Religion in North Korea


Religion in North Korea1

  Non-religious/atheist 643%   Korean shamanism 16%   Chondoism 135%   Buddhism 45%   Christianity 17%

There are no known official statistics of religions in North Korea North Korea is an atheist state where public religion is discouraged2 Based on estimates from the late 1990s3 and the 2000s,14 North Korea is mostly atheist and agnostic, with the religious life dominated by the traditions of Korean shamanism and Chondoism There are small communities of Buddhists and Christians Chondoism which is represented in politics by the Party of the Young Friends of the Heavenly Way,5 and is regarded by the government as Korea's "national religion"6 because of its identity as a minjung popular7 and "revolutionary anti-imperialist" movement5

Contents

  • 1 History
    • 11 Ancient Korea
    • 12 1945 onwards—North Korea
  • 2 Religion and politics
    • 21 Juche ideology
    • 22 North Korean anti-religion campaigns
  • 3 Main religions
    • 31 Cheondoism
    • 32 Korean shamanism
  • 4 Minor religions
    • 41 Buddhism
    • 42 Christianity
    • 43 Islam
  • 5 See also
  • 6 Footnotes
  • 7 References
  • 8 Sources
  • 9 External links

Historyedit

At the dawn of the 20th century, almost the totality of the population of Korea believed in the indigenous shamanic religion and practiced Confucian rites and ancestral worship8 Korean Buddhism was nearly dead, reduced to a tiny and weak minority of monks, despite its long history and cultural influence, because of 500 years of suppression by the ruling Neo-Confucian Joseon kingdom,8 which also disregarded traditional cults9

In this environment, Christianity began to rapidly gain foothold since the late 18th century, due to an intense missionary activity that was aided by the endorsement at first by the Silhak and Seohak intellectual parties, and then at the end of the following century by the king of Korea himself and the intellectual elite of the crumbling Joseon state, who were looking for a new social factor to invigorate the Korean nation10 During the absorption of Korea into the Japanese Empire the already formed link of Christianity with Korean nationalism was strengthened11 Christianity became widespread especially in the north of the peninsula,12 where Chondoism and other movements that sought to reform the Korean indigenous religion flourished as well13 to counter Christian influence14

Ancient Koreaedit

See also: Religion in South Korea § Ancient Korea

In ancient times all Koreans believed in their indigenous religion socially guided by mu shamans Buddhism was introduced from the Chinese Former Qin state in 372 to the northern Korean state of Goguryeo,15 and developed into distinctive Korean forms At that time, the Korean peninsula was divided into three kingdoms: the aforementioned Goguryeo in the north, Baekje in the southwest, and Silla in the southeast Buddhism reached Silla only in the 5th century, but it was made the state religion only in that kingdom in the year 55215 In Goguryeo the Korean indigenous religion remained dominant, while Buddhism became more widespread in Silla and Baekje both areas comprehended in modern South Korea

In the following unified state of Goryeo 918–1392, that developed from Goguryeo incorporating the southern kingdoms, Buddhism flourished even becoming a political force16 In the same period, the influence of Chinese Confucianism penetrated the country and led to the formation of Korean Confucianism that would have become the state ideology and religion of the following Joseon state

The Joseon kingdom 1392–1910, strictly Neo-Confucian, harshly suppressed Korean Buddhism1718 and Korean shamanism9 Buddhist monasteries were destroyed and their number dropped from several hundreds to a mere thirty-six; Buddhism was eradicated from the life of towns as monks and nuns were prohibited from entering them and were marginalised to the mountains18 These restrictions lasted until the 19th century19

A Protestant church at Sorae now Ryongyon County, South Hwanghae Province in 1895

In the late 19th century, the Joseon state was politically and culturally collapsing20 The intelligentsia was looking for solutions to invigorate and transform the nation20 It was in this critical period that they came into contact with Western Protestant missionaries who offered a solution to the plight of Koreans20 Christian communities already existed in Joseon, however it was only by the 1880s that the government allowed a large number of Western missionaries to enter the country21 Protestant missionaries set up schools, hospitals and publishing agencies22 The king of Korea and his family tacitly supported Christianity12

During the absorption of Korea into the Japanese Empire 1910–1945 the already formed link of Christianity with Korean nationalism was strengthened,11 as the Japanese tried to impose State Shinto and Christians refused to take part in Shinto rituals11 At the same time, numerous religious movements that since the 19th century had been trying to reform the Korean indigenous religion, notably Chondoism, flourished13

1945 onwards—North Koreaedit

Delegation of the group "Modern American Buddhism", of Korean Americans in New York City,23 at Pohyonsa in 2013

The Korean peninsula was divided into two states in 1945, the communist north and the anti-communist south Most of the Korean Christians, that had been until then in the northern half of the peninsula,24 fled to South Korea25 By contrast, most of Korean Chondoists remained in the newly formed North Korea13 At the time of the partition they were 15 million, or 16% of North Korea's population26 They participate to the politics of North Korea through the Party of the Young Friends of the Heavenly Way In 1994 the Central Guidance Committee of the Korean Chondoist Association organised an impressive ceremony at the newly constructed Mausoleum of Dangun mythical founder of the Korean nation near Pyongyang27

According to some estimates134 in 2005 in North Korea there are 3,846,000 16% of the total population believers of Korean shamanism, 3,245,000 135% Chondoists, 1,082,000 45% Buddhists, and 406,000 17% Christians

In 2007 there were approximately 800 Chondoist churches throughout the country and a large central building in Pyongyang, 60 Buddhist temples maintained more as cultural relics than places of worship, and 5 Christian churches—three Protestant churches, one Catholic church, and one Russian Orthodox church, all of which located in Pyongyang28

In 2014, the Korea Conference of Religions for Peace held an inter-Korean meeting at Mount Kumgang, North Korea, and another is planned in 2017 in Pyongyang29

Religion and politicsedit

Further information: Freedom of religion in North Korea

Juche ideologyedit

Main article: Juche

Different official attitudes toward organized religion are reflected in various constitutions Article 14 of the 1948 constitution noted that "citizens of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea shall have the freedom of religious belief and of conducting religious services" Article 54 of the 1972 constitution stated that "citizens have religious liberty and the freedom to oppose religion" also translated as "the freedom of antireligious propaganda" Some observers argued that the change occurred because in 1972 the political authorities no longer needed the support of the much-weakened organized religions In the 1992 constitution, Article 68 grants freedom of religious belief and guarantees the right to construct buildings for religious use and religious ceremonies The article also states that "no one may use religion as a means by which to drag in foreign powers or to destroy the state or social order" North Korea has been represented at international religious conferences by state-sponsored religious organizations such as the Korean Buddhist Federation, the Korean Christian Federation, and the Chondoist Church and Chondoist Party

This cult of the Kims, together with the doctrine of Juche self-reliance are said by some to have religious overtones5 Juche appeared in the 1960s as an idea of national autonomy but it has developed universal characters5 The doctrine proclaims that human beings should break free of any dependency on spiritual ideas and realise that, working together, they can achieve all their goals without supernatural assistance5 It promises believers that, through joining the Juche community, they can overcome death and become immortals30 According to the Juche teachings, human beings only exist in social contexts30 There is no human that is utterly alone, who has no relationships or interactions with other humans30 Human beings will continue to exist even after physical death only if the society that defines them continues to exist30

Some scholars see Juche as having Confucian features, but without the Confucian ancestral kinship structuration of society30 Rather, Juche's aim is a national community30 Moreover, Juche has as its spiritual focus the mythified figure of Kim Il-sung30 He gained mythical connotations already in the 1930s for his heroic actions against the Japanese occupators31 In Juche writings, Kim Il-sung and his successors are at times portrayed as divine beings31 In addition, the North Korean Juche calendar counts the years starting from the birth of Kim Il-sung in 191232

Other studies see Christian influences in Juche33 Between 1989 and 1992, discussions about unification and compatibility of Juche and Christianity took place between North Korean, South Korean and Korean American theologians34 Park Seung-deok, a Juche scholar from Pyongyang, concluded that Juche and Christianity share common goals and values34

North Korean anti-religion campaignsedit

It is very difficult for outside observers to know what has happened to North Korean religious bodies over the past 60 years due to the extreme isolation of the state One interpretation has held that all open religious activity in North Korea was persecuted and eradicated after Kim Il-sung took power, only to be revived in the present as part of a political show35 Another interpretation has held that religion survived and has genuinely been revived in the past few decades35

Kim Il-sung criticized religion in his writings, and North Korean propaganda in literature, movies and other media have presented religion in a negative light Kim Il-sung's attack on religion was strongly based on the idea that religion had been used as a tool for imperialists in the Korean peninsula He criticized Christians for collaborating with the United Nations' forces against him during the Korean War, although he praised Christians who supported him

Accounts from the Korean War speak of harsh persecution of religion by Kim Il-sung in the areas he controlled35 Prior to the war, the Christian population of the Korean peninsula was most heavily concentrated in the north; during the war, many of these Christians fled to the South Some interpretations have considered that the Christian community was often of a higher socio-economic class than the rest of the population, which may have prompted its departure for fear of persecution35 The large-scale destruction caused by the massive air raids and the suffering experienced by North Koreans during the Korean War helped foster hatred of Christianity as being the American religion35

Religion was attacked in the ensuing years as an obstacle to the construction of communism, and many people abandoned their former religions in order to conform to the new reality35 On the basis of accounts from the Korean War as well as information from defectors, an interpretation has held that the North Korea was the only state in the world to have completely eradicated religion by the 1960s35 Buddhism was thought to have been eradicated, under this interpretation and its reappearance later was thought to be a show The Federation of Korean Christians in North Korea created in 1970, under this interpretation, has been consideredcitation needed a fake organization meant to present a favourable image to the outside world

Other interpretations have thought that they do represent genuine faith communities that survived the persecutions An interpretation has considered that these religious communities may have been believers who genuinely adhered to Marxism–Leninism and the leadership of Kim Il-sung, thus ensuring their survival35 This interpretation has been supported by recent evidence gathered that has shown that the North Korean government may have tolerated the existence of up to 200 pro-communist Christian congregations during the 1960s, and by the fact that several high-ranking people in the government were Christians and they were buried with high honours for instance Kang Yang Wook was a Presbyterian minister who served as vice president of North Korea from 1972 to 1982, and Kim Chang Jun was a Methodist minister who served as vice chairman of the Supreme People's Assembly35 Differing interpretations often agree on the disappearance of religion under Kim Il-sung in the first few decades of his rule The government never made an open public policy statement about religion, leading to unresolved speculation among scholars as to what exactly the government's position was at any point in time35

Main religionsedit

Cheondoismedit

Main article: Cheondoism

Chondoism 천도교 Chondogyo or Cheondoism South Korean spelling is a religion with roots in Confucianised indigenous shamanism It is the religious dimension of the Donghak "Eastern Learning" movement that was founded by Choe Je-u 1824-1864, a member of an impoverished yangban aristocratic family,36 in 1860 as a counter-force to the rise of "foreign religions",14 which in his view included Buddhism and Christianity part of Seohak, the wave of Western influence that penetrated Korean life at the end of the 19th century14 Choe Je-u founded Chondoism after having been allegedly healed from illness by an experience of Sangje or Haneullim, the god of the universal Heaven in traditional shamanism14

The Donghak movement became so influential among common people that in 1864 the Joseon government sentenced Choe Je-u to death14 The movement grew and in 1894 the members gave rise to the Donghak Peasant Revolution against the royal government With the division of Korea in 1945, most of the Chondoist community remained in the north, where the majority of them dwelled13

Chondoism is the sole religion to be favoured by the North Korean government5 It has political representation as the Party of the Young Friends of the Heavenly Way,5 and is regarded by the government as Korea's "national religion"6 because of its identity as a minjung popular7 and "revolutionary anti-imperialist" movement5

Korean shamanismedit

Main article: Korean shamanism

Korean shamanism, also known as "Muism" 무교 Mugyo, "mu shaman religion"37 or "Sinism" 신교 Singyo, "religion of the shin hanja: 神 gods",38 is the ethnic religion of Korea and the Koreans39 Although used synonymously, the two terms aren't identical:39 Jung Young Lee describes Muism as a form of Sinism - the shamanic tradition within the religion40 Other names for the religion are "Sindo" 신도 "Way of the Gods" or "Sindoism" 신도교 Sindogyo, "religion of the Way of the Gods"41note 1

In contemporary Korean language the shaman-priest or mu hanja: 巫 is known as a mudang Hangul: 무당 hanja: 巫堂 if female or baksu if male, although other names and locutions are used39note 2 Korean mu "shaman" is synonymous with Chinese wu, which defines priests both male and female40 The role of the mudang is to act as intermediary between the spirits or gods, and the human plain, through gut rituals, seeking to resolve problems in the patterns of development of human life43

Central to the faith is the belief in Haneullim or Hwanin, meaning "source of all being",44 and of all gods of nature,40 the utmost god or the supreme mind45 The mu are mythically described as descendants of the "Heavenly King", son of the "Holy Mother of the Heavenly King", with investiture often passed down through female princely lineage46 However, other myths link the heritage of the traditional faith to Dangun, male son of the Heavenly King and initiator of the Korean nation47

Korean Muism has similarities with Chinese Wuism,48 Japanese Shinto, and with the Siberian, Mongolian, and Manchurian religious traditions48 As highlighted by anthropological studies, the Korean ancestral god Dangun is related to the Ural-Altaic Tengri "Heaven", the shaman and the prince4950 The mudang is similar to the Japanese miko and the Ryukyuan yuta Muism has exerted an influence on some Korean new religions, such as Chondoism in North Korea According to various sociological studies, many Christian churches in Korea make use of practices rooted in shamanism as the Korean shamanic theology has affinity to that of Christianity51

In the 1890s, the twilight years of the Joseon kingdom, Protestant missionaries gained significant influence, and led a demonisation of the traditional religion through the press, and even carried out campaigns of physical suppression of local cults52 The Protestant discourse would have had an influence on all further attempts to uproot Muism52

There is no knowledge about the survival of Korean shamanism in contemporary North Korea53 Many northern shamans, displaced by war and politics, migrated to South Korea53 Shamans in North Korea were or are of the same type of those of northern and central areas of South Korea kangshinmu53

Minor religionsedit

Buddhismedit

Buddhist service at Pohyon Temple, at Mount Myohyang in Hyangsan County, North Pyongan Province Note that the lay participants are members of a Korean American Buddhist group visiting the temple Main article: Korean Buddhism

Buddhism 불교 Pulgyo entered Korea from China during the period of the three kingdoms 372, or the 4th century15 Buddhism was the dominant religious and cultural influence in the Silla 668-935 and subsequent Goryeo 918-1392 states Confucianism was also brought to Korea from China in early centuries, and was formulated as Korean Confucianism in Goryeo However, it was only in the subsequent Joseon kingdom 1392–1910 that Korean Confucianism was established as the state ideology and religion, and Korean Buddhism underwent 500 years of suppression,1718 from which it began to recover only in the 20th century

Buddhists are a minority in North Korea, and their traditions have developed differently from those of South Korean Buddhists after the division of the country Buddhism in North Korea is practiced under the auspices of the official Korean Buddhist Federation, an organ of the North Korean state apparatus North Korean Buddhist monks are entirely dependent on state wages for their livelihood as well as state authorization to practice54 As of 2009, the leader of the Korean Buddhist Federation is Yu Yong-sun55

There are only 60 Buddhist temples in the country, and they are viewed as cultural relics from Korea's past rather than places of active worship28 Also, there is a three-year college for training Buddhist clergy A limited revival of Buddhism is apparently taking place This includes the establishment of an academy for Buddhist studies and the publication of a twenty-five-volume translation of the Korean Tripitaka, or Buddhist scriptures, which had been carved on 80,000 wooden blocks and kept at the temple at Myohyangsan in central North Korea Recently, South Korean Buddhist leaders have been allowed to travel to North Korea and participate in religious ceremonies or give aid to civilians56

Christianityedit

Main article: Christianity in Korea Further information: Roman Catholicism in North Korea Church of the Life-Giving Trinity of the Russian Orthodox Church in Pyongyang Attendees at the Protestant Bongsu Church in Pyongyang

Christianity Chosŏn'gŭl: 그리스도교; MR: Kurisudogyo became very popular in northern Korea from the late 18th century to the 19th century The first Catholic missionaries arrived in 1794, a decade after the return of Yi Sung-hun, a diplomat who was the first baptised Korean in Beijing57 He established a grassroots lay Catholic movement in the peninsula However, the writings of the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci, who was resident at the imperial court in Beijing, had been already brought to Korea from China in the 17th century Scholars of the Silhak "Practical Learning", were attracted to Catholic doctrines, and this was a key factor for the spread of the Catholic faith in the 1790s58 The penetration of Western ideas and Christianity in Korea became known as Seohak "Western Learning" A study of 1801 found that more than half of the families that had converted to Catholicism were linked to the Silhak school59 Largely because converts refused to perform Confucian ancestral rituals, the Joseon government prohibited the proselytisation of Christianity Some Catholics were executed during the early 19th century, but the restrictive law was not strictly enforced

Protestant missionaries entered Korea during the 1880s and, along with Catholic priests, converted a remarkable number of Koreans this time with the tacit support of the royal government12 Methodist and Presbyterian missionaries were especially successful They established schools, universities, hospitals, and orphanages and played a significant role in the modernisation of the country22 During the Japanese colonial occupation, Christians were in the front ranks of the struggle for independence Factors contributing to the growth of Protestantism included the decayed state of Korean Buddhism, the support of the intellectual elite, and the encouragement of self-support and self-government among members of the Korean church, and finally the identification of Christianity with Korean nationalism12

A large number of Christians lived in the northern half of the peninsula it was part of the so-called "Manchurian revival"12 where Confucian influence was not as strong as in the south24 Before 1948 Pyongyang was an important Christian center: one-sixth of its population of about 300,000 people were Christian convertscitation needed The city was known as the "Jerusalem of the East"60

In 1945, with the establishment of the communist regime in the north, however, most Christians fled to South Korea to escape persecution25 Christianity was discouraged by the North Korean government because of its association with America 61

In the 1980s, North Korea produced its own translation of the Bible, which has since been used by Southern missionaries attempting to evangelize the North6263 By the late 1980s, it became apparent that Christian personalities were active in the governmental elite61 In those years three new churches, two Protestant and one Catholic, were opened in Pyongyang

Other signs of the regime's changing attitude towards Christianity include holding the "International Seminar of Christians of the North and South for the Peace and Reunification of Korea" in Switzerland in 1988, allowing papal representatives to attend the opening of the Changchung Cathedral of Pyongyang in that same year, and sending two North Korean novice priests to study in Rome A Protestant seminary in Pyongyang taught future leaders of the North Korean government35 A new association of Roman Catholics was established in June 1988 A North Korean Protestant pastor reported at a 1989 meeting of the National Council of Churches in Washington that his country has 10,000 Protestants and 1,000 Catholics who worship in 500 home churches In 1992, American evangelist Billy Graham visited North Korea to preach at Kim Il-sung University, while in 2008 Franklin Graham visited the country64

North Korean Christians are officially represented by the Korean Christian Federation, a state-controlled body responsible for contacts with churches and governments abroad In Pyongyang there are five church buildings:28 the Catholic Changchung Cathedral, three Protestant churches inaugurated in 1988 in presence of South Korean church officials, and a Russian Orthodox church consecrated in 200665

The internationally supported Pyongyang University of Science and Technology, which opened in 2010, operates with a Christian ethos66 Christian aid groups, including the American Friends Service Committee, the Eugene Bell Foundation, and World Vision, are able to operate in the country, but not allowed to proselytize67

In 2016, Christmas was celebrated in North Korea, but with the religious overtones downplayed68 According to Open Doors, North Korea is the country where Christians are persecuted the most69

Islamedit

Main article: Islam in Korea

There is a mosque in the Iranian embassy in Pyongyang called Ar-Rahman Mosque, the only mosque in the country The mosque was likely built for the embassy staff, but visits by other foreigners are deemed possible, too70 Every Friday prayers, most Muslims would pray at Ar-Rahman Mosque regardless of their differences in sectcitation needed

See alsoedit

  • Ethnic minorities in North Korea
  • Freedom of religion in North Korea
  • Human rights in North Korea
  • Irreligion in North Korea
  • Misin tapa undong
  • Religion in South Korea
  • Religion in Korea
  • Religion in Japan

Footnotesedit

  1. ^ Cognates of Japanese Shinto and Chinese Shendao
  2. ^ Another term is dangol Hangul: 당골 The word mudang is mostly associated, though not exclusively, to female shamans due to their prevalence in the Korean tradition in recent centuries Male shamans are named baksu mudang "healer mudang", shortened baksu, in Pyongyang shamanism It is reasonable to believe that the word baksu is an ancient authentic designation for male shamans42

Referencesedit

  1. ^ a b c Alton, 2013 p 79 As of 2005 the agency "Religious Intelligence UK" estimated 3,846,000 believers of Korean shamanism, 3,245,000 Chondoists, 1,082,888 Buddhists, 406,000 Christians, and the rest non-believers
  2. ^ Elizabeth Raum North Korea Series: Countries Around the World Heinemann, 2012 ISBN 1432961330 p 28: «North Korea is an atheist state This means that people do not pray in public or attend places of worship Buddhist temples exist from earlier times They are now preserved as historic buildings, but they are not used for worship A few Christian churches exist, but few people attend services North Koreans do not celebrate religious holidays»
  3. ^ a b Chryssides, Geaves 2007 p 110
  4. ^ a b Association of Religion Data Archives: North Korea: Religious Adherents, 2010 Data from the World Christian Database
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Baker, 2008 p 146
  6. ^ a b KCNA: Chondoism, National Religion North Korea Economy Watch 5/23/2007
  7. ^ a b Lee, 1996 p 110
  8. ^ a b Pyong Gap Min, 2014
  9. ^ a b Joon-sik Choi, 2006 p 15
  10. ^ Grayson, 2002 pp 155-161
  11. ^ a b c Grayson, 2002 pp 158-161
  12. ^ a b c d e Grayson, 2002 p 158
  13. ^ a b c d Carl Young Into the Sunset: Ch’ŏndogyo in North Korea, 1945–1950 On: Journal of Korean Religions, Volume 4, Number 2, October 2013 pp 51-66 / 101353/jkr20130010
  14. ^ a b c d e Lee, 1996 p 105
  15. ^ a b c Asia For Educators: Korea, 300 to 600 CE Columbia University, 2009
  16. ^ Vermeersch, Sem 2008 The Power of the Buddhas: the Politics of Buddhism during the Koryŏ Dynasty 918-1392 p 3
  17. ^ a b Grayson, 2002 pp 120-138
  18. ^ a b c Tudor, 2012
  19. ^ Grayson, 2002 p 137
  20. ^ a b c Grayson, 2002 p 155
  21. ^ Grayson, 2002 p 157
  22. ^ a b Grayson, 2002 pp 157-158
  23. ^ Uri Tours: Exclusive Buddhist Temple Tour of North Korea
  24. ^ a b Grayson, 2002 p 158, p 162
  25. ^ a b Grayson, 2002 p 163
  26. ^ Park, 2009 p 346
  27. ^ Corfield, 2013 p 208
  28. ^ a b c Baker, 2008 pp 145-146
  29. ^ Template:Url=https://wwwnknewsorg/2017/06/june-15-committee-granted-permission-to-contact-north-korea/
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Baker, 2008 p 147
  31. ^ a b Baker, 2008 p 148
  32. ^ Baker, 2008 p 149
  33. ^ Mathesius, Konrad 2008 "Peering Behind the Curtain on the Question of Political Religion in the DPRK" PDF Congress KR: AKS Retrieved 2014-02-21 
  34. ^ a b Sebastian C H Kim, Kirsteen Kim A History of Korean Christianity Cambridge University Press, 2014 ISBN 9780521196383
  35. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ryu, Dae Young 2006, "Fresh wineskins for new wine: a new perspective on North Korean Christianity", Journal of Church and State, 48
  36. ^ Lee, 1996 p 109
  37. ^ Used in: Chang Soo-kyung, Kim Tae-gon Korean Shamanism – Muism Jimoondang, 1998
  38. ^ Used in: Margaret Stutley Shamanism: A Concise Introduction Routledge, 2003
  39. ^ a b c Jung Young Lee, 1981 p 4
  40. ^ a b c Jung Young Lee, 1981 p 5
  41. ^ Lee Chi-ran, p 13
  42. ^ Jung Young Lee, 1981 pp 3-4
  43. ^ Joon-sik Choi, 2006 p 21
  44. ^ Jung Young Lee, 1981 p 18
  45. ^ Jung Young Lee, 1981 p 17
  46. ^ Jung Young Lee, 1981 pp 5-12
  47. ^ Jung Young Lee, 1981 p 13
  48. ^ a b Jung Young Lee, 1981 p 21
  49. ^ Sorensen, p 19-20
  50. ^ Jung Young Lee, 1981 pp 17-18
  51. ^ Andrew E Kim Korean Religious Culture and Its Affinity to Christianity Korea University, Sociology of Religion, 2000
  52. ^ a b Kendall, 2010 pp 4-7
  53. ^ a b c Walter, Fridman 2004 p 654
  54. ^ "Another Korea Buddhism in North Korea" Buddhist channel TV 2007-01-15 Retrieved 2014-02-21 
  55. ^ Jeong, Yong-soo 5 January 2009 "Buddhist leader gets North’s South policy spot" JoongAng Ilbo Retrieved 2013-05-20 
  56. ^ "Buddhists from both Koreas hold ceremony on Mt Kumgang, North Korea" KR: Hani 2012-10-15 Retrieved 2014-02-21 
  57. ^ Choi Suk-woo Korean Catholicism Yesterday and Today On: Korean Journal XXIV, 8, August 1984 pp 5-6
  58. ^ Kim Han-sik The Influence of Christianity On: Korean Journal XXIII, 12, December 1983 pp 5-7
  59. ^ Kim Ok-hy Women in the History of Catholicism in Korea On: Korean Journal XXIV, 8, August 1984 p 30
  60. ^ Andrei Lankov 9 September 2013 "North Korea's irreconcilable relationship with Christianity" NK News - North Korea News Retrieved 2016-02-29 
  61. ^ a b Ryu, Dae Young 2006, "Fresh wineskins for new wine: a new perspective on North Korean Christianity", Journal of Church and State 48 3
  62. ^ Tertitskiy, Fyodor 6 June 2016 "The good things in North Korea: Taking a moment to recognize good art, good scholarship and good people" NK News 
  63. ^ Dillmuth, Timothy 14 May 2014 "Where Did Our North Korean Bible Translation Come From" Do the Word 
  64. ^ Billy Graham Evangelistic Association: Janet Chismar, The Graham Family Legacy in North Korea July 30, 2008
  65. ^ The Church of the Life-Giving Trinity consecrated in Pyongyang The Russian Orthodox Church delegation on a visit to the KPDR, China: Orthodox Church in China 
  66. ^ "Pyongyang University of Science and Technology: President’s Welcome" 
  67. ^ Bagherzadeh, Nazanin 14 March 2017 "True believers: Faith-based NGOs in North Korea" NK News 
  68. ^ Talmadge, Eric 2016 "Christmas in N Korea: Lights and trees, but void of Jesus" AP 
  69. ^ "Nordkorea" Open Doors Germany in German Retrieved 2017-01-11 
  70. ^ Chad O'Carroll 22 January 2013 "Iran Build's Pyongyang's First Mosque" NKNews Retrieved 29 July 2015 

Sourcesedit

  • Daniel Tudor Korea: The Impossible Country Tuttle Publishing, 2012 ISBN 0804842523
  • David Alton Building Bridges: Is There Hope for North Korea Lion Hudson, 2013 ISBN 0745955983
  • Donald L Baker Korean Spirituality University of Hawaii Press, 2008 ISBN 0824832574
  • George D Chryssides, Ron Geaves The Study of Religion: An Introduction to Key Ideas and Methods Continuum International Publishing Group, 2007 ISBN 0826464491
  • James H Grayson Korea - A Religious History Routledge, 2002 ISBN 070071605X
  • Joon-sik Choi Folk-Religion: The Customs in Korea Ewha Womans University Press, 2006 ISBN 8973006282
  • Justin Corfield Historical Dictionary of Pyongyang Anthem Press, 2013 ISBN 0857282344
  • Jung Young Lee Korean Shamanistic Rituals Mouton De Gruyter, 1981 ISBN 9027933782
  • Laurel Kendall Shamans, Nostalgias, and the IMF: South Korean Popular Religion in Motion University of Hawaii Press, 2010 ISBN 0824833988
  • Lee Chi-ran Chief Director, Haedong Younghan Academy The Emergence of National Religions in Korea
  • Mariko N Walter, Eva J Neumann Fridman Shamanism: An Encyclopedia of World Beliefs, Practices, and Culture ABC-CLIO, 2004 ISBN 1576076458
  • Pyong Gap Min Development of Protestantism in South Korea: Positive and Negative Elements On: Asian American Theological Forum AATF 2014, VOL 1 NO 3, ISSN 2374-8133
  • Sang Taek Lee Religion and Social Formation in Korea: Minjung and Millenarianism Walter de Gruyter & Co, 1996 ISBN 3110147971
  • Sorensen, Clark W University of Washington The Political Message of Folklore in South Korea's Student Demonstrations of the Eighties: An Approach to the Analysis of Political Theater Paper presented at the conference "Fifty Years of Korean Independence", sponsored by the Korean Political Science Association, Seoul, Korea, July 1995
  • Young Park Korea and the Imperialists: In Search of a National Identity Author House, 2009 ISBN 1438931409

External linksedit

  • Foundation Day of Korea Celebration at Dangun's Mausoleum on YouTube
  • Video of a Pyongyang Protestant Church on YouTube
  • Video of a Pyongyang Russian Orthodox Church on YouTube
  • Video of a Pyongyang Roman Catholic Church on YouTube


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