3 Block IIA interceptor, destroyed a medium-range ballistic missile19

Variantsedit

SM-3 evolution

The SM-3 Block IA version provides an incremental upgrade to improve reliability and maintainability at a reduced cost

The SM-3 Block IB, due in 2010, offers upgrades which include an advanced two-color infrared seeker, and a 10-thruster solid throttling divert and attitude control system TDACS/SDACS on the kill vehicle to give it improved capability against maneuvering ballistic missiles or warheads Solid TDACS is a joint Raytheon/Aerojet project, but Boeing supplies some components of the kinetic warhead With Block IB and associated ship-based upgrades, the Navy gains the ability to defend against medium range missiles and some Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles

SM-3 Block II will widen the missile body to 21 in and decrease the size of the maneuvering fins It will still fit in Mk41 vertical launch systems, and the missile will be faster and have longer range

The SM-3 Block IIA is a joint Raytheon/Mitsubishi Heavy Industries project, Block IIA will add a larger diameter kill vehicle that is more maneuverable, and carries another sensor/ discrimination upgrade It's currently scheduled to debut around 2015, whereupon the Navy will have a weapon that can engage some intercontinental ballistic missiles20

Designation Block Notes
RIM-161A SM-3 Block I Development version The SM-3 Block I uses the basic SM-2ER Block IVA airframe and propulsion
  • Third-stage rocket motor Advanced Solid Axial Stage, ASAS, by Alliant Techsystems
  • GPS/INS guidance section GAINS, GPS-Aided Inertial Navigation System
  • LEAP Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile kinetic warhead ie, a non-explosive hit-to-kill warhead
RIM-161B SM-3 Block IA
  • 1 Color Seeker
  • Solid Divert Attitude Control System SDACS
RIM-161C SM-3 Block IB Passed critical design review on 13 July 2009
  • 2 Color IIR Seeker
  • Throttleable Divert Attitude Control System TDACS
  • All Reflective Optics
  • Advanced Signal Processor
RIM-161D SM-3 Block II
  • High Velocity Kinetic Warhead
  • 21-inch 530 mm diameter first-stage rocket propulsion
None to date SM-3 Block IIA
  • High Divert Kinetic Warhead
  • Advanced Discrimination Seeker

Table sources, reference material:212223

A further SM-3 Block IIB was "conceived for fielding in Europe around 2022"24 In March 2013, Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel announced that the development program of the SM-3 Block IIB, also known as the "next generation AEGIS missile" NGAM, was undergoing restructuring Under Secretary James N Miller was quoted saying that "We no longer intend to add them SM-3 Block IIB to the mix, but we'll continue to have the same number of deployed interceptors in Poland that will provide coverage for all of NATO in Europe", explaining that Poland is scheduled instead for the deployment of "about 24 SM-3 IIA interceptors – same timeline, same footprint of US forces to support that"25 A US defense official was quoted saying that "The SM3 IIB phase four interceptors that we are now not going to pursue never existed other than on Power Points; it was a design objective"26 Daniel Nexon connected the backpedaling of the administration on the Block IIB development with pre-election promises made by Obama to Dmitry Medvedev27 Pentagon spokesman George E Little denied however that Russian objections played any part in the decision28

Operational historyedit

United Statesedit

Missile defenseedit

In September 2009, President Obama announced plans to scrap plans for missile defense sites in East Europe, in favor of missile defense systems located on US Navy warships29 On 18 September 2009, Russian Prime Minister Putin welcomed Obama's plans for missile defense which may include stationing American Aegis armed warships in the Black Sea3031 This deployment began to occur that same month, with the deployment of Aegis-equipped warships with the RIM-161 SM-3 missile system, which complements the Patriot systems already deployed by American units3233

In February 2013, a SM-3 intercepted a test IRBM target using tracking data from a satellite for the first time3435 On 23 April 2014, Raytheon announced that the US Navy and the Missile Defense Agency had started to deploy the SM-3 Block 1B missile operationally The deployment starts the second phase of the Phased Adaptive Approach PAA adopted in 2009 to protect Europe from Iranian ballistic missile threats36

Anti-satelliteedit

Further information: Anti-satellite weapon An SM-3 launched to destroy the failed USA-193 satellite

On February 14, 2008, US officials announced plans to use a modified SM-3 missile launched from a group of three ships in the North Pacific to destroy the failed American satellite USA-193 at an altitude of 130 nautical miles 240 kilometers shortly before atmospheric reentry Officials publicly stated that the intention was to "reduce the danger to human beings" due to the release of toxic hydrazine fuel carried on board,3738 but in secret dispatches, US officials indicated that the strike was, in fact, military in nature39 A spokesperson stated that software associated with the SM-3 had been modified to enhance the chances of the missile's sensors recognizing that the satellite was its target, since the missile was not designed for ASAT operations

On February 21, 2008 at 03:26 UTC, the Ticonderoga-class guided-missile cruiser USS Lake Erie fired a single SM-3 missile, hit and successfully destroyed the satellite, with a closing velocity of about 22,783 mph 36,667 km/h while the satellite was 247 kilometers 133 nautical miles above the Pacific Ocean4041 USS Decatur, USS Russell as well as other land, air, sea and space-based sensors were involved in the operation4243

Japanedit

In December 2007, Japan conducted a successful test of an SM-3 block IA aboard JDS Kongō against a ballistic missile This was the first time a Japanese ship was employed to launch the interceptor missile during a test of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System In previous tests the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force had provided tracking and communications4445

In November 2008 a second Japanese-American joint test was performed from JDS Chōkai which was unsuccessful Following a failure review board, JFTM-3 occurred launching from JDS Myōkō resulting in a successful intercept in October 200946 October 28, 2010 a successful test was performed from JDS Kirishima The US Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai launched the ballistic missile target The crew of Kirishima, operating off the coast of Kauai, detected and tracked the target before firing a SM-3 Block IA missile4748

The Japanese Defense Ministry is considering allocating money in the fiscal 2015 state budget for research on introducing the ground-based SM-3 Japanese ballistic missile defense strategy involves ship-based SM-3s to intercept missiles in space, while land-based Patriot PAC-3 missiles shoot down missiles SM-3s fail to intercept Due to concern that PAC-3s could not respond to massive numbers of missiles fired simultaneously, and that the Maritime Self-Defense Force needs Aegis destroyers for other missions, basing SM-3s on land would be able to intercept more missiles earlier With a coverage radius of 500 km 310 mi, three missile posts could defend all of Japan; launch pads can be disassembled, moved to other locations, and rebuilt in 5–10 days Ground-basing of the SM-3 is dubbed "Aegis Ashore"49 By October 2016, Japan was considering procuring either Aegis Ashore or THAAD to add a new missile defense layer50

NATO host countriesedit

See also: NATO missile defence system

Polandedit

On July 3, 2010, Poland and the United States signed an amended agreement for missile defense under whose terms land-based SM-3 systems would be installed in Poland at Redzikowo This configuration was accepted as a tested and available alternative to missile interceptors that were proposed during the Bush administration but which are still under development US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, present at the signing in Kraków along with Polish Foreign Minister Radoslaw Sikorski, stressed that the missile defense program was aimed at deterring threats from Iran, and posed no challenge to Russia51 As of March 2013update, Poland is scheduled to host "about 24 SM3 IIA interceptors"25 in 201852 This deployment is part of phase 3 of the European Phased Adaptive Approach EPAA53

Romaniaedit

In 2010/2011 the US government announced plans to station land-based SM-3s Block IB in Romania at Deveselu starting in 2015,5455 part of phase 2 of EPAA53 There are some tentative plans to upgrade them to Block IIA interceptors around 2018 as well EPAA phase 3 In March 2013, a US defense official was quoted saying "The Romanian cycle will start out in 2015 with the SM-3 IB; that system is in fly testing now and doing quite well We are very confident it is on track and on budget, with very good test results We are fully confident the missile we are co-developing with Japan, the SM-3 IIA, will have proved in fly testing, once we get to that phase Assuming success in that fly testing, then we will have ready the option of upgrading the Romanian site to the SM-3 IIA, either all of the interceptor tubes or we'll have a mix We have to make that decision But both options will be there"26

The SM-3 Block IIB currently in development for EPAA phase 453 was considered for deployment to Romania as well around 202224, but a GAO report released Feb 11, 2013 found that "SM-3 Block 2B interceptors launched from Romania would have difficulty engaging Iranian ICBMs launched at the United States because it lacks the range Turkey is a better option, but only if the interceptors can be launched within 100 miles of the launch site and early enough to hit targets in their boost phase, an engagement scenario that presents a whole new set of challenges The best basing option is in the North Sea, but making the SM-3 Block 2B ship compatible could add significantly to its cost"56 The troubles of the Block IIB program however do not affect the planned Block IB deployments in Romania2657

Operatorsedit

Current operatorsedit

  •  Japan
  •  United States

Potential operatorsedit

  •  Turkey is considering the SM-3s for its upcoming TF-2000 frigate program Instead of Aegis guidance, Turkey plans on integrating a more advanced version of Havelsan's Genesis architecture and a phased array radar built by Aselsan58 Genesis is currently jointly offered with Raytheon as a C4ISR upgrade for Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates around the world59
  •  Republic of Korea is considering the SM-3 intercepters for next generation Sejong the Great-class destroyer to defense North Korea's ballistic Missile threat Republic of Korea Navy is reviewing purchase SM-3 intercepters until in the first half of this year

Galleryedit

See alsoedit

  • ArcLight, DARPA's program on developing ground attack missile based on SM-3's booster
  • Arrow 3, Israel's home-grown alternative
  • THAAD, US Army's solution

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Range and ceiling figures based on absolute 700s capability shown for Block IIA missile in Figure 4 at linked source—"Breaking Defense"3 Intercept capability against an SS-19 Stiletto launched from Kaliningrad against New York is shown as approximately 1,200 km range and 900 km ceiling for a North Sea intercept Range and ceiling against a hypothetical Iranian ICBM launched against the same target is shown as approximately 1,200 km and 1,050 km respectively in Figure 3 of the same source for an intercept coming from Redzikowo, Poland
  1. ^ Ronald O'Rourke 2011-04-19 "Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense BMD Program: Background and Issues for Congress" PDF Federation of American Scientists Retrieved 2011-05-29 
  2. ^ "United States Department Of Defense Fiscal Year 2015 Budget Request Program Acquisition Cost By Weapon System" pdf Office Of The Under Secretary Of Defense Comptroller/ Chief Financial Officer March 2014 p 47 
  3. ^ a b c d "Why Russia Keeps Moving the Football on European Missile Defense" Breaking Defense October 17, 2013 Retrieved 2013-10-19 
  4. ^ Raytheon Completes SM-3 Test Flight Against Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile, Raytheon Company, Retrieved 6 September 2011
  5. ^ Pentagon news briefing of February 14, 2008 video, transcript: although no name for the satellite is given, the launch date of December 14, 2006 is stated
  6. ^ "RIM-161 SM-3 Upgrades" 2008 Retrieved 2009-11-10 
  7. ^ "SM-3 BMD, in from the Sea: EPAA & Aegis Ashore" Defenseindustrydailycom 2013-03-15 Retrieved 2013-06-13 
  8. ^ MDA Still Sees 2018 Deployment In Restructured SM-3 IIA Plan
  9. ^ Raytheon's SM-3 fact sheet
  10. ^ William J Broad and David E Sanger, "Review Cites Flaws in US Antimissile Program", New York Times, May 17, 2010
  11. ^ Clay Dillow, "Obama's 'Proven' SM-3 Missile Interceptor May Only Succeed 20 Percent of the Time, Say Physicists", Popular Science, May 18, 2010
  12. ^ George N Lewis and Theodore A Postol, "A Flawed and Dangerous US Missile Defense Plan", May 5, 2010, Arms Control Association
  13. ^ a b Lehner, Richard May 18, 2010 "Missile Defense Agency Responds to New York Times Article" DoD Live Archived from the original on July 18, 2011 Retrieved October 13, 2012 
  14. ^ defensetech 2012-12-19 "MDA lays out 2013 testing plans" Defense Tech Retrieved 2013-06-13 
  15. ^ David Wichner 2013-05-17 "Raytheon missile passes an important test flight" Arizona Daily Star Retrieved 2013-06-13 
  16. ^ Raytheon's newest SM-3 intercepts medium-range ballistic missile target at highest altitude to date Navyrecognitioncom 4 October 2013
  17. ^ https://wwwreuterscom/article/2015/06/07/usa-japan-missiledefense-idUSL1N0YT08K20150607
  18. ^ US SM-3 interceptors can take down ballistic missiles at initial flight stage – Navyrecognitioncom, 15 October 2016
  19. ^ CNN, Brad Lendon "US, Japan conduct successful missile intercept" CNN Retrieved 2017-02-06 
    • VIDEO: New SM-3 Block IIA Intercepts Ballistic Missile in Space For First Time
  20. ^ "Land-Based SM-3s for Israel – and Others" Defense Industry Daily 2009 Retrieved 2009-11-10 
  21. ^ "Raytheon RIM-161 Standard SM-3" Designation-systemsnet Retrieved 2013-10-25 
  22. ^ "RIM-161 SM-3 AEGIS Ballistic Missile Defense" 2008 Retrieved 2008-02-22 
  23. ^ Raytheon Standard Missile-3 Block IB Completes Major Development Milestone
  24. ^ a b Oswald, Rachel "US Looking "Very Hard" at Future of Missile Interceptor: Pentagon | Global Security Newswire" NTI Retrieved 2013-06-13 
  25. ^ a b Eshel, Tamir March 16, 2013 "Alaska's Ground Based Interceptors to Pivot US Defenses Against North Korea" Defense Update Retrieved 2013-06-13 
  26. ^ a b c "US defence official: The Deveselu base will be equipped with SM-3 IB interceptors by 2015, later on to be upgraded | ACTMedia" Actmediaeu 2013-03-25 Retrieved 2013-06-13 
  27. ^ Nexon, Daniel 2013-03-17 "Washington "Cancels" Fourth Stage of European Phased Adaptive Approach – Duck of Minerva" Whiteoliphauntcom Retrieved 2013-06-13 
  28. ^ Herszenhorn, David M; Gordon, Michael R 16 March 2013 "US Cancels Part of Missile Defense That Russia Opposed" New York Times Retrieved 2014-01-07 
  29. ^ Peter Baker, "White House Scraps Bush's Approach to Missile Shield" New York Times, 9/18/09
  30. ^ "Russia's Putin praises Obama's missile defense decision", Los Angeles Times, 9/19/09
  31. ^ Tom Ricks, "No missile defense in Eastern Europe", Foreign Policy, 9/17/09
  32. ^ William H McMichael, "Obama sharply alters missile defense plans" Navy Times, Sep 19, 2009
  33. ^ Article on Sm-3 missile system, strategypagecom, 10/4/09
  34. ^ "Navy Uses Raytheon SM-3 and Space Sensor to Destroy Missile Target"
  35. ^ "Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Intercepts Target Using Space Tracking and Surveillance System-Demonstrators Data"
  36. ^ US Deploys First SM-3 Block IB Missile – NewsUSNIorg, 23 April 2014
  37. ^ Lolita C Baldor 2008-02-15 "US to Try to Shoot Down Spy Satellite" Washington Post Associated Press 
  38. ^ "DefenseLink News Transcript: DoD News Briefing with Deputy National Security Advisor Jeffrey, Gen Cartwright and NASA Administrator Griffin" 2008 Retrieved 2008-02-22 
  39. ^ "WikiLeaks: US and China in military standoff over space missiles" The Telegraph 
  40. ^ "Satellite Shoot Down: How It Will Work" Spacecom February 19, 2008 Retrieved 2008-02-21 
  41. ^ "Navy Hits Satellite With Heat-Seeking Missile" Spacecom February 21, 2008 Retrieved 2008-02-21 
  42. ^ "DoD Succeeds In Intercepting Non-Functioning Satellite Release No 0139-08" Press release US Department of Defense February 20, 2008 Retrieved 2008-02-20 
  43. ^ "Navy Succeeds In Intercepting Non-Functioning Satellite Release NNS080220-19" Press release US Navy February 20, 2008 Retrieved 2008-02-20 
  44. ^ "AFP: Japan shoots down test missile in space: defence minister" 2008 Retrieved 2008-02-22 
  45. ^ MDA press release 17 December 2007
  46. ^ JFTM-2 & 3 dates
  47. ^ "Japan Achieves Third Ballistic Missile Intercept" Spacedailycom November 4, 2010 Retrieved 2013-06-13 
  48. ^ "Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Media Gallery" Mdamil Retrieved 2013-09-17 
  49. ^ Defense ministry mulls introducing ground-based SM-3 interceptor missiles – Mainichijp, 12 August 2014
  50. ^ Japan may accelerate missile defense upgrades in wake of North Korean tests: sources – Reuterscom, 17 October 2016
  51. ^ US, Poland Sign Revised Missile Defense Accord http://wwwglobalsecurityorg/space/library/news/2010/space-100703-voa01htm
  52. ^ "US drops key European missile defense component" Rtcom 2013-03-16 Retrieved 2013-06-13 
  53. ^ a b c "Ballistic Missile Defense" Eucommil 2009-09-17 Retrieved 2013-06-13 
  54. ^ Romania Agrees to Host Ballistic Missile Interceptor http://wwwamericagov/st/eur-english/2010/February/20100204155405esnamfuak08593866html
  55. ^ "Joint Press Availability With Romanian Foreign Minister Teodor Baconschi" Stategov 2011-09-13 Retrieved 2013-06-13 
  56. ^ "Editorial | Rethink the SM-3 Block 2B" SpaceNewscom 2013-02-25 Retrieved 2013-06-13 
  57. ^ de Andrei Luca POPESCU 2013-05-06 "EXCLUSIV Frank Rose, negociatorul scutului de la Deveselu: "Schimbările din programul american de apărare antirachetă au fost determinate de ameninţarea Coreei de Nord " – Gandul" Gandulinfo Retrieved 2013-06-13 
  58. ^ "Lockheed Martin remains sole bidder for new frigates" TR Defence 2012-05-21 Retrieved 2013-06-13 
  59. ^ "Raytheon and HAVELSAN Partner for FFG 7 Fleet Modernization With GENESIS Program" Raytheonmediaroomcom 2009-04-28 Retrieved 2013-06-13 

External linksedit

  • Pros and Cons of Missile Shield in Romania 2010
  • US Navy Fact File: Standard Missile
  • Designation-systems – RIM-161 Standard SM-3
  • GlobalSecurityorg – RIM-161 Standard SM-3
  • Astronautixcom – Raytheon RIM-161 Standard SM-3
  • Obama Shifts Gears on Missile Defense, by Cole Harvey, armscontrolorg, October 2009

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