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Republic of Karelia

republic of karelia, republic of karelia map
The Republic of Karelia Russian: Респу́блика Каре́лия, tr Respublika Kareliya; IPA: rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə kɐˈrʲelʲɪjə; Karelian: Karjalan tazavalda; Finnish: Karjalan tasavalta; Veps: Karjalan Tazovaldkund is a federal subject of Russia a republic, located in the northwest of Russia Its capital is the city of Petrozavodsk Its population in 2010 was 643,5488

The modern Karelian Republic was founded as an autonomous republic within the Russian SFSR by the Resolution of the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee VTsIK of June 27, 1923 and by the Decree of the VTsIK and the Council of People's Commissars of July 25, 1923 from the Karelian Labor Commune

From 1940 to 1956, it was known as the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic, one of the union republics in the Soviet Union In 1956, it was once again an autonomous republic and remains as part of Russia after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991

Contents

  • 1 Geography
    • 11 Geology
    • 12 Rivers
    • 13 Lakes
    • 14 National parks
    • 15 Natural resources
    • 16 Climate
  • 2 Administrative divisions
  • 3 History
  • 4 Politics
  • 5 Demographics
    • 51 Vital statistics
    • 52 Ethnic groups
    • 53 Languages
    • 54 Religion
  • 6 Economy
    • 61 Industry
  • 7 Transportation
    • 71 Railroad
    • 72 Foreign trade
  • 8 Culture
  • 9 See also
  • 10 References
    • 101 Notes
    • 102 Sources
  • 11 External links

Geographyedit

The republic is in the northwestern part of Russia, taking intervening position between the White and Baltic Seas The White Sea has a shore line of 630 kilometers 390 mi It has an area of 172,400 km2 66,600 sq mi It shares internal borders with Murmansk Oblast north, Arkhangelsk Oblast east/south east, Vologda Oblast south east/south, and Leningrad Oblast south/south west, and it also borders Finland; the borders measure 723 km The main bodies of water next to Karelia are the White Sea an inlet of the Barents Sea to the north-east and Lake Onega and Lake Ladoga both shared with neighbouring Oblasts to the south Its highest point is the Nuorunen peak at 576 m 1,890 ft

Geological map of the Nordics in Norwegian

Geologyedit

As a part of the Fennoscandian Shield's ancient Karelian craton, most of the Republic of Karelia's surficial geology is Archaean or Paleoproterozoic, dated up to 34 billion years in the Vodlozero block This area is the largest contiguous Archaean outcrop in Europe and one of the largest in the world

Riversedit

There are about 27,000 rivers in Karelia Major rivers include:

  • Vodla River Vodlajoki, 149 km
  • Kem River Kemijoki, 191 km
  • Kovda River Koutajoki
  • Shuya River Suojoki
  • Suna River Suunujoki with Kivach Falls Kivatšun vesiputous
  • Vyg River Uikujoki

Lakesedit

Largest cities of the Republic of Karelia The Regions of North and South Karelia lie in Finland and the Karelian Republic in Russia The Karelian Isthmus is now part of Leningrad Oblast

There are 60,000 lakes in Karelia The republic's lakes and swamps contain about 2,000 km³ of high-quality fresh water Lake Ladoga Finnish: Laatokka and Lake Onega Ääninen are the largest lakes in Europe Other lakes include:

  • Nyukozero Nuokkijärvi
  • Pyaozero Pääjärvi
  • Segozero Seesjärvi
  • Syamozero Säämäjärvi
  • Topozero Tuoppajärvi
  • Vygozero Uikujärvi

Lakes Ladoga and Onega are located on the south of the republic

National parksedit

  • Vodlozero National Park
  • Kalevala National Park
  • Paanajärvi National Park

Natural resourcesedit

The majority of the republic's territory 148,000 km², or 85% is composed of state forest stock The total growing stock of timber resources in the forests of all categories and ages is 807 million m³ The mature and over mature tree stock amounts to 4118 million m³, of which 3752 million m³ is coniferous

Fifty useful minerals are found in Karelia, located in more than 400 deposits and ore bearing layers Natural resources of the republic include iron ore, diamonds, vanadium, molybdenum, and others

Climateedit

The Republic of Karelia is located in the Atlantic continental climate zone Average temperature in January is −80 °C 176 °F and +164 °C 615 °F in July Average annual precipitation is 500–700 mm12

Administrative divisionsedit

Main article: Administrative divisions of the Republic of Karelia

Historyedit

Main article: History of Karelia

Historically, Karelia was a region to the northwest of Russia, east of present-day Finland, controlled by the Novgorod Republic From the 13th century and onwards, various parts were conquered by Sweden, and incorporated into Swedish Karelia until they were lost to Russia by the Treaty of Nystad in 1721

In 1920, the province became the Karelian Labour Commune In 1923, the province became the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Karelian ASSR From 1940, it was made into the Karelo-Finnish SSR, incorporating the Finnish Democratic Republic which nominally operated in those parts of Finnish Karelia that were occupied by the Soviet Union during the Winter War Annexed territories were incorporated into Karelo-Finnish SSR, but after the Continuation War the Karelian Isthmus was incorporated into the Leningrad Oblast Its status was changed back to an ASSR in 1956 During the Continuation War in 1941 Finland occupied large parts of the area but was forced to withdraw in 1944 Though Finland is not currently pursuing any measures to reclaim Karelian lands ceded to Russia, the "Karelian Question" is still a topic present in Finnish politics, but it has never been discussed officiallycitation needed

The autonomous Republic of Karelia in its present form was formed on November 13, 1991

Politicsedit

Seat of the Legislative Assembly of Karelia

The highest executive authority in the Republic of Karelia is the Head of the Republic The acting Head of the Republic is Artur Parfenchikov, who was appointed in February 2017

The parliament of the Republic of Karelia is the Legislative Assembly comprising fifty deputies elected for a four-year term

The Constitution of the Republic of Karelia was adopted on February 12, 2001

Demographicsedit

Early 20th-century photo of a bridge across the Shuya River

Population: 643,548 2010 Census;8 645,205 2002 Census;13 791,317 1989 Census14

Vital statisticsedit

Average population x 1000 Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate per 1000 Crude death rate per 1000 Natural change per 1000 Fertility rates
1970 714 11,346 5,333 6,013 159 75 84
1975 723 12,748 6,086 6,662 176 84 92
1980 741 12,275 7,374 4,901 166 100 66
1985 770 13,201 8,205 4,996 171 107 65
1990 792 10,553 8,072 2,481 133 102 31 1,87
1991 790 8,982 8,305 677 114 105 09 1,62
1992 788 7,969 9,834 -1,865 101 125 -24 1,46
1993 782 7,003 11,817 -4,814 90 151 -62 1,30
1994 774 6,800 13,325 -6,525 88 172 -84 1,26
1995 767 6,729 12,845 -6,116 88 167 -80 1,24
1996 760 6,461 11,192 -4,731 85 147 -62 1,19
1997 753 6,230 10,306 -4,076 83 137 -54 1,15
1998 747 6,382 10,285 -3,903 85 138 -52 1,18
1999 740 6,054 11,612 -5,558 82 157 -75 1,12
2000 732 6,374 12,083 -5,709 87 165 -78 1,18
2001 725 6,833 12,597 -5,764 94 174 -79 1,25
2002 717 7,247 13,435 -6,188 101 187 -86 1,33
2003 707 7,290 14,141 -6,851 103 200 -97 1,32
2004 696 7,320 13,092 -5,772 105 188 -83 1,31
2005 686 6,952 12,649 -5,697 101 184 -83 1,24
2006 676 6,938 11,716 -4,778 103 173 -71 1,22
2007 667 7,319 11,007 -3,688 110 165 -55 1,28
2008 659 7,682 11,134 -3,452 117 169 -52 1,35
2009 651 7,884 10,599 -2,715 121 163 -42 1,58
2010 644 7,821 10,471 -2,650 121 162 -41 1,58
2011 641 7,711 9,479 -1,768 120 147 -27 1,60
2012 640 8,027 9,804 -1,777 126 154 -28 1,71
2013 636 7,553 9,285 -1,732 119 146 -27 1,65
2014 634 7,816 9,245 -1,429 123 146 -23 1,74
2015 631 7,731 9,648 -1,917 122 153 -31 1,76e

Ethnic groupsedit

According to the 2010 Census,8 ethnic Russians make up 822% of the republic's population, ethnic Karelians 74% Other groups include Belarusians 38%, Ukrainians 2%, Finns 14%, Vepsians 05%, and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 05% of the total population

Ethnic
group
1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002 census 2010 census1
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Russians 153,967 572% 296,529 632% 412,773 627% 486,198 681% 522,230 713% 581,571 736% 548,941 766% 507,654 822%
Karelians 100,781 374% 108,571 232% 85,473 130% 84,180 118% 81,274 111% 78,928 100% 65,651 92% 45,570 74%
Belarusians 555 02% 4,263 09% 71,900 109% 66,410 93% 59,394 81% 55,530 70% 37,681 53% 23,345 38%
Ukrainians 708 03% 21,112 45% 23,569 36% 27,440 38% 23,765 32% 28,242 36% 19,248 27% 12,677 20%
Finns 2,544 09% 8,322 18% 27,829 42% 22,174 31% 20,099 27% 18,420 23% 14,156 20% 8,577 14%
Vepsians 8,587 32% 9,392 20% 7,179 11% 6,323 09% 5,864 08% 5,954 08% 4,870 07% 3,423 05%
Others 2,194 08% 20,709 44% 29,869 45% 20,726 29% 19,565 27% 21,505 27% 25,734 36% 16,422 27%
1 25,880 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group15

Languagesedit

Currently Russian is the only official language of the republic Karelian, Veps and Finnish are officially recognized languages of the republic since 2004, and their survival is promoted16 Finnish was the second official language of Karelia from the Winter War 1940 annex of Finnish territories up until the 1980s,17 when perestroika began Thereafter there were suggestions to raise Karelian as the second official language, but they were repeatedly turned down16

Religionedit

Religion in Karelia 20121819

  Russian Orthodox 27%   Unaffiliated Christian 2%   Protestant 1%   Spiritual but not religious 44%   Atheist 18%   Other or undeclared 8%

The Karelians have traditionally been Russian Orthodox Lutheranism was brought to the area by the Finnish immigrants during Sweden's conquest of Karelia and was common in regions that then belonged to Finland Some Lutheran parishes remain in Karelia

According to a 2012 survey18 27% of the population of Karelia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, and 1% are members of Protestant churches In addition, 44% of the population declared to be "spiritual but not religious", 18% is atheist, and 8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question18

Economyedit

Karelia's gross regional product GRP in 2007 was 1095 billion rubles20 This amounts to 151,210 rubles per capita, which is somewhat lower than the national average of 198,817 rubles21 The Karelian economy's GRP in 2010 was estimated at 1277338 million rublescitation needed

Industryedit

Industrial activity in Karelia is dominated by the forest and wood processing sector Timber logging is carried out by a large number of small enterprises whereas pulp and paper production is concentrated in five large enterprises, which produce about a quarter of Russia's total output of paper22 Three largest companies in the pulp and paper sector in 2001 were: OAO Kondopoga sales of $2094 mln in 2001, Segezha Pulp and Paper Mill $957 mln and OAO Pitkjaranta Pulp Factory $237 mln12

In 2007, extractive industries including extraction of metal ores amounted to 30% of the republic's industrial output20 There are about 53 mining companies in Karelia, employing more than 10,000 people23 One of the most important companies in the sector is AO Karelian Pellet, which is the 5th largest of Russia's 25 mining and ore dressing enterprises involved in ore extraction and iron ore concentrate production Other large companies in the sector were OAO Karelnerud, Mosavtorod State Unitary Enterprise and Pitkjaranta Mining Directorate State Unitary Enterprise12

Processing industries contributed 56,4% of the overall production in 2007 The latter figure includes pulp-and-paper 236%, metals and metal-working 79%, woodworking 71%, foodstuffs 58% and machine-building 39% Production and distribution of electricity, natural gas and water made up 136% of the region's output20

Transportationedit

Railroadedit

There is a federal railway see Murmansk Railway across Karelia that connects Murmansk Region with St Petersburg, Moscow, the center of Russia and with Finland The railroad crosses Petrozavodsk, Kondopoga

Karelia has a relatively well developed network of transport infrastructure Water communications connect Karelia with the Barents, Baltic, Black and Caspian Seas through the system of rivers, lakes and canals A federal railway see Murmansk Railway and automobile highways cross Karelia and connect Murmansk Region and Murmansk sea port with St Petersburg, Moscow, the center of Russia and with Finland Regular airline service connects Petrozavodsk with Joensuu and Helsinki in Finland24 A fast fibre-optic cable link connecting Finnish Kuhmo and Karelian Kostomuksha was built in 2007, providing fast telecommunications20

Foreign tradeedit

The Republic's main export partners in 2001 were Finland 32% of total exports, Germany 7%, Netherlands 7% and the United Kingdom 6%12 Main export products were lumber over 50%, iron ore pellets 13–15% paper and cardboard 6–9% and sawn timber with 5–7% Many of Karelia's companies have received investments from Finland12

Cultureedit

View of the old town of Kem in 1916, photograph by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky

Karelia is sometimes called "the songlands" in the Finnish culture, as Karelian poems constitute most of the Karelo-Finnish epic Kalevala

See alsoedit

  • Music of Karelia
  • Sami music
  • Pegrema
  • Karelian Isthmus

Referencesedit

Notesedit

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе» Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст 2112, 15 мая 2000 г President of the Russian Federation Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District Effective as of May 13, 2000
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов 2 Экономические районы», в ред Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР Gosstandart of the Russian Federation #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions 2 Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER
  3. ^ "Карельский государственный архив новейшей истории Путеводитель" Приложение "Административно-территориальное устройство Республики Карелия" 2003
  4. ^ Official website of the Republic of Karelia Artur Olegovich Parfenchikov
  5. ^ Constitution, Article 46
  6. ^ Constitution, Article 32
  7. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики Federal State Statistics Service 2004-05-21 "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation" Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года All-Russia Population Census of 2002 in Russian Federal State Statistics Service Retrieved 2011-11-01 
  8. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service 2011 "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года Том 1" 2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol 1 Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года 2010 All-Russia Population Census in Russian Federal State Statistics Service Retrieved June 29, 2012 
  9. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population
  10. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г «Об исчислении времени», в ред Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"» Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования 6 августа 2011 г Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г Government of the Russian Federation Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time" Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication
  11. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 681 of the Constitution of Russia
  12. ^ a b c d e "Republic of Karelia" Russia: All Regions Trade & Investment Guide CTEC Publishing LLC 2003 
  13. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service May 21, 2004 "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000 XLS Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года All-Russia Population Census of 2002 in Russian Retrieved August 9, 2014 
  14. ^ Demoscope Weekly 1989 "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года All-Union Population Census of 1989 in Russian Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics Retrieved August 9, 2014 
  15. ^ http://wwwperepis-2010ru/news/detailphpID=6936
  16. ^ a b Karelian, Vepps, and Finnish languages have got the state support in the Republic of Karelia The Official Web Portal of the Republic of Karelia 2004
  17. ^ http://wwwhelsinki-hsnet/newsaspid=20020129IE17
  18. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia Sredaorg
  19. ^ 2012 Survey Maps "Ogonek", № 34 5243, 27/08/2012 Retrieved 24-09-2012
  20. ^ a b c d The Republic of Karelia in 2007 Helsinki School of Economics
  21. ^ Валовой региональный продукт на душу населения Федеральная служба государственной статистики
  22. ^ Regional characteristics Republic of Karelia Helsinki School of Economics
  23. ^ "Mining industry of the republic has summed up its work in the first six months of the year" Republic of Karelia Retrieved 2009-08-03 
  24. ^ The Republic of Karelia

Sourcesedit

  • Верховный Совет Карельской АССР №473-ЗРК 30 мая 1978 г «Конституция Республики Карелия», в ред Закона №1314-ЗРК от 16 июля 2009 г «О внесении изменений в Конституцию Республики Карелия» Опубликован: отдельной брошюрой Supreme Soviet of the Karelian ASSR #473-ZRK May 30, 1978 Constitution of the Republic of Karelia, as amended by the Law #1314-ZRK of July 16, 2009 On Amending the Constitution of the Republic of Karelia

External linksedit

  • in English in Russian in Finnish Official website of the Republic of Karelia
  • in English in Russian in Finnish Kareliaru web server
  • in English in Russian in Finnish Heninennet - various information about Karelia
  • in English Information about Karelians
  • in English Tracing Finland's eastern border-thisisFINLAND
  • in English Saimaa Canal links two Karelias-thisisFINLAND
  • in English ProKarelia also available in other languages

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