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Richard Stallman

richard stallman, richard stallman net worth
Richard Matthew Stallman born March 16, 1953, often known by his initials, rms, is an American software freedom activist and programmer He campaigns for software to be distributed in a manner such that its users receive the freedoms to use, study, distribute and modify that software Software that ensures these freedoms is termed free software Stallman launched the GNU Project, founded the Free Software Foundation, developed the GNU Compiler Collection and GNU Emacs, and wrote the GNU General Public License

Stallman launched the GNU Project in September 1983 to create a Unix-like computer operating system composed entirely of free software With this, he also launched the free software movement He has been the GNU project's lead architect and organizer, and developed a number of pieces of widely used GNU software including, among others, the GNU Compiler Collection, the GNU Debugger and the GNU Emacs text editor In October 1985 he founded the Free Software Foundation

Stallman pioneered the concept of copyleft, which uses the principles of copyright law to preserve the right to use, modify and distribute free software, and is the main author of free software licenses which describe those terms, most notably the GNU General Public License GPL, the most widely used free software license

In 1989 he co-founded the League for Programming Freedom Since the mid-1990s, Stallman has spent most of his time advocating for free software, as well as campaigning against software patents, digital rights management, and other legal and technical systems which he sees as taking away users' freedoms, including software license agreements, non-disclosure agreements, activation keys, dongles, copy restriction, proprietary formats and binary executables without source code

As of 2016, he has received fifteen honorary doctorates and professorships see Honors and awards

Contents

  • 1 Early life
    • 11 Harvard University and MIT
  • 2 Events leading to GNU
  • 3 GNU project
  • 4 Activism
    • 41 Copyright reduction
    • 42 Surveillance resistance
  • 5 Terminology
    • 51 Rejections
      • 511 Open source for free software
      • 512 Linux for the GNU Project
  • 6 Personal life
  • 7 Honors and awards
  • 8 Selected publications
  • 9 See also
  • 10 References
  • 11 External links

Early life

Stallman was born to Alice Lippman, a school teacher, and Daniel Stallman, a printing press broker, in 1953 in New York City He was interested in computers at a young age; when Stallman was a pre-teen at a summer camp, he read manuals for the IBM 7094 From 1967 to 1969, Stallman attended a Columbia University Saturday program for high school students Stallman was also a volunteer laboratory assistant in the biology department at Rockefeller University Although he was interested in mathematics and physics, his teaching professor at Rockefeller thought he showed promise as a biologist

His first experience with actual computers was at the IBM New York Scientific Center when he was in high school He was hired for the summer in 1970, following his senior year of high school, to write a numerical analysis program in Fortran He completed the task after a couple of weeks "I swore that I would never use FORTRAN again because I despised it as a language compared with other languages" and spent the rest of the summer writing a text editor in APL and a preprocessor for the PL/I programming language on the IBM System/360

Harvard University and MIT

As a first-year student at Harvard University in fall 1970, Stallman was known for his strong performance in Math 55 He was happy: "For the first time in my life, I felt I had found a home at Harvard"

In 1971, near the end of his first year at Harvard, he became a programmer at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and became a regular in the hacker community, where he was usually known by his initials, RMS which was the name of his computer accounts Stallman graduated from Harvard magna cum laude earning a bachelor's degree in Physics in 1974

Stallman considered staying on at Harvard, but instead he decided to enroll as a graduate student at MIT He ended his pursuit of a doctorate in physics after one year, in order to focus on his programming at the MIT AI Laboratory

While working starting in 1975 as a research assistant at MIT under Gerry Sussman, Stallman published a paper with Sussman in 1977 on an AI truth maintenance system, called dependency-directed backtracking This paper was an early work on the problem of intelligent backtracking in constraint satisfaction problems As of 2009, the technique Stallman and Sussman introduced is still the most general and powerful form of intelligent backtracking The technique of constraint recording, wherein partial results of a search are recorded for later reuse, was also introduced in this paper

As a hacker in MIT's AI laboratory, Stallman worked on software projects such as TECO, Emacs for ITS, and the Lisp machine operating system the CONS of 1974–1976 and the CADR of 1977–1979—this latter unit was commercialized by Symbolics and LMI starting around 1980 He would become an ardent critic of restricted computer access in the lab, which at that time was funded primarily by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency When MIT's Laboratory for Computer Science LCS installed a password control system in 1977, Stallman found a way to decrypt the passwords and sent users messages containing their decoded password, with a suggestion to change it to the empty string that is, no password instead, to re-enable anonymous access to the systems Around 20% of the users followed his advice at the time, although passwords ultimately prevailed Stallman boasted of the success of his campaign for many years afterward

Events leading to GNU

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the hacker culture that Stallman thrived on began to fragment To prevent software from being used on their competitors' computers, most manufacturers stopped distributing source code and began using copyright and restrictive software licenses to limit or prohibit copying and redistribution Such proprietary software had existed before, and it became apparent that it would become the norm This shift in the legal characteristics of software can be regarded as a consequence triggered by the US Copyright Act of 1976, as stated by Stallman's MIT colleague Brewster Kahle

When Brian Reid in 1979 placed time bombs in the Scribe markup language and word processing system to restrict unlicensed access to the software, Stallman proclaimed it "a crime against humanity" During an interview in 2008, he clarified that it is blocking the user's freedom that he believes is a crime, not the issue of charging for the software Stallman's texinfo is a GPL replacement, loosely based on Scribe; the original version was finished in 1986

In 1980, Stallman and some other hackers at the AI Lab were refused access to the source code for the software of a newly installed laser printer, the Xerox 9700 Stallman had modified the software for the Lab's previous laser printer the XGP, Xerographic Printer, so it electronically messaged a user when the person's job was printed, and would message all logged-in users waiting for print jobs if the printer was jammed Not being able to add these features to the new printer was a major inconvenience, as the printer was on a different floor from most of the users This experience convinced Stallman of people's need to be able to freely modify the software they use

Richard Greenblatt, a fellow AI Lab hacker, founded Lisp Machines, Inc LMI to market Lisp machines, which he and Tom Knight designed at the lab Greenblatt rejected outside investment, believing that the proceeds from the construction and sale of a few machines could be profitably reinvested in the growth of the company In contrast, the other hackers felt that the venture capital-funded approach was better As no agreement could be reached, hackers from the latter camp founded Symbolics, with the aid of Russ Noftsker, an AI Lab administrator Symbolics recruited most of the remaining hackers including notable hacker Bill Gosper, who then left the AI Lab Symbolics also forced Greenblatt to resign by citing MIT policies While both companies delivered proprietary software, Stallman believed that LMI, unlike Symbolics, had tried to avoid hurting the lab's community For two years, from 1982 to the end of 1983, Stallman worked by himself to clone the output of the Symbolics programmers, with the aim of preventing them from gaining a monopoly on the lab's computers

Stallman argues that software users should have the freedom to share with their neighbors and be able to study and make changes to the software that they use He maintains that attempts by proprietary software vendors to prohibit these acts are antisocial and unethical The phrase "software wants to be free" is often incorrectly attributed to him, and Stallman argues that this is a misstatement of his philosophy He argues that freedom is vital for the sake of users and society as a moral value, and not merely for pragmatic reasons such as possibly developing technically superior software Eric S Raymond, one of the creators of the open source movement, argues that moral arguments, rather than pragmatic ones, alienate potential allies and hurt the end goal of removing code secrecy

In February 1984, Stallman quit his job at MIT to work full-time on the GNU project, which he had announced in September 1983 Since then, he has remained affiliated with MIT as an unpaid visiting scientist in the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Until "around 1998," he maintained an office at the Institute that doubled as his legal residence

GNU project

Main article: GNU Project Richard Stallman in 2003 at the opening ceremony of NIXAL a GLUG at Netaji Subhash Engineering College, Calcutta, India

Stallman announced the plan for the GNU operating system in September 1983 on several ARPANET mailing lists and USENET

Stallman started the project on his own and describes: "As an operating system developer, I had the right skills for this job So even though I could not take success for granted, I realized that I was elected to do the job I chose to make the system compatible with Unix so that it would be portable, and so that Unix users could easily switch to it"

In 1985, Stallman published the GNU Manifesto, which outlined his motivation for creating a free operating system called GNU, which would be compatible with Unix The name GNU is a recursive acronym for "GNU's Not Unix" Soon after, he started a nonprofit corporation called the Free Software Foundation to employ free software programmers and provide a legal infrastructure for the free software movement Stallman is the nonsalaried president of the FSF, which is a 501c3 nonprofit organization founded in Massachusetts Stallman popularized the concept of copyleft, a legal mechanism to protect the modification and redistribution rights for free software It was first implemented in the GNU Emacs General Public License, and in 1989 the first program-independent GNU General Public License GPL was released By then, much of the GNU system had been completed

Stallman was responsible for contributing many necessary tools, including a text editor Emacs, compiler GCC, debugger GNU Debugger, and a build automator GNU make The notable omission was a kernel In 1990, members of the GNU project began using Carnegie Mellon's Mach microkernel in a project called GNU Hurd, which has yet to achieve the maturity level required for full POSIX compliance

In 1991, Linus Torvalds, a Finnish student, used the GNU's development tools to produce the free monolithic Linux kernel The existing programs from the GNU project were readily ported to run on the resultant platform Most sources use the name Linux to refer to the general-purpose operating system thus formed, while Stallman and the FSF call it GNU/Linux This has been a longstanding naming controversy in the free software community Stallman argues that not using GNU in the name of the operating system unfairly disparages the value of the GNU project and harms the sustainability of the free software movement by breaking the link between the software and the free software philosophy of the GNU project

Cover picture for O'Reilly Media's book Free as in Freedom

Stallman's influences on hacker culture include the name POSIX and the Emacs editor On Unix systems, GNU Emacs's popularity rivaled that of another editor vi, spawning an editor war Stallman's take on this was to canonize himself as St IGNUcius of the Church of Emacs and acknowledge that "vi vi vi is the editor of the beast," while "using a free version of vi is not a sin; it is a penance"

In 1992, developers at Lucid Inc doing their own work on Emacs clashed with Stallman and ultimately forked the software into what would become XEmacs Technology journalist Andrew Leonard has characterized what he sees as Stallman's uncompromising stubbornness as common among elite computer programmers:

There's something comforting about Stallman's intransigence Win or lose, Stallman will never give up He'll be the stubbornest mule on the farm until the day he dies Call it fixity of purpose, or just plain cussedness, his single-minded commitment and brutal honesty are refreshing in a world of spin-meisters and multimillion-dollar marketing campaigns

— Andrew Leonard, Saloncom

Activism

Richard Stallman giving a speech on "Free Software and your freedom" at the biennale du design of Saint-Étienne 2008

Stallman has written many essays on software freedom, and has been an outspoken political campaigner for the free software movement since the early 1990s The speeches he has regularly given are titled The GNU Project and the Free Software Movement, The Dangers of Software Patents, and Copyright and Community in the Age of Computer Networks In 2006 and 2007, during the eighteen month public consultation for the drafting of version 3 of the GNU General Public License, he added a fourth topic explaining the proposed changes

Linus Torvalds has criticized Stallman for what he considers "black-and-white thinking"

Stallman's staunch advocacy for free software inspired the creation of the Virtual Richard M Stallman vrms, software that analyzes the packages currently installed on a Debian GNU/Linux system, and reports those that are from the non-free tree Stallman disagrees with parts of Debian's definition of free software

In 1999, Stallman called for development of a free online encyclopedia through the means of inviting the public to contribute articles The resulting GNUPedia was eventually retired in favour of the emerging Wikipedia, which had similar aims and was enjoying greater success

Stallman is a world traveler and has visited at least 65 countries, mostly to speak about free software and the GNU project According to Stallman, the free software movement has much in common with that of Mahatma Gandhi

In Venezuela, Stallman has delivered public speeches and promoted the adoption of free software in the state's oil company PDVSA, in municipal government, and in the nation's military In meetings with Hugo Chávez and in public speeches, Stallman criticised some policies on television broadcasting, free speech rights, and privacy Stallman was on the Advisory Council of Latin American television station teleSUR from its launch but resigned in February 2011, criticizing pro-Gaddafi propaganda during the Arab Spring

In August 2006, at his meetings with the government of the Indian State of Kerala, he persuaded officials to discard proprietary software, such as Microsoft's, at state-run schools This has resulted in a landmark decision to switch all school computers in 12,500 high schools from Windows to a free software operating system

After personal meetings, Stallman obtained positive statements about the free software movement from the then-president of India, Dr A P J Abdul Kalam, French 2007 presidential candidate Ségolène Royal, and the president of Ecuador Rafael Correa

On November 30, 2012, Stallman gave the opening lecture at the Goiano Free Software Forum in Brazil, talking about successful cases of switching to free software in government, business and at universities

Stallman has participated in protests about software patents, DRM, and proprietary software

Protesting against proprietary software in April 2006, Stallman held a "Don't buy from ATI, enemy of your freedom" placard at a speech by an ATI representative in the building where Stallman worked, resulting in the police being called ATI has since merged with AMD Corporation and has taken steps to make their hardware documentation available for use by the free software community

In response to Apple's Macintosh look and feel lawsuits against Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard in 1988, Stallman called for a boycott of Apple products on the grounds that a successful look-and-feel lawsuit would "put an end to free software that could substitute for commercial software" The boycott was lifted in 1995, which meant the FSF started to accept patches to GNU software for Apple operating systems

Richard M Stallman at Swatantra 2014 International Free Software Conference by ICFOSS in Kerala, India

Stallman has characterized Steve Jobs as having a "malign influence" on computing because of Jobs' leadership in guiding Apple to produce closed platforms In 1993, while Jobs was at NeXT, Jobs asked Stallman if he could distribute a modified GCC in two parts, one part under GPL and the other part, an Objective-C preprocessor under a proprietary license Stallman initially thought this would be legal, but since he also thought it would be "very undesirable for free software", he asked a lawyer for advice The response he got was that judges would consider such schemes to be "subterfuges" and would be very harsh toward them, and a judge would ask whether it was "really" one program, rather than how the parts were labeled Therefore, Stallman sent a message back to Jobs which said they believed Jobs' plan was not allowed by the GPL, which resulted in NeXT releasing the Objective-C front end under GPL

Commenting on Jobs' death, he said

As Chicago Mayor Harold Washington said of the corrupt former Mayor Daley, "I'm not glad he's dead, but I'm glad he's gone"

— Richard Stallman

Stallman's remark stirred up accusations of being in bad taste, while Eric S Raymond, author of The Cathedral and the Bazaar, observed that Stallman's statement was not personal, but was simply criticizing walled gardens

For a period of time, Stallman used a notebook from the One Laptop per Child program Stallman's computer is a refurbished ThinkPad X60 with Libreboot, a free BIOS replacement, and the GNU/Linux distribution Trisquel Before the ThinkPad, Stallman used the Lemote Yeeloong netbook using the same company's Loongson processor which he chose because, like the X60, it could run with free software at the BIOS level, stating "freedom is my priority I've campaigned for freedom since 1983, and I am not going to surrender that freedom for the sake of a more convenient computer" Stallman's Lemote was stolen from him in 2012 while in Argentina Before Trisquel, Stallman has used the gNewSense operating system

Copyright reduction

Stallman has regularly given a talk entitled "Copyright vs Community" where he reviews the state of DRM and names many of the products and corporations which he boycotts His approach to DRM is best summed up by the FSF Defective by Design campaign In the talks, he makes proposals for a "reduced copyright" and suggests a 10-year limit on copyright He suggests that, instead of restrictions on sharing, authors be supported using a tax, with revenues distributed among them based on cubic roots of their popularity to ensure that "fairly successful non-stars" receive a greater share than they do now compare with private copying levy which is associated with proponents of strong copyright, or a convenient anonymous micropayment system for people to support authors directly He indicates that no form of non-commercial sharing of copies should be considered a copyright violation He has advocated civil disobedience in a comment on Ley Sinde

Stallman has also helped and supported the International Music Score Library Project in getting back on-line, after it had been taken down on October 19, 2007 following a cease and desist letter from Universal Edition

Stallman mentions the dangers some e-books bring compared to paper books, with the example of the Amazon Kindle e-reader that prevents the copying of e-books and allows Amazon to order automatic deletion of a book He says that such e-books present a big step backward with respect to paper books by being less easy to use, copy, lend to others or sell, also mentioning that Amazon e-books cannot be bought anonymously His short story "The Right to Read" provides a picture of a dystopian future if the right to share books is impeded He objects to many of the terms within typical end-user license agreements that accompany e-books

Stallman discourages the use of several storage technologies such as DVD or Blu-ray video discs because the content of such media is encrypted He considers manufacturers' use of encryption on non-secret data to force the user to view certain promotional material as a conspiracy

He recognized the Sony BMG copy protection rootkit scandal to be a criminal act by Sony Stallman supports a general boycott of Sony for its legal actions against George Hotz

Richard Stallman using his Lemote machine at Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai before his lecture on 'Free Software, Freedom and Education' organized by Free Software Foundation, Tamil Nadu

Stallman has suggested that the United States government may encourage the use of software as a service because this would allow them to access users' data without needing a search warrant

Surveillance resistance

Stallman professes admiration for whistleblowers Julian Assange and Edward Snowden; he advocates for Snowden in his email signature, which can be found in several mailing lists, after Snowden leaked the PRISM scandal in 2013:

To any NSA and FBI agents reading my email: please consider whether defending the US Constitution against all enemies, foreign or domestic, requires you to follow Snowden's example

— Richard Stallman, email signature

Terminology

Richard Stallman gets into his St IGNUcius avatar Monastir, Tunisia, 2012

Stallman places great importance on the words and labels people use to talk about the world, including the relationship between software and freedom He asks people to say, free software and GNU/Linux, and to avoid the terms intellectual property and piracy in relation to copyright One of his criteria for giving an interview to a journalist is that the journalist agree to use his terminology throughout the article He has been known to turn down speaking requests over some terminology issues

Stallman argues that the term "intellectual property" is designed to confuse people, and is used to prevent intelligent discussion on the specifics of copyright, patent, trademark, and other laws by lumping together areas of law that are more dissimilar, than similar He also argues that by referring to these laws as property laws, the term biases the discussion when thinking about how to treat these issues

These laws originated separately, evolved differently, cover different activities, have different rules, and raise different public policy issues Copyright law was designed to promote authorship and art, and covers the details of a work of authorship or art Patent law was intended to encourage publication of ideas, at the price of finite monopolies over these ideas – a price that may be worth paying in some fields and not in others Trademark law was not intended to promote any business activity, but simply to enable buyers to know what they are buying

— Richard Stallman,

An example of cautioning others to avoid other terminology while also offering suggestions for possible alternatives, is this sentence of an e-mail by Stallman to a public mailing list:

I think it is ok for authors please let's not call them creators, they are not gods to ask for money for copies of their works please let's not devalue these works by calling them content in order to gain income the term compensation falsely implies it is a matter of making up for some kind of damages

— Richard Stallman,

Rejections

Open source for free software

His requests that people use certain terms, and his ongoing efforts to convince people of the importance of terminology, are a source of regular misunderstanding and friction with parts of the free software and open source communities

After initially accepting the concept, Stallman rejects a common alternative term, open source software, because it does not call to mind what Stallman sees as the value of the software: freedom

Free software is a political movement; open source is a development model

— Richard Stallman,

Thus, he believes that the use of the term will not inform people of the freedom issues, and will not lead to people valuing and defending their freedom Two alternatives which Stallman does accept are software libre and unfettered software, but free software is the term he asks people to use in English For similar reasons, he argues for the term "proprietary software" rather than "closed source software", when referring to software that is not free software

Linux for the GNU Project

Main article: GNU/Linux naming controversy

Stallman asks that the term GNU/Linux, which he pronounces "GNU slash Linux", be used to refer to the operating system created by combining the GNU system and the Linux kernel Stallman refers to this operating system as "a variant of GNU, and the GNU Project is its principal developer" He claims that the connection between the GNU project's philosophy and its software is broken when people refer to the combination as merely, Linux Starting around 2003, he began also using the term GNU+Linux, which he pronounces "GNU plus Linux", to prevent others from pronouncing the phrase "GNU/Linux" as "GNU Linux", which would erroneously imply that the Linux kernel is maintained by the GNU project

Personal life

Stallman has a position as an unpaid research affiliate at MIT He has said that he is "an atheist of Jewish ancestry" and often wears a button that reads "Impeach God" He denies being an anarchist despite his wariness of some legislation and the fact that he has "advocated strongly for user privacy and his own view of software freedom"

Stallman refers to mobile phones as "portable surveillance and tracking devices", and says he refuses to own a cell phone until there's one that runs entirely on free software He also avoids using a key card to enter his office building since key card systems track each location and time that someone enters the building using a card According to Stallman, with the exception of a few sites, such as his own website or sites related to his work with GNU and the FSF, he usually does not browse the web directly from his personal computer in order to prevent being connected with his browsing history Instead, he uses wget or similar programs that fetch content from web servers and then send the content to his email

Stallman drinks Pepsi and refuses to drink Coca-Cola because of the unresolved deaths of union workers at Coca-Cola plants in Colombia

Honors and awards

Stallman has received recognition for his work, including:

  • 1986: Honorary lifetime membership of the Chalmers University of Technology Computer Society
  • 1990: Exceptional merit award MacArthur Fellowship "genius grant"
  • 1990: The Association for Computing Machinery's Grace Murray Hopper Award "For pioneering work in the development of the extensible editor EMACS Editing Macros"
  • 1996: Honorary doctorate from Sweden's Royal Institute of Technology
  • 1998: Electronic Frontier Foundation's Pioneer award
  • 1999: Yuri Rubinsky Memorial Award
  • 2001: The Takeda Techno-Entrepreneurship Award for Social/Economic Well-Being 武田研究奨励賞
  • 2001: Honorary doctorate, from the University of Glasgow
  • 2002: United States National Academy of Engineering membership
  • 2003: Honorary doctorate, from the Vrije Universiteit Brussel
  • 2004: Honorary doctorate, from the Universidad Nacional de Salta
  • 2004: Honorary professorship, from the Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería del Perú
  • 2007: Honorary professorship, from the Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega
  • 2007: First Premio Internacional Extremadura al Conocimiento Libre
  • 2007: Honorary doctorate, from the Universidad de Los Angeles de Chimbote
  • 2007: Honorary doctorate, from the University of Pavia
  • 2008: Honorary doctorate from the Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, in Peru
  • 2009: Honorary doctorate, from Lakehead University
  • 2011: Honorary doctorate, from National University of Córdoba
  • 2012: Honorary professorship, from the Universidad César Vallejo de Trujillo, in Peru
  • 2012: Honorary doctorate, from the Universidad Latinoamericana Cima de Tacna, in Peru
  • 2012: Honorary doctorate, from the Universidad José Faustino Sanchez Carrió, in Peru
  • 2014: Honorary doctorate, from Concordia University, in Montréal
  • 2015: ACM Software System Award "For the development and leadership of GCC"
  • 2016: Honorary doctorate, from Pierre and Marie Curie University

Selected publications

Manuals
  • Stallman, Richard M 1980 EMACS: The Extensible, Customizable, Self-Documenting Display Editor Cambridge Massachusetts: MIT: MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory publication AIM-519A 
  • Stallman, Richard M 2002 GNU Emacs Manual Boston, Massachusetts: GNU Press ISBN 1-882114-85-X 
  • Stallman, Richard M; McGrath, Roland; & Smith, Paul D 2004 GNU Make: A Program for Directed Compilation Boston, Massachusetts: GNU Press ISBN 1-882114-83-3  CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list link
Selected essays
  • Stallman, Richard M 2010 Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M Stallman PDF Second ed Boston, Massachusetts: GNU Press ISBN 978-0-9831592-0-9 

See also

  • Biography portal
  • United States portal
  • Free software portal
  • 9882 Stallman
  • History of free and open source software
  • Lisp Machine Lisp
  • Revolution OS
  • vrms
  • Free Software Street

References

  1. ^ a b Stallman, Richard nd "Humorous Bio" Richard Stallman's 1983 biography First edition of "The Hacker's Dictionary" 'Richard Stallman' is just my mundane name; you can call me 'rms'  Missing or empty |url= help; |access-date= requires |url= help
  2. ^ Stallman, Richard September 27, 1983 "Initial GNU announcement" Retrieved November 20, 2008 
  3. ^ "GCC Contributors" 
  4. ^ "Richard Stallman lecture at the Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden October 30, 1986" Retrieved September 21, 2006 
  5. ^ Bernard S Greenberg "Multics Emacs: The History, Design and Implementation" ; "GNU Emacs FAQ" ; Jamie Zawinski "Emacs Timeline" 
  6. ^ Stallman, Richard March 7, 2011 "The Free Software Foundation Management" Free Software Foundation Richard M Stallman, President Retrieved July 21, 2011 
  7. ^ Wheeler, David A "Make Your Open Source Software GPL-Compatible Or Else" Retrieved November 20, 2008 
  8. ^ a b c d e Gross, Michael 1999 "Richard Stallman: High School Misfit, Symbol of Free Software, MacArthur-Certified Genius" interview transcript The More Things Change Retrieved April 9, 2014 
  9. ^ Williams, Sam 2002 Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software O'Reilly Media ISBN 0-596-00287-4  Chapter 3 Available under the GFDL in both the initial O'Reilly edition accessed on October 27, 2006 and the updated FAIFzilla edition Retrieved October 27, 2006
  10. ^ Stallman, Richard M "RMS Berättar" Retrieved September 22, 2009 
  11. ^ a b c d Williams, Sam 2002 "Chapter 6 – The Emacs Commune" Free as in freedom : Richard Stallman's crusade for free software 2nd ed Beijing: O'Reilly ISBN 0-596-00287-4 
  12. ^ a b Williams, Sam 2002 Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software O'Reilly Media ISBN 0-596-00287-4 
  13. ^ a b c d e Lih, Andrew 2009 The Wikipedia Revolution New York City: Hyperion ISBN 978-1-4013-0371-6 OCLC 232977686 
  14. ^ Stallman, Richard "Serious Bio" Retrieved July 17, 2015 
  15. ^ Stallman, Richard M; Sussman, Gerald J 1977 "Forward Reasoning and Dependency-Directed Backtracking in a System for Computer-Aided Circuit analysis" PDF Artificial Intelligence 9 pp 135–196 
  16. ^ a b Russell, Stuart; Norvig, Peter 2009 Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach 3rd ed p 229 
  17. ^ a b Levy, S: Hackers Penguin USA, 1984
  18. ^ Robert X Cringely's interview with Brewster Kahle, around the 46th minute
  19. ^ "Richard Stallman, Live and Unplugged" Q: You once said "the prospect of charging money for software was a crime against humanity" Do you still believe this A: Well, I was not distinguishing the two meanings of free 
  20. ^ "Texinfo - GNU Documentation System - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation FSF" Gnuorg February 19, 2015 Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  21. ^ Gnu Status, by Richard M Stallman 5 Documentation system I now have a truly compatible pair of programs which can convert a file of texinfo format documentation into either a printed manual or an Info file Documentation files are needed for many utilities, February 1986, GNU'S BULLETIN, Volume 1 No1
  22. ^ Williams, Sam 2002 Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software O'Reilly Media ISBN 0-596-00287-4  Chapter 1 Available under the GFDL in both the initial O'Reilly edition accessed on October 27, 2006 and the updated FAIFzilla edition Retrieved October 27, 2006
  23. ^ Various 1999 "Stallman chapter" Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution O'Reilly Media ISBN 1-56592-582-3 Retrieved December 9, 2006 
  24. ^ "The Daemon, the GNU and the Penguin- by Peter H Salus" Groklawnet May 13, 2005 Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  25. ^ "Copyleft: Pragmatic Idealism" Gnuorg Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  26. ^ "History of the Open Source Initiative" Opensourceorg Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  27. ^ "Why I think RMS is a fanatic, and why that matters" Esribiblioorg June 11, 2012 Retrieved July 14, 2013 
  28. ^ http://newsmitedu/2001/stallman-1017
  29. ^ https://wwwcsailmitedu/user/888
  30. ^ https://stallmanorg/rms-lifestylehtml
  31. ^ "new UNIX implementation" Groupsgooglecouk Retrieved March 12, 2010 
  32. ^ Stallman, Richard 1998 "The GNU Project" Free Software Foundation Retrieved July 7, 2012 
  33. ^ DuBois, Steven October 15, 2010 "Free Software Foundation" Free Software Foundation Retrieved July 21, 2011 
  34. ^ "POSIX 10031 FAQ Version 112" February 2, 2006 Retrieved July 16, 2006 
  35. ^ "Richard Stallman: GNU/Linux and a free society" article by Takver Sunday October 10, 2004 on Melbourne Indymedia site Hosted on the Wayback machine
  36. ^ "St IGNUcius web page at wwwstallmanorg" Stallmanorg Retrieved March 12, 2010 
  37. ^ Williams, Sam March 15, 2002 Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallman's Crusade for Free Software O'Reilly Media ISBN 0-596-00287-4 Retrieved November 26, 2006 
  38. ^ "The Lemacs/FSFmacs Schism" Archived from the original on December 12, 2009 Retrieved December 12, 2009 
  39. ^ Leonard, Andrew "Code free or die" Saloncom Retrieved September 21, 2009 
  40. ^ "Transcript of Richard Stallman on the Free Software movement, Zagreb; 2006-03-09" FSFE Retrieved January 17, 2008 
  41. ^ "IFSO: Richard Stallman: The Dangers of Software Patents; 2004-05-24 transcript" Ifsoie Retrieved January 17, 2008 
  42. ^ "GPLv3 – GNU General Public License, version 3" FSFE Retrieved January 17, 2008 
  43. ^ "Black and white" Linus' blog November 2, 2008 Retrieved October 9, 2011 
  44. ^ "The Virtual Richard M Stallman package" Debian Retrieved January 17, 2008 
  45. ^ "#221807 - "vrms and RMS disagree sometimes AND depends on non-free section presence" - Debian Bug report logs" Bugsdebianorg Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  46. ^ Richard Stallman "The Free Universal Encyclopedia and Learning Resource" Retrieved October 15, 2006 
  47. ^ Richard Stallman "The Free Encyclopedia Project" Retrieved October 15, 2011 
  48. ^ a b "The Shaggy God" Bostonmagazinecom Archived from the original on January 5, 2012 Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  49. ^ "FSF India: A Q & A session with Richard M Stallman" Free Software Foundation of India Archived from the original on October 15, 2006 Retrieved November 26, 2006 
  50. ^ "Encounter with President Chavez 2004-12-01 to 2004-12-06 — Free Software Foundation — working together for free software" Fsforg Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  51. ^ "Chavez threatens dignitaries" Stallmanorg 
  52. ^ Daniels, Alfonso July 26, 2005 "Chavez TV beams into South America" The Guardian London Retrieved May 22, 2010 
  53. ^ Stallman, Richard "26 February 2011 Telesur Propaganda" Political notes from 2010: November–February Stallmanorg Retrieved June 7, 2011 
  54. ^ "Kerala logs Microsoft out" The Financial Express Archived from the original on December 8, 2006 Retrieved March 12, 2010 
  55. ^ "Richard Stallman Meets the President of India" Archived from the original on October 16, 2007 
  56. ^ "Meeting between Ségolène Royal and Richard Stallman" Fsforg Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  57. ^ "Success for free software in Latin America!" Retrieved April 20, 2014 
  58. ^ Dionatan Simioni November 9, 2012 "9º Fórum Goiano de Software Livre | Richard Stallman estará lá - Diolinux - Notícias, Tutoriais e Games para Linux" Diolinuxcombr Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  59. ^ "Protest in Brussels against software patents" Wienkpoeat Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  60. ^ "Protest outside and inside MPAA meeting on DRM" Mccullaghorg Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  61. ^ "Protest in France against DRM" Stopdrminfo Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  62. ^ "Protest against ATI nearly led to the arrest of RMS" Free Software Foundation page 
  63. ^ "AMD will deliver open graphics drivers" Itknowledgeexchangetechtargetcom May 9, 2007 Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  64. ^ "GNU's Bulletin, vol 1 no 5 - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation" Gnuorg June 11, 1988 Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  65. ^ "GNU's Bulletin, vol 1 no 18 - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation" Gnuorg Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  66. ^ a b Clarke, Gavin October 10, 2011 "Stallman: Jobs exerted 'malign influence' on computing" Theregistercouk Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  67. ^ a b Stallman, Richard "06 October 2011 Steve Jobs" Political notes from 2011: July–October Stallmanorg Retrieved February 16, 2012 
  68. ^ "I hate to have to play this role with a fellow hacker, but" Clispcvssourceforgenet Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  69. ^ a b "How I do my computing" Archived from the original on April 10, 2016 Retrieved June 11, 2016 
  70. ^ "the setup is a bunch of nerdy interviews: What do people use to get the job done" Richardstallmanusesthiscom January 23, 2010 Retrieved March 12, 2010 
  71. ^ Guillermo Rauch June 9, 2012 "Richard Stallman has his bag stolen in Argentina" Devthoughtcom Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  72. ^ "An interview with Richard Stallman" Richardstallmanusesthiscom January 23, 2010 Retrieved July 2, 2011 
  73. ^ "GNU/Linux Meeting 2014: Richard Stallman è approdato a Palermo" HTMLit in Italian April 3, 2014 Retrieved July 17, 2014 
  74. ^ Richard Stallman April 17, 2012 "Technology should help us share, not constrain us" The Guardian / Guardian News and Media Limited 
  75. ^ a b c Miguel Mora June 8, 2011 "La 'ley Sinde' es tan injusta que debería ser desobedecida" El País in Spanish Ediciones El País, SL Retrieved April 1, 2013 
  76. ^ "Richard Stallman Opts to Disobey Anti-Piracy Law" TorrentFreakcom June 10, 2011 Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  77. ^ a b "Main page of the IMSLP" wikidotcom December 6, 2011 Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  78. ^ Richard Stallman 2011–2013 "The Danger of E-Books" Free Software Foundation Retrieved March 27, 2013 
  79. ^ Stallman, Richard "Why Upgrade to GPLv3" GNU Project Free Software Foundation Retrieved October 16, 2014 Under the and similar laws, it is illegal to distribute DVD players unless they restrict the user according to the official rules of the DVD conspiracy 
  80. ^ "Boycott Sony" Defectivebydesignorg Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  81. ^ Arthur, Charles December 14, 2010 "Google's ChromeOS means losing control of data, warns GNU founder Richard Stallman" guardiancouk Guardian Retrieved February 16, 2012 
  82. ^ Adhikari, Richard "Why Richard Stallman Takes No Shine to Chrome" LinuxInsider, December 15, 2010
  83. ^ Stallman, Richard September 20, 2011 "Who does that server really serve" GNU, Boston Review Retrieved January 15, 2012 
  84. ^ Hill, Benjamin Mako February 1, 2009 "Show Me the Code" Revealing Errors Retrieved January 15, 2012  Assange, Julian April 9, 2011 "Interview Assange and RMS" London: RT Retrieved January 15, 2012 Facebook, Google, Yahoo– all these major US organizations have built-in interfaces for US intelligence It's not a matter of serving a subpoena They have an interface that they have developed for US intelligence to use 
  85. ^ "'Join fight for privacy now!' Stallman on Snowden & how to escape surveillance" RT News July 17, 2013 Retrieved July 17, 2014 
  86. ^ "Richard Stallman: surveillance is incompatible with democracy" Livemintcom January 22, 2014 Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  87. ^ "Leader of the Free World, ''Wired'' Magazine, Issue 1111, November 2003" Wiredcom September 17, 1991 Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  88. ^ a b "Linux, GNU, Freedom by Richard M Stallman" Gnuorg Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  89. ^ "Transcript of Richard Stallman speaking on GPLv3 in Torino" March 18, 2006 Everyone who uses the term intellectual property is either confused himself or trying to confuse you 
  90. ^ "Did You Say "Intellectual Property" It's a Seductive Mirage by Richard M Stallman" Gnuorg Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  91. ^ "Email "IP Justice Comment on Top Policy Issues for Athens"" Mailfsfeuropeorg Retrieved March 12, 2010 
  92. ^ Tiemann, Michael "History of the OSI" Open Source Initiative Archived from the original on April 12, 2014 Retrieved April 16, 2014 
  93. ^ "Why "Free Software" is better than "Open Source"" Gnuorg Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  94. ^ "Words to Avoid or Use with Care Because They Are Loaded or Confusing" Free Software Foundation Retrieved July 17, 2014 
  95. ^ Richard Stallman April 24, 1992 "Why Software Should Be Free" gnuorg 
  96. ^ "What's in a name by Richard Stallman" Gnuorg September 20, 2000 Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  97. ^ "Stallman shares Takeda award of nearly $1M" MIT October 17, 2001 Retrieved November 26, 2006 
  98. ^ "The Basement Interviews-Freeing the Code" PDF IA March 21, 2006 Retrieved April 25, 2013 
  99. ^ François Proulx "Richard Stallman" Flickr Retrieved September 2, 2011 
  100. ^ "Stallman joins the Internet, talks net neutrality, patents and more" Network World March 23, 2015 
  101. ^ "GPLv3 - Transcript of Richard Stallman from the third international GPLv3 conference, Barcelona; 2006-06-22" in Catalan Fsfeuropeorg June 22, 2006 Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  102. ^ "A Rare Glimpse into Richard Stallman's World" Informationweekcom January 6, 2006 Retrieved July 22, 2012 
  103. ^ Stallman, Richard December 15, 2007 "Real men don't attack straw men" OpenBSD 'misc' Mailing List Retrieved March 24, 2009 For personal reasons, I do not browse the web from my computer 
  104. ^ Lih, Andrew 2009 The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia London: Aurum p 28 ISBN 9781845134730 OCLC 280430641 At the podium, where he often stands barefoot, he insists on drinking Pepsi, absolutely shunning its competitor in protest of the suspicious murders of unionized workers at Coca-Cola plants in Colombia 
  105. ^ "Event details: Talk by Richard rms Stallman" Chalmers University of Technology Retrieved April 8, 2012 
  106. ^ Archived March 7, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  107. ^ a b "Richard Stallman - Award Winner" ACM Awards Association for Computing Machinery Retrieved April 28, 2016 
  108. ^ "KTH | Honorary doctors at KTH" Kthse November 19, 2014 Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  109. ^ "EFF: Torvalds, Stallman, Simons Win 1998 Pioneer Awards" W2efforg Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  110. ^ "ahrefcom > Guides > Industry > WWW8 Notes: Open-Source Software and Software Patents" webarchiveorg Retrieved April 2, 2015 
  111. ^ "The Takeda Foundation" Takeda-foundationjp Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  112. ^ "University of Glasgow :: University news :: Archive of news :: 2001 :: February :: University announces honorary degrees to celebrate 550th anniversary" Glaacuk February 1, 2001 Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  113. ^ "NAE Website - Dr Richard M Stallman" Naeedu Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  114. ^ "Vrije Universiteit Brussel" Vubacbe Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  115. ^ "RESOLUCIÓN CS N° 204/04" Bounsaeduar Retrieved March 12, 2010 
  116. ^ "Richard Matthew Stallman ofrecerá conferencia orientada al uso del software libre" Nota de Prensa Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería del Perú Retrieved April 8, 2012 
  117. ^ "Universidad Garcilaso realizó Conferencia Magistral a cargo del Dr Richard Stallman" Noticias Garcilasinas Universidad Inca Garcilaso de la Vega Archived from the original on June 23, 2012 Retrieved April 8, 2012 
  118. ^ "El padre del software libre, Premio Internacional Extremadura" 20minutoses Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  119. ^ University of Pavia "Laurea in Ingegneria Informatica a Richard Stallman" 
  120. ^ "RMS Given Honorary Degree at Lakehead" YouTubecom May 31, 2009 Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  121. ^ "Honorary Degree Recipients" Agoralakeheaduca May 21, 2009 Retrieved March 27, 2015 
  122. ^ National University of Córdoba August 16, 2011 "Honoris Causa para Richard Stallman, el gurú del software libre" in Spanish 
  123. ^ "Concordia awards 3 new honorary doctorates" 
  124. ^ "Cérémonie des docteurs honoris causa 2016" 

External links

  • Official website
  • Richard Stallman at DMOZ
  • Essays on the Philosophy of the GNU Project, almost all written by Stallman
  • Works by Richard Stallman at Project Gutenberg
  • Works by or about Richard Stallman at Internet Archive

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