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Republic of China Air Force

republic of china air force, republic of china air force aircraft
The Republic of China Air Force ROCAF; Chinese: 中華民國空軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Kōngjūn is the aviation branch of the Taiwanese military The ROCAF's primary mission is the defense of the airspace over and around Taiwan Priorities of the ROCAF include the development of long range reconnaissance and surveillance networks, integrating C4ISTAR systems to increase battle effectiveness, procuring counterstrike weapons, next generation fighters, and hardening airfields and other facilities to survive a surprise attack

In May 2005, the Ministry of National Defense indicated its intention to transfer command of all defensive missile systems to the ROCAF, while future offensive missiles would be placed under a newly formed missile command As of 2006, all medium and long range SAM units were transferred from ROC Army's Missile Command to ROCAF, while ROCAF's airbase security units were transferred to ROC Army Military Police But it's revealed in January 2011, 5 years of problems of integrating those long range ex-ROC Army SAM units into ROCAF has forced ROCAF high command to return those units back to ROC Army's Missile Command Missile Command is now directly under Defense Ministry's GHQ control

In July 2010, former United States Air Force deputy under secretary for international affairs, Bruce Lemkin said that Taiwan's ability to defend its airspace had degraded due to its aging fighters and that the sale of new fighter aircraft to Taiwan was an urgent priority2 On 21 September 2011, it was announced that the US had agreed to a US$5 billion upgrade to the F-16s3 In 2012 Rob Nabors wrote that the United States was considering the sale of fighter aircraft to the ROC4

Contents

  • 1 Organization
    • 11 Republic of China Air Force Command Headquarters
  • 2 History
    • 21 Humanitarian operations
  • 3 Equipment and procurement
    • 31 Domestic development
    • 32 Foreign procurement
  • 4 Aircraft
    • 41 Current inventory
    • 42 Armament
    • 43 Air Defense
  • 5 ROCAF Squadron emblems
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
    • 71 Citations
  • 8 External links

Organizationedit

Like most of the other branches of the ROC armed forces, much of the ROCAF's structure and organization is patterned after the United States Air Force Like the USAF, the ROCAF used to have a wing → group → squadron structure After November 2004, tactical fighter wing switch to wing → Tactical Fighter Group, with some fighter squadrons stood down, with each tactical fighter group, still pretty much the same size as a squadron, now commanded by a full colonel

Republic of China Air Force Command Headquartersedit

Air Force GHQ is subordinate to the Chief of the General Staff military, the Minister of National Defense civilian and the President
  • Internal Units: Personnel, Combat Readiness and Training, Logistics, Planning, Communications, Electronics & Information, General Affairs, Comptroller, Inspector General, Political Warfare
  • Air Force Combatant Command
  • Weather Wing: Tamsui, New Taipei City
  • Communications, Air Traffic Control & Information Wing : Taipei City
  • Air Tactical Control Wing
  • Ground fixed and mobile long-range air search radar sites, consist of various TPS-117, TPS-75V, FPS-117, GE-592 and HADR radars, plus 1 PAVE PAWS Phased Array Warning System early warning radar site in northern Taiwan, will enter service late 2012
  • Air Defense Artillery Command
  • 4 Air Defense Missile & Artillery brigades, 951st Taipei, 952nd Taichung, 953rd Kaoshung, 954th Hualien
  • 4 Air Defense Missile I-HAWK battalions, 621st, 622nd, 662nd, and 664th battalions, with Phase III and 7 Phase I batteries
  • 1 TK-1/2 Air Defense Missile battalion, 951st Brigade, 611st battalion with 6 companies/batteries
  • 1 Patriot PAC-2+ GEM/PAC-3 Air Defense/Anti-Ballistic Missile battalion, with 3 mixed companies/batteries that are all upgrading to PAC-3 standard, with 7 more PAC 3 companies/batteries on order
  • 1 Skyguard Short Range Airbase Air Defense battalion, with 6 companies/batteries and radar sub units with OTO 35mm AAA, s
  • 2 Antelope Short Range Airbase Air Defense battalions, with unknown companies/batteries
  • At least 2 AAA Air Defense Artillery battalions, with 40mm/L60 and 127mm AAA guns
  • Air Defense Artillery Training Center: Pingtung
    • Target Service Squadron
    • Education Service Support Company
    • First training company
    • Second training company
    • Third training company
  • Education, Training & Doctrine Command

Historyedit

Main articles: List of aircraft used in China before 1937 and Development of Chinese Nationalist air force 1937–1945 Air force hero killed during the Second Sino-Japanese War/WWII, ace fighter pilot Colonel Gao Zhihang

Formally established in 1920 as the Aviation Ministry, the ROCAF was active during the tenure of the ROC on Mainland China In this period, various airplanes were purchased and deployed by warlords in their struggle for power until nominal Chinese reunification in 1928 In February 1932, US Reserve Lt Robert McCawley Short, who was transporting armed Chinese aircraft, shot down an IJN aircraft on February 19, 1932, and downed another on February 22 before he was killed he was posthumously raised to the rank of colonel in the Chinese Air Service

During the Second Sino-Japanese War 1937–1945, the ROCAF participated in attacks on Japanese warships on the eastern front and along the Yangtze river including support for the Battle of Shanghai in 1937 The Chinese frontline fighter aircraft initially were mainly the Curtiss Hawk II and III and the Boeing P-26 model 281, and engaged Japanese fighters in many major air battles beginning on August 14, 1937, when Imperial Japanese Navy warplanes raided Chienchiao airbase; "814" has thus become known as "Air Force Day" Chinese Boeing P-26/281 fighters engaged Japanese Mitsubishi A5M fighters in what is among the world's first aerial dogfighting between all-metal monoplane fighter aircraft A unique mission in April 1938 saw two Chinese B-10 bombers fly a mission over Japan, but dropping only propaganda leaflets over the Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Saga It was a war of attrition for the Chinese pilots, as many of their most experienced ace fighter pilots, such as Lieutenant Liu Tsui-Kang and Colonel Kao Chih-Hang were lost early in the war

In the latter-half of the Sino-Japanese War, part of World War II, the ROCAF was augmented by a volunteer group of American pilots the Flying Tigers in 19415 Throughout the war, the ROCAF was involved in attacks on Japanese air and ground forces in the Chinese theatre

ROCAF General HQ was established in June 1946 From 1946 to 1948, during the Chinese Civil War, the ROCAF participated in combat against the People's Liberation Army engaging in air-to-air combat on at least eleven occasions in the areas surrounding the Taiwan Strait The ROCAF reportedly enjoyed a 31:1 kill ratio against the PLA GHQ was evacuated to Taiwan along with the rest of the ROC Government in April 1949 following the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War The ROCAF assisted in halting the PLA advance at the Battle of Kuningtou on Kinmen the same year

The ROCAF regularly patrolled the Taiwan Straits and fought many engagements with its Communist counterpart the PLAAF The ROCAF received second hand equipment from the US at that time, such as the F-86 Sabrejets, F-100 and F-104

During the Cold War, the ROCAF was involved in combat air patrols over the Taiwan Strait and engaged the PLAAF and PLAN-AF on several occasions The ROCAF was also the testbed of American technology at this time The first successful kill scored by an air-to-air missile was accomplished by an ROCAF F-86 Sabrejet with then experimental AIM-9 Sidewinder ROCAF pilots also flew U-2 recon overflights of the PRC during this time with assistance from the USAF Known as the Black Cat Squadron they flew a total of 220 missions, with 102 missions over mainland China, losing 5 planes All five were shot down by SA-2 surface-to-air missiles, the same type of surface-to-air missile that shot down Gary Powers over the USSR in 1960 The 34th "Black Bat Squadron" flew low level missions into China as part of its mapping PRC growing air defense networks, conducting ESM and ECM missions, inserting agents behind enemy lines, and air drop resupply missions

Since November 1967, the ROC secretly operated a cargo transport detachment to assist the US and the ROV It was based on existing formation of the 34th squadron of ROC Air force The unit's strength included two cargo aircraft, seven flight officers and two mechanics, even though a higher number of military personnel was involved through rotation It was tasked with air transportation, airdrop and electronic reconnaissance Some 25 members of the unit were killed, among them 17 pilots and co-pilots, and three aircraft were lost Other ROC involvement in Vietnam included a secret listening station, special reconnaissance and raiding squads, military advisers and civilian airline operations which cost a further two aircraft due to Vietnamese individually operated AA missiles1

Humanitarian operationsedit

The ROCAF has also taken part in numerous humanitarian operations Some of the more major ones include the following:

  • Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, December 200467
  • Haiti earthquake, January 201089
  • Typhoon Haiyan, November 2013610

Equipment and procurementedit

Retired ROCAF aircraft on permanent display at the ROC Air Force Academy IDF F-CK-1B Display in Chiayi AFB Republic of China Air Force fin flash near Songshan airport

Current ROCAF inventory includes over 400 combat aircraft, the mainstays being the AIDC F-CK-1 Ching-kuo IDF Indigenous Defense Fighter and F-16 while the Mirage 2000-5 provides the most formidable air-defense capabilities Older F-5 fighters are gradually being phased out but remain in service

The United States serves as the ROCAF's main supplier of equipment and also provides training for ROCAF and ROC Navy pilots at Luke AFB in Arizona This base which is between Phoenix and Tucson has an instrumented flight area for training approximately the size of the State of Connecticut German Air Force Luftwaffe and German Naval Aviation Marineflieger who used to train at Luke AFB from 1957-1983 now train at NATO facilities at CFB Goose Bay in Canada and also alongside the USAF at Holloman AFB in New Mexico

Domestic developmentedit

Prior to 1984, ROCAF fighters were almost exclusively American-made aircraft sold under terms of a mutual defense treaty between the Republic of China and the United States Development of the F-CK-1 Ching-kuo Indigenous Defense Fighter IDF began in 1984 due to US refusal to sell F-16s to the ROCAF as a result of changes in national policy between the US and the People's Republic of China After a successful maiden flight in 1989, the domestically produced fighter entered service in 1994 However, the ROCAF was subsequently able to obtain F-16s from the United States as well as Mirage 2000-5 fighters from France, resulting in delays to later IDF development that had been anticipated

In response to American refusals to supply "smart bombs", Taiwan is developing their own equivalent of the Joint Direct Attack Munition for attacks against the PRC mainland in case of invasion preparations11

Foreign procurementedit

In January 2006, the ROCAF announced interest in procuring planes with VSTOL capability, especially the F-35 The ROCAF also sought next-generation upgrades to its current F-16s and Mirage 2000-5s and, in mid-2006, announced plans to buy 66 F-16 C/D Block 52 aircraft from the US for $31 billion USD12 Later that year, however, the US delayed the purchase; according to sources cited by National Defense Minister Lee Jye, the American stance was that, until a long-stalled arms purchase package consisting of six Patriot Missile Batteries, 12 P-3C Orion anti-submarine aircraft and 8 conventional submarines cleared the legislature, it did not see the ROC as having a consistent military procurement plan13

On February 28, 2007, the US Defense Department approved an order made by the ROC for 218 AIM-120C-7 AMRAAM missiles, as well as 235 AGM-65G2 Maverick missiles, associated launchers and other equipment The total value of this order was revealed to be $421 million USD14

In June 2007, the Legislative Yuan also approved the upgrade of the existing PAC-2 batteries to PAC-3 standard, and, in November, the Pentagon notified the US Congress of the Patriot upgrade order15 On August 10, 2007, a shipment of Harpoon anti-ship missiles, valued at an estimated $125 million, was also authorised by the US Defense Department, including 60 AGM-84L Block II missiles and 50 upgrade kits to bring the ROCAF's existing Harpoons up to Block II, Mark L standard16

A EC225 on display at the Hsinchu Air Base open house

On October 3, 2008, arms notifications were sent to Congress concerning, amongst other things, the sale of 330 PAC III missiles, 4 missile batteries, radar sets, ground stations and other equipment valued up to $31 billion USD, the upgrade of 4 E-2T aircraft to the Hawkeye 2000 standard and $334 million USD worth of spare parts for the ROCAF's F-16s, IDFs, F-5E/Fs and C-130s17 Late in January 2010, ROCAF received the first batch of new TC-2V BVR missiles ordered from CSIST, believed to have new radar seeker and improved performance from the original missile which entered service over 10 years ago18 The US government also announced 5 notifications to Congress for additional arms sales totaling some $639 Billion USD, under which the ROCAF will receive 3 PAC-3 batteries with 26 launchers and 114 PAC-3 missiles19 On February 3, 2010, ROCAF also announced at a Singapore Airshow that it had signed a new contract for 3 EC-225 SAR Search-And-Rescue helicopters that was awarded to Eurocopter back in December 2009 for $111 million USD, along with options for 17 more EC-225s2021 On November 26, 2011, the 3 EC-225 C-SAR helicopters were loaded on board an An-124 cargo plane and delivered to Chai-yi AB in Taiwan, and should enter service on July 1, 201222

On August 31, 2010, it was announced for next year's defense budget, ROCAF's "Medium Transport aircraft" plan to replace 12 B-1900 VIP/transport training aircraft, believed to be 6-8+ Lockheed C-27J, has been put on hold and might be axed, due to lack of budget, but will allocate 20+ million US dollars over next 4 years for quick runway repair23 Other items mentioned including increases in runways from 3 to 6 at Eastern Taiwan's 3 airbases, moving 2 I-HAWK batteries to Eastern Taiwan to protect those airbases, which will double to 4 batteries, and others24 On November 8, 2011, a second pair of E-2T Hawkeye AEWs/n 2501 and 2502 were loaded on a ship and sent to the US for upgrade to the E-2C 2000 standard The first pair of E-2T s/n 2503 and 2504 were sent to the US in June 2010 and returned to Taiwan on December 18, 2011, and will be return to service by end of the year2526

On August 15, 2011, the United States again deferred the ROCAF request to purchase 66 new F-16C/Ds but offered a retrofit package for older F-16A/B's27 A $53 billion upgrade package for ROCAF's existing F-16A/B fighters was announced on 21 September 201124 The upgrade budget was to be spread over 12 years, though the Ministry of Defense indicated that it would try to reduce the period28 In November 2011, the United States-China Economic and Security Review Commission recommended that new fighters be sold to the ROCAF29 Nonetheless, as of 2012, the MND was still haggling with the Pentagon over cost and local industry participation on the upgrade30 After denying the RoC Air Force the funds needed to upgrade their jet engines, President Ma Ying-jeou said that he hoped that the upgraded fighters would have on par performance3132 Taiwan is also balking at the cost of the radar upgrade, as it does not want to be the lead customer who pays to develop the upgrade and also because they will be unable to afford both the upgrade and the new fighters, should these be offered33 In response to a US vote in the House of Representatives to force the sale of the C/D models, the ROC MND said that the upgrade package offered some superior capabilities over the C/D model aircraft and some defense officials have said that in light of the PRC's increasing capabilities, only the F-35 would be sufficient34 In July 2012, Taiwan's Aerospace Industrial Development Corp and Lockheed Martin announced plans to establish a maintenance and overhaul center to upgrade and maintain the F-16s in place without having to ship them back to the United States35 In 2012 a letter of acceptance was agreed on for a US$38 billion deal that included the radars, electronic warfare, structural improvements and new weapons3637 The high cost of the fighter upgrade is causing other modernization priorities such as tanks to be pushed back38 A Pentagon report has corroborated that claim, asserting that the PRC would probably seek to destroy ROCAF airfields in the first stages of any attack, making a STOVL fighter such as the F-35B vital for effective defense39

Taiwan's 144 craft F-16 A/B fleet is currently being upgraded to the F-16V variant by Lockheed Martin in an upgrade program worth 185 billion USD The F-16V is equipped with the Northrop Grumman Scalable Agile Beam Radar SABR and has enhanced mission computers, vehicle systems, aircraft structure, cockpit and electronic warfare systems40

Aircraftedit

Current inventoryedit

A ROCAF Dassault Mirage 2000-5Ei on the taxi way A S-70C-1A Bluehawk fly over at the Hsinchu Air Base open house AIDC AT-3 at the open house on Hsinchu Air Base Boeing 737-800 Presidential Jet at Songshan Airport
Aircraft Origin Type Variant In service Notes
Combat Aircraft
F-16 Fighting Falcon United States multirole F-16A 11541 being upgraded to the F-16V with the AN/APG-83 radar42
Northrop F-5 United States fighter / reconnaissance F-5E/RF-5E 2341 7 airframes were upgraded to the RF-5E
AIDC F-CK-1 Taiwan fighter F-CK-1A/C 10241
Mirage 2000 France multirole 2000-5EI 4741
AEW
E-2 Hawkeye United States early warning and control E-2K 641
Electronic Warfare
C-130 Hercules United States ELINT C-130HE43 141
Maritime Patrol
P-3 Orion United States ASW-maritime patrol P-3C 841
Grumman S-2 United States maritime patrol S-2T43 1141
Reconnaissance
Beech 1900 United States surveillance / reconnaissance 243 also provides multi engine training
Transport
Boeing 737 United States VIP 143
Fokker 50 Netherlands VIP 143
C-130 Hercules United States transport C-130H 1941
Helicopters
Eurocopter EC225 France SAR / utility 341
Sikorsky S-70 United States SAR / utility S-70C-1A 1341
Trainer Aircraft
AIDC AT-3 Taiwan jet trainer 4941
Northrop F-5 United States conversion trainer F-5F 2541
F-16 Fighting Falcon United States conversion trainer F-16B 2841
AIDC F-CK-1 Taiwan conversion trainer F-CK-1B/D 2541
Mirage 2000 France conversion trainer 2000-5DI 941
T-34 Mentor United States basic trainer 3741

Armamentedit

AIM-120A AMRAAM Illustration of an AGM -65 Maverick
Name Origin Type Notes
Air-to-air missile
AIM-120C AMRAAM United States beyond-visual-range missile 218 missiles obtained in 200744
AIM-7 Sparrow United States medium-range, semi-active radar 1,200 AIM-7M’s obtained44
MBDA MICA France medium-range, semi-active radar 960 missiles obtained44
AIM-9 Sidewinder United States short-range IR guided 200 AIM-9B’s - 2,216 9J/P's - 1092 9L/M’s44
Magic II France short-range IR guided 480 missiles obtained44
Air-to-surface missile
AGM-65 Maverick United States 500 AGM-65’s – 40 65G’s – 235 65G2’s44
Anti-ship missile
AGM-84 Harpoon United States anti-ship missile 183 AGM-84’s – 60 84L’s44

Air Defenseedit

Taiwan has acquired the Patriot missile systems like this one
Name Origin Type In service Notes
SAM
Patriot PAC-2 United States SAM system 344 receiving upgrade to PAC-3 7 on order45
Sky Bow Taiwan SAM system 6 Sky Bow I missiles phased out by 2015, Sky Bow III missiles to be introduced
MIM-23 HAWK United States SAM system 1944 to be phased out between 2015 and 2017 by Sky Bow system46
Anti-aircraft artillery
Skyguard Switzerland towed anti-aircraft gun 24 twin gun, 35mm rounds

ROCAF Squadron emblemsedit

See alsoedit

  • Development of Chinese Nationalist air force 1937–45
  • Flying Tigers
  • Black Bat Squadron
  • Black Cat Squadron
  • 21st Fighter Squadron
  • Republic of China Air Force Academy
  • Air Force Institute of Technology
  • Republic of China Air Force Museum
  • Ministry of National Defense Republic of China
  • Republic of China Armed Forces
    • Republic of China Army
    • Republic of China Navy
      • Republic of China Marine Corps
    • Republic of China Military Police
  • People's Liberation Army Air Force
  • Political status of Taiwan
  • J-XX


Referencesedit

Citationsedit

  1. ^ "New defense minister urges alert over Chinese espionage" focustaiwantw Retrieved 30 January 2016 
  2. ^ Reuters Editorial 5 July 2010 "INTERVIEW - Taiwan overdue for F-16 jets, ex US official say" Reuters India Retrieved 30 January 2016 
  3. ^ US confirms $5bn Taiwan F-16 fighter jet upgrade BBC News, 21 September 2011, retrieved 21 September 2011
  4. ^ "US raises hope of sale of new fighter jets to Taiwan" AP, April 28, 2012
  5. ^ Rossi, JR "History: The Flying Tigers - American Volunteer Group - Chinese Air Force" 
  6. ^ a b "Taiwan C-130 aircraft deliver relief supplies to the Philippines" AsiaOne Retrieved 30 January 2016 
  7. ^ Humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
  8. ^ "Air Force C-130 returns after delivering supplies to Haiti" 
  9. ^ "Haiti earthquake: News updates" cnncom Retrieved 30 January 2016 
  10. ^ "Planes fly relief supplies to Philippines" taipeitimescom Retrieved 30 January 2016 
  11. ^ "Taiwan develops ‘smart’ munitions against China: report" wwwdefensenewscom Agence France-Presse 21 September 2013 Retrieved 24 September 2013 
  12. ^ "US official confirms that Taipei requested fighters" Taipei Times 2006-07-29 Retrieved 2007-07-08 
  13. ^ "Defense ministry says Bush is blocking F-16 sales" Taipei Times 2006-10-03 Retrieved 2007-07-08 
  14. ^ "US missile deal to boost Taiwan defense" The Standard 2007-03-02 Retrieved 2007-07-08 
  15. ^ "Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States - PATRIOT Configuration 2 Ground Systems Upgrade" PDF Defense News 2007-11-09 Retrieved 2007-11-13 
  16. ^ "US Congress notified of possible sale of missiles" Taipei Times 2007-08-10 Retrieved 2007-08-21 
  17. ^ "Taiwan supporters laud weapons sale" Taipei Times 2008 Retrieved 2009-06-20 
  18. ^ "ROCAF showing newly received TC-2 missiles" The Liberty Times 2020 Retrieved 2010-01-28  Check date values in: |date= help
  19. ^ "USDA New Release" PDF dscamil 2010-01-29 Retrieved 2010-01-29 
  20. ^ Branigan, Tania 2010-02-05 "Taiwanese military orders German helicopters" London: The Guardian newspaper Retrieved 2010-02-25 
  21. ^ "Eurocopter Sale to Taiwan - Contract Detail Document" taiwanmilitaryorg 2010-02-06 Retrieved 2010-02-25 
  22. ^ "EC-225 C-SAR Helo, New Military Search And Rescue Power" newssinacomtw 2011-11-26 Retrieved 2011-11-26 
  23. ^ "Next Year Defense Budget Believed To Be Lowest In 5 Years" United Daily newspaper 2010-08-31 Retrieved 2010-09-12 
  24. ^ a b "Defending Against Second Wave Missile Attack, Quickly Fix Runways, Camouflages With Decoys" China Times 2010-08-31 Retrieved 2010-09-12 
  25. ^ "ROCAF AEW Aircraft Loaded On Ship This Morning To Send To US For Upgrades" China Times 2011-11-08 Retrieved 2011-11-08 
  26. ^ "ROCAF AEW Hawkeye 3 project ADW Aircraft Returned, Performances Vastly Upgraded" Military News Agency 2011-12-18 Retrieved 2011-12-18 
  27. ^ "Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office in the United States - Retrofit of F-16A/B Aircraft" PDF DSCA 2011-09-21 Retrieved 2011-09-23 
  28. ^ Liu, Nancy "F-16 A/B upgrade budget to be spread over 12 years: MND" ROC Central News Agency, 22 September 2011
  29. ^ Weisgerber, Marcus "US Report Recommends New Fighters for Taiwan" Defense News, 16 November 2011
  30. ^ "Taiwan still in talks with US on F-16 upgrade details: MND" CNA, 7 February 2012
  31. ^ Cole, Michael J "Taipei cuts budget for F-16 upgrades" Taipei Times, 10 February 2012
  32. ^ "Taiwan hopes upgraded fighters will be on par with F-16C/Ds" ROC Central News Agency, 14 May 2012
  33. ^ Minnick, Wendell "Taiwan Might Delay F-16 Upgrade" Defense News, May 5, 2012
  34. ^ Hou, Elaine "F-35 fighters best suit Taiwan's air defense needs: official" CNA, 29 May 2012
  35. ^ "Taiwan, US companies ink MOU on F-16 upgrades" ROC Central News Agency, 12 July 2012
  36. ^ Hou, Elaine "Taiwan signs F-16 A/Bs upgrade deal with US" ROC Central News Agency, 16 July 2012
  37. ^ "Taiwan unlikely to acquire F-35 fighters soon: US business council" ROC Central News Agency, 19 July 2012
  38. ^ John Pike "Upgrade of F16 fleet squeezes budgets for other weapons: minister" globalsecurityorg Retrieved 30 January 2016 
  39. ^ Tkacik, John J Jr "TKACIK: White House bickering and Taiwan's F-16s" Wash Times, 20 September 2011
  40. ^ "F-16V Radar Integration Clears Way For Taiwan Upgrade" IHS Jane's Defence Retrieved 2014-12-15 
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "World Air Forces 2016 pg 30" Flightglobal Insight 2016 Retrieved 24 June 2016 
  42. ^ "F-16V Radar Integration Clears Way For Taiwan Upgrade" IHS Jane's Defence Retrieved 2014-12-15 
  43. ^ a b c d e Sands, Glenn 2015 "FORCE REPORT: Rep of China Air Force pg 53" Key Publishing  Missing or empty |url= help; |access-date= requires |url= help
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i Trade Registers Armstradesipriorg Retrieved on 2015-04-10
  45. ^ "First Upgraded PAC-3 Battery Is Based At Nang Kang" Liberty Times 2012-04-04 Retrieved 2012-04-04 
  46. ^ Taiwan Retires Hawk Missiles - Defensenewscom, 15 September 2014

External linksedit

  • ROCAF website
  • ROC active aircraft In English
  • TaiwanAirPowerorg
  • IMINT & Analysis: Taiwan's SAM Network
  • Bluffer's Guide: Fortress Taiwan

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