Tue . 19 May 2019

Raspberry Pi

raspberry pi, raspberry pie recipe
The Raspberry Pi is a series of credit card-sized single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries345 The original model became far more popular than anticipated,6 selling outside of its target market for uses such as robotics Peripherals including keyboards, mice and cases are not included with the Raspberry Pi Some accessories however have been included in several official and unofficial bundles6

According to the Raspberry Pi Foundation, over 5 million Raspberry Pis have been sold before February 2015, making it the best-selling British computer7

Contents

  • 1 Overview
  • 2 Hardware
    • 21 Processor
      • 211 Performance
      • 212 Overclocking
    • 22 RAM
    • 23 Networking
    • 24 Peripherals
    • 25 Video
    • 26 Real-time clock
    • 27 Specifications
    • 28 Connectors
      • 281 Pi Zero
      • 282 Model A
      • 283 Model B
    • 29 General purpose input-output GPIO connector
    • 210 Accessories
  • 3 Software
    • 31 Operating systems
    • 32 Driver APIs
    • 33 Firmware
    • 34 Third party application software
    • 35 Software development tools
  • 4 Reception and use
    • 41 Community
    • 42 Use in education
    • 43 Use in home automation
    • 44 Use in commercial products
  • 5 Astro Pi
  • 6 History
    • 61 Pre-launch
    • 62 Launch
    • 63 Post-launch
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links

Overviewedit

Several generations of Raspberry Pis have been released The first generation Raspberry Pi 1 Model B was released in February 2012 It was followed by a simpler and inexpensive model Model A In 2014, the foundation released a board with an improved design in Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+ The model laid the current "mainline" form-factor Improved A+ and B+ models were released a year later A cut down "compute module" was released in April 2014, and a Raspberry Pi Zero with smaller size and limited input/output I/O and general-purpose input/output GPIO abilities was released in November 2015 for US$5 The Raspberry Pi 2 which added more RAM was released in February 2015 Raspberry Pi 3 Model B released in February 2016 is bundled with on-board WiFi and Bluetooth As of December 2016, Raspberry Pi 3 Model B is the newest mainline Raspberry Pi These boards are priced between US$5–35

All models feature a Broadcom system on a chip SoC, which includes an ARM compatible central processing unit CPU and an on chip graphics processing unit GPU, a VideoCore IV CPU speed ranges from 700 MHz to 12 GHz for the Pi 3 and on board memory range from 256 MB to 1 GB RAM Secure Digital SD cards are used to store the operating system and program memory in either the SDHC or MicroSDHC sizes Most boards have between one and four USB slots, HDMI and composite video output, and a 35 mm phone jack for audio Lower level output is provided by a number of GPIO pins which support common protocols like I²C The B-models have an 8P8C Ethernet port and the Pi 3 has on board Wi-Fi 80211n and Bluetooth

The Foundation provides Raspbian, a Debian-based Linux distribution for download, as well as third party Ubuntu, Windows 10 IOT Core, RISC OS, and specialised media center distributions8 It promotes Python and Scratch as the main programming language, with support for many other languages9 The default firmware is closed source, while an unofficial open source is available

Hardwareedit

The Raspberry Pi hardware has evolved through several versions that feature variations in memory capacity and peripheral-device support

This block diagram depicts Models A, B, A+, and B+ Model A, A+, and the Pi Zero lack the Ethernet and USB hub components The Ethernet adapter is internally connected to an additional USB port In Model A, A+, and the PI Zero, the USB port is connected directly to the system on a chip SoC On the Pi 1 Model B+ and later models the USB/Ethernet chip contains a five-point USB hub, of which four ports are available, while the Pi 1 Model B only provides two On the Pi Zero, the USB port is also connected directly to the SoC, but it uses a micro USB OTG port

Processoredit

The Raspberry Pi 2 uses a 32-bit 900 MHz quad-core ARM Cortex-A7 processor

The Broadcom BCM2835 SoC used in the first generation Raspberry Pi is somewhat equivalent to the chip used in first generation smartphones its CPU is an older ARMv6 architecture,10 which includes a 700 MHz ARM1176JZF-S processor, VideoCore IV graphics processing unit GPU,11 and RAM It has a level 1 L1 cache of 16 KB and a level 2 L2 cache of 128 KB The level 2 cache is used primarily by the GPU The SoC is stacked underneath the RAM chip, so only its edge is visible

The Raspberry Pi 2 uses a Broadcom BCM2836 SoC with a 900 MHz 32-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A7 processor as do many current smartphones, with 256 KB shared L2 cache12

The Raspberry Pi 3 uses a Broadcom BCM2837 SoC with a 12 GHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A53 processor, with 512 KB shared L2 cache13

Performanceedit

While operating at 700 MHz by default, the first generation Raspberry Pi provided a real-world performance roughly equivalent to 0041 GFLOPS1415 On the CPU level the performance is similar to a 300 MHz Pentium II of 1997–99 The GPU provides 1 Gpixel/s or 15 Gtexel/s of graphics processing or 24 GFLOPS of general purpose computing performance The graphical capabilities of the Raspberry Pi are roughly equivalent to the performance of the Xbox of 2001

The LINPACK single node compute benchmark results in a mean single precision performance of 0065 GFLOPS and a mean double precision performance of 0041 GFLOPS for one Raspberry Pi Model-B board16 A cluster of 64 Raspberry Pi Model B computers, labeled "Iridis-pi", achieved a LINPACK HPL suite result of 114 GFLOPS n=10240 at 216 watts for c US$400016

Raspberry Pi 2 includes a quad-core Cortex-A7 CPU running at 900 MHz and 1 GB RAM It is described as 4–6 times more powerful than its predecessor The GPU is identical to the original12 In parallelized benchmarks, the Raspberry Pi 2 could be up to 14 times faster than a Raspberry Pi 1 Model B+17

The Raspberry Pi 3, with a quad-core Cortex-A53 processor, is described as 10 times the performance of a Raspberry Pi 113 This was suggested to be highly dependent upon task threading and instruction set use Benchmarks showed the Raspberry Pi 3 to be approximately 80% faster than the Raspberry Pi 2 in parallelized tasks18

Overclockingedit

The CPU chips of the first and second generation Raspberry Pi board did not require cooling, such as a heat sink, unless the chip was overclocked, but the Raspberry Pi 2 SoC may heat more than usual under overclockingcitation needed

Most Raspberry Pi chips could be overclocked to 800 MHz, and some to 1000 MHz There are reports the Raspberry Pi 2 can be similarly overclocked, in extreme cases, even to 1500 MHz discarding all safety features and over-voltage limitations In the Raspbian Linux distro the overclocking options on boot can be done by a software command running "sudo raspi-config" without voiding the warranty19 In those cases the Pi automatically shuts the overclocking down if the chip reaches 85 °C 185 °F, but it is possible to override automatic over-voltage and overclocking settings voiding the warranty; an appropriately sized heatsink is needed to protect the chip from serious overheating

Newer versions of the firmware contain the option to choose between five overclock "turbo" presets that when used, attempt to maximize the performance of the SoC without impairing the lifetime of the board This is done by monitoring the core temperature of the chip, the CPU load, and dynamically adjusting clock speeds and the core voltage When the demand is low on the CPU or it is running too hot the performance is throttled, but if the CPU has much to do and the chip's temperature is acceptable, performance is temporarily increased with clock speeds of up to 1 GHz depending on the individual board and on which of the turbo settings is used

The seven overclock presets are:

  • none; 700 MHz ARM, 250 MHz core, 400 MHz SDRAM, 0 overvolt,
  • modest; 800 MHz ARM, 250 MHz core, 400 MHz SDRAM, 0 overvolt,
  • medium; 900 MHz ARM, 250 MHz core, 450 MHz SDRAM, 2 overvolt,
  • high; 950 MHz ARM, 250 MHz core, 450 MHz SDRAM, 6 overvolt,
  • turbo; 1000 MHz ARM, 500 MHz core, 600 MHz SDRAM, 6 overvolt,
  • Pi2; 1000 MHz ARM, 500 MHz core, 500 MHz SDRAM, 2 overvolt,
  • Pi3; 1100 MHz ARM, 550 MHz core, 500 MHz SDRAM, 6 overvolt In system information CPU speed will appear as 1200 MHz When in idle speed lowers to 600 MHz2021

In the highest turbo preset the SDRAM clock was originally 500 MHz, but this was later changed to 600 MHz because 500 MHz sometimes causes SD card corruption Simultaneously in high mode the core clock speed was lowered from 450 to 250 MHz, and in medium mode from 333 to 250 MHz

The Raspberry Pi Zero runs at 1 GHz

RAMedit

On the older beta Model B boards, 128 MB was allocated by default to the GPU, leaving 128 MB for the CPU22 On the first 256 MB release Model B and Model A, three different splits were possible The default split was 192 MB RAM for CPU, which should be sufficient for standalone 1080p video decoding, or for simple 3D, but probably not for both together 224 MB was for Linux only, with only a 1080p framebuffer, and was likely to fail for any video or 3D 128 MB was for heavy 3D, possibly also with video decoding eg XBMC23 Comparatively the Nokia 701 uses 128 MB for the Broadcom VideoCore IV24 For the new Model B with 512 MB RAM initially there were new standard memory split files released arm256_startelf, arm384_startelf, arm496_startelf for 256 MB, 384 MB and 496 MB CPU RAM and 256 MB, 128 MB and 16 MB video RAM But a week or so later the RPF released a new version of startelf that could read a new entry in configtxt gpu_mem=xx and could dynamically assign an amount of RAM from 16 to 256 MB in 8 MB steps to the GPU, so the older method of memory splits became obsolete, and a single startelf worked the same for 256 and 512 MB Raspberry Pis25

The Raspberry Pi 2 and the Raspberry Pi 3 have 1 GB of RAM2627 The Raspberry Pi Zero has 512 MB of RAM

Networkingedit

The Model A, A+ and Pi Zero have no Ethernet circuitry and are commonly connected to a network using an external user-supplied USB Ethernet or Wi-Fi adapter On the Model B and B+ the Ethernet port is provided by a built-in USB Ethernet adapter using the SMSC LAN9514 chip28 The Raspberry Pi 3 is equipped with 24 GHz WiFi 80211n 150 Mbit/s and Bluetooth 41 24 Mbit/s in addition to the 10/100 Ethernet port

Peripheralsedit

The current Model B boards incorporate four USB ports for connecting peripherals

The Raspberry Pi may be operated with any generic USB computer keyboard and mouse29

Videoedit

The early Raspberry Pi 1 Model A, with an HDMI port and a standard RCA composite video port for older displays

The video controller can emit standard modern TV resolutions, such as HD and Full HD, and higher or lower monitor resolutions and older standard CRT TV resolutions As shipped ie, without custom overclocking it can emit these: 640×350 EGA; 640×480 VGA; 800×600 SVGA; 1024×768 XGA; 1280×720 720p HDTV; 1280×768 WXGA variant; 1280×800 WXGA variant; 1280×1024 SXGA; 1366×768 WXGA variant; 1400×1050 SXGA+; 1600×1200 UXGA; 1680×1050 WXGA+; 1920×1080 1080p HDTV; 1920×1200 WUXGA30

Higher resolutions, such as, up to 2048×1152, may work3132 or even 3840×2160 at 15 Hz too low a framerate for convincing video33 Note also that allowing the highest resolutions does not imply that the GPU can decode video formats at those; in fact, the Pis are known to not work reliably for H265 at those high resolution, at least, commonly used for very high resolutions most formats, commonly used, up to full HD, do work

Although the Raspberry Pi 3 does not have H265 decoding hardware, the CPU is more powerful than its predecessors, potentially fast enough to decode H265-encoded videos in software34 The GPU in the RPi 3 runs at higher clock frequencies of 300 MHz or 400 MHz than previous versions which run at 250 MHz35

The Raspberry Pis can also generate 576i and 480i composite video signals, as used on old-style CRT TV screens through standard connectors – either RCA or 35 mm phone connector depending on models The television signal standards supported are PAL-BGHID, PAL-M, PAL-N, NTSC and NTSC-J36

Real-time clockedit

The Raspberry Pi does not have a built-in real-time clock, and does not "know" the time of day As a workaround, a program running on the Raspberry Pi can get the time from a network time server or user input at boot time, thus knowing the time while powered on

A real-time hardware clock with battery backup, such as the DS1307, which is fully binary coded, may be added often via the I²C interface

Specificationsedit

Type Model A Model B Compute Module Zero
Generation 1 1 + 1 1 + 2 2 ver 12 3 1 3 3 lite PCB ver 12 PCB ver 13
Release date February 2012 November 201437 April–June 2012 July 201438 February 201512 October 201639 February 201613 April 201440 January 201741 November 201542 May 2016
Target price US$25 US$2043 US$3544 US$2545 US$35 US$35 US$35 US$30 in batches of 10040 $30 $25 US$542 US$5
Architecture ARMv6Z 32-bit ARMv7-A 32-bit ARMv8-A 64/32-bit ARMv6Z 32-bit ARMv8-A 64/32-bit ARMv6Z 32-bit
SoC Broadcom BCM283510 Broadcom BCM2836 Broadcom BCM2837 Broadcom BCM283540 Broadcom BCM2837 Broadcom BCM2835
CPU 700 MHz single-core ARM1176JZF-S10 900 MHz 32-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A7 900 MHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A53 12 GHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A53 700 MHz single-core ARM1176JZF-S 12 GHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A53 1 GHz single-core ARM1176JZF-S42
GPU Broadcom VideoCore IV @ 250 MHz BCM2837: 3D part of GPU @ 300 MHz, video part of GPU @ 400 MHz4647
OpenGL ES 20 BCM2835, BCM2836: 24 GFLOPS / BCM2837: 288 GFLOPS
MPEG-2 and VC-1 with license,48 1080p30 H264/MPEG-4 AVC high-profile decoder and encoder10 BCM2837: 1080p60
Memory SDRAM 256 MB shared with GPU 512 MB shared with GPU as of 4 May 2016 Older boards had 256 MB shared with GPU49 1 GB shared with GPU 512 MB shared with GPU 1 GB shared with GPU 512 MB shared with GPU
USB 20 ports29 1 direct from BCM2835 chip 2 via the on-board 3-port USB hub50 4 via the on-board 5-port USB hub2838 1 direct from BCM2835 chip 1 direct from BCM2837 chip 1 Micro-USB direct from BCM2835 chip
Video input 15-pin MIPI camera interface CSI connector, used with the Raspberry Pi camera or Raspberry Pi NoIR camera51 2× MIPI camera interface CSI405253 None MIPI camera interface CSI rev 1354
Video outputs HDMI rev 13 composite video RCA jack, MIPI display interface DSI for raw LCD panels HDMI rev 13, composite video 35 mm TRRS jack, MIPI display interface DSI for raw LCD panels HDMI rev 13, composite video RCA jack, MIPI display interface DSI for raw LCD panels HDMI rev 13, composite video 35 mm TRRS jack, MIPI display interface DSI for raw LCD panels HDMI, 2× MIPI display interface DSI for raw LCD panels,40535556 composite video5257 Mini-HDMI, 1080p60,42 composite video via marked points on PCB for optional header pins58
Audio inputs As of revision 2 boards via I²S59
Audio outputs Analog via 35 mm phone jack; digital via HDMI and, as of revision 2 boards, I²S Analog, HDMI, I²S Mini-HDMI, stereo audio through PWM on GPIO
On-board storage29 SD, MMC, SDIO card slot 33 V with card power only MicroSDHC slot38 SD, MMC, SDIO card slot MicroSDHC slot MicroSDHC slot, USB Boot Mode60 4 GB eMMC flash memory chip40 MicroSDHC
On-board network29 None61 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet 8P8C USB adapter on the USB hub50 10/100 Mbit/s Ethernet,
80211n wireless,
Bluetooth 41
None
Low-level peripherals 8× GPIO62 plus the following, which can also be used as GPIO: UART, I²C bus, SPI bus with two chip selects, I²S audio63 +33 V, +5 V, ground4664
17× GPIO plus the same specific functions, and HAT ID bus 8× GPIO plus the following, which can also be used as GPIO: UART, I²C bus, SPI bus with two chip selects, I²S audio +33 V, +5 V, ground

An additional 4× GPIO are available on the P5 pad if the user is willing to make solder connections

17× GPIO plus the same specific functions, and HAT ID bus 46× GPIO, some of which can be used for specific functions including I²C, SPI, UART, PCM, PWM65 40× GPIO "unpopulated header"42
Power ratings 300 mA 15 W66 200 mA 1 W67 700 mA 35 W 600 mA 30 W38 800 mA68 40 W69 200 mA 1 W 700mA 35 W ~160 mA42 08 W
Power source 5 V via MicroUSB or GPIO header
Size 8560 mm × 565 mm 3370 in × 2224 in, not including protruding connectors 65 mm × 565 mm × 10 mm 256 in × 222 in × 039 in, same as HAT board 8560 mm × 565 mm 3370 in × 2224 in, not including protruding connectors 676 mm × 30 mm 266 in × 118 in 676 mm × 31 mm 266 in × 122 in 65 mm × 30 mm × 5 mm 256 in × 118 in × 020 in
Weight 31 g 11 oz 23 g 081 oz 45 g 16 oz 7 g 025 oz70 9 g 032 oz71
Console Micro-USB cable61 or a serial cable with optional GPIO power connector72
Generation 1 1 + 1 1 + 2 2 ver 12 3 1 3 3 lite PCB ver 12 PCB ver 13
Type Model A Model B Compute Module Zero

all interfaces are via 200-pin DDR2 SO-DIMM connector

Connectorsedit

General purpose input-output GPIO connectoredit

Raspberry Pi 1 Models A+ and B+, Pi 2 Model B, Pi 3 Model B and Pi Zero GPIO J8 have a 40-pin pinout7374 Models A and B have only the first 26 pins757677

GPIO# 2nd func Pin# Pin# 2nd func GPIO#
+33 V 1 2 +5 V
2 SDA1 I²C 3 4 +5 V
3 SCL1 I²C 5 6 GND
4 GCLK 7 8 TXD0 UART 14
GND 9 10 RXD0 UART 15
17 GEN0 11 12 GEN1 18
27 GEN2 13 14 GND
22 GEN3 15 16 GEN4 23
+33 V 17 18 GEN5 24
10 MOSI SPI 19 20 GND
9 MISO SPI 21 22 GEN6 25
11 SCLK SPI 23 24 CE0_N SPI 8
GND 25 26 CE1_N SPI 7
Pi 1 Models A and B stop here
EEPROM ID_SD 27 28 ID_SC EEPROM
5 N/A 29 30 GND
6 N/A 31 32 12
13 N/A 33 34 GND
19 N/A 35 36 N/A 16
26 N/A 37 38 Digital IN 20
GND 39 40 Digital OUT 21

Model B rev 2 also has a pad called P5 on the board and P6 on the schematics of 8 pins offering access to an additional 4 GPIO connections78

Function 2nd func Pin# Pin# 2nd func Function
N/A +5 V 1 2 +33 V N/A
GPIO28 GPIO_GEN7 3 4 GPIO_GEN8 GPIO29
GPIO30 GPIO_GEN9 5 6 GPIO_GEN10 GPIO31
N/A GND 7 8 GND N/A

Models A and B provide GPIO access to the ACT status LED using GPIO 16 Models A+ and B+ provide GPIO access to the ACT status LED using GPIO 47, and the power status LED using GPIO 35

Accessoriesedit

  • Camera – On 14 May 2013, the foundation and the distributors RS Components & Premier Farnell/Element 14 launched the Raspberry Pi camera board with a firmware update to accommodate it79 The camera board is shipped with a flexible flat cable that plugs into the CSI connector located between the Ethernet and HDMI ports In Raspbian, one enables the system to use the camera board by the installing or upgrading to the latest version of the operating system OS and then running Raspi-config and selecting the camera option The cost of the camera module is €20 in Europe 9 September 201380 It can produce 1080p, 720p and 640x480p video The dimensions are 25 mm × 20 mm × 9 mm80 In May 2016, v2 of the camera came out, and is an 8 megapixel camera
  • Gertboard – A Raspberry Pi Foundation sanctioned device, designed for educational purposes, that expands the Raspberry Pi's GPIO pins to allow interface with and control of LEDs, switches, analog signals, sensors and other devices It also includes an optional Arduino compatible controller to interface with the Pi81
  • Infrared Camera – In October 2013, the foundation announced that they would begin producing a camera module without an infrared filter, called the Pi NoIR82
  • HAT Hardware Attached on Top expansion boards – Together with the Model B+, inspired by the Arduino shield boards, the interface for HAT boards was devised by the Raspberry Pi Foundation Each HAT board carries a small EEPROM typically a CAT24C32WI-GT383 containing the relevant details of the board,84 so that the Raspberry Pi's OS is informed of the HAT, and the technical details of it, relevant to the OS using the HAT85 Mechanical details of a HAT board, that use the four mounting holes in their rectangular formation, are available online8687

Softwareedit

Operating systemsedit

Various operating systems for the Raspberry Pi can be installed on a MicroSD, MiniSD or SD Card, depending on the board and available adapters; seen here is the MicroSD slot located on the bottom of a Raspberry Pi 2 board

The Raspberry Pi primarily uses Raspbian, a Debian-based Linux operating system Other third party operating systems available via the official website include Ubuntu MATE, Snappy Ubuntu Core, Windows 10 IoT Core, RISC OS and specialised distributions for the Kodi media center and classroom management88

Many other operating systems can also run on the Raspberry Pi

Other operating systems not Linux-based
  • RISC OS Pi a special cut down version RISC OS Pico, for 16 MB cards and larger for all models of Pi 1 & 2, has also been made available
  • FreeBSD8990
  • NetBSD9192
  • Plan 9 from Bell Labs9394 and Inferno95 in beta
  • Windows 10 IoT Core – a no-cost edition of Windows 10 offered by Microsoft that runs natively on the Raspberry Pi 296
  • xv697 – is a modern reimplementation of Sixth Edition Unix OS for teaching purposes; it is ported to Raspberry Pi from MIT xv6; this xv6 port can boot from NOOBS
  • Haiku – is an opensource BeOS clone that has can be compiled for the Raspberry Pi and several other ARM boards98 Work on Pi 1 began in 2011, but only the Pi 2 will be supportedcitation needed
  • HelenOS – a portable microkernel-based multiserver operating system; has basic Raspberry Pi support since version 06099
  • Genode OS Framework – supports the Raspberry Pi platform with the base-hw kernel since release 1305100
Other operating systems Linux-based
  • Xbian101 – using the Kodi formerly XBMC open source digital media center
  • openSUSE102
  • Raspberry Pi Fedora Remix103
  • Pidora,104 another Fedora Remix optimized for the Raspberry Pi
  • Gentoo Linux105
  • Diet Pi, includes a diverse range of servers for media, VPN, Minecraft and many others106
  • CentOS for Raspberry Pi 2 and later
  • RedSleeve a RHEL port for Raspberry Pi 1
  • Slackware ARM – version 1337 and later runs on the Raspberry Pi without modification107108109110 The 128–496 MB of available memory on the Raspberry Pi is at least twice the minimum requirement of 64 MB needed to run Slackware Linux on an ARM or i386 system111 Whereas the majority of Linux systems boot into a graphical user interface, Slackware's default user environment is the textual shell / command line interface112 The Fluxbox window manager running under the X Window System requires an additional 48 MB of RAM113
  • Moebius114 – is a light ARM HF distribution based on Debian It uses Raspbian repository, but it fits in a 128 MB SD card115 It has only minimal services and its memory use is optimized to be small
  • OpenWrt – is primarily used on embedded devices to route network traffic
  • Kali Linux – is a Debian-derived distro designed for digital forensics and penetration testing
  • Pardus ARM116 – is a Debian-based operating system which is the light version of the Pardus operating system
  • Instant WebKiosk – is an operating system for digital signage purposes web and media views
  • Ark OS – is designed for website and email self-hosting
  • ROKOS117 – is a Raspbian-based operating system with integrated clients for the Bitcoin and OKCash cryptocurrencies
  • MinePeon – is a dedicated operating system for mining cryptocurrency
  • Kano OS118
  • Nard SDK119 – is a software development kit SDK for industrial embedded systems
  • Sailfish OS with Raspberry Pi 2 due to use ARM Cortex-A7 CPU; Raspberry Pi 1 uses different ARMv6 architecture and Sailfish requires ARMv7120
  • Tiny Core Linux – a minimal Linux operating system focused on providing a base system using BusyBox and FLTK Designed to run primarily in RAM
  • IPFire – is a dedicated firewall/router distribution for the protection of a SOHO LAN; runs only on a Raspberry Pi 1; porting to the Raspberry Pi 2 is not planned for now121
  • Alpine Linux – is a Linux distribution based on musl and BusyBox, primarily designed for "power users who appreciate security, simplicity and resource efficiency"
  • Void Linux – a rolling release Linux distribution which was designed and implemented from scratch, provides images based on musl or glibc
  • Tingbot OS122 – based on Raspbian, primarily designed for use with the Tingbot addon and running Tide apps123
  • WTware for Raspberry Pi124 – is a free operating system for creating Windows thin client from Pi 2 and Pi 3
  • Fedora 25 – supports Pi 2 and later Pi 1 is supported by some unofficial derivatives, eg listed here
  • Media center operating systems: OSMC, OpenELEC, LibreELEC, Xbian, Rasplex
  • Audio operating systems : Volumio, Pimusicbox, Runeaudio, moOdeaudio
  • Retrogaming operating systems: Retropie, Recalbox, Happi Game Center, Lakka, ChameleonPi, Piplay

Driver APIsedit

See also: VideoCore § Linux support Scheme of the implemented APIs: OpenMAX, OpenGL ES and OpenVG

Raspberry Pi can use a VideoCore IV GPU via a binary blob, which is loaded into the GPU at boot time from the SD-card, and additional software, that initially was closed source125 This part of the driver code was later released126 However, much of the actual driver work is done using the closed source GPU code Application software use calls to closed source run-time libraries OpenMax, OpenGL ES or OpenVG which in turn calls an open source driver inside the Linux kernel, which then calls the closed source VideoCore IV GPU driver code The API of the kernel driver is specific for these closed libraries Video applications use OpenMAX, 3D applications use OpenGL ES and 2D applications use OpenVG which both in turn use EGL OpenMAX and EGL use the open source kernel driver in turn127

Firmwareedit

The official firmware is a freely redistributable128 binary blob, that is closed-source98 A minimal open source firmware is also available129

Third party application softwareedit

  • AstroPrint – AstroPrint's Wireless 3D printing software can be run on the Pi 2130
  • Mathematica & the Wolfram Language – Since 21 November 2013, Raspbian includes a full installation of this proprietary software for free131132133 As of 24 August 2015update, the version is Mathematica 102134 Programs can be run either from a command line interface or from a Notebook interface There are Wolfram Language functions for accessing connected devices135 There is also a Wolfram Language desktop development kit allowing development for Raspberry Pi in Mathematica from desktop machines136
  • Minecraft – Released 11 February 2013, a version for the Raspberry Pi, in which you can modify the game world with code, the only official version of the game in which you can do so137
  • UserGate Web Filter – On 20 September 2013, Florida-based security vendor Entensys announced porting UserGate Web Filter to Raspberry Pi platform138

Software development toolsedit

  • Arduino IDE - for programming an arduino
  • AlgoID – for learning programming for kids and beginners
  • BlueJ – for teaching Java to beginners
  • Fawlty Language – a freely usable IDL programming language clone for Pi 2
  • Greenfoot – Greenfoot teaches object orientation with Java Create 'actors' which live in 'worlds' to build games, simulations, and other graphical programs
  • Julia – an interactive and cross-platform programming language/environment, that runs on the Pi 1 and later139 IDEs for Julia, such as Juno, are available See also Pi-specific repository JuliaBerry
  • Lazarus – a Free Pascal RAD IDE resembling Delphi
  • LiveCode – educational RAD IDE descended from HyperCard using English-like language to write event-handlers for WYSIWYG widgets runnable on desktop, mobile and Raspberry Pi platforms
  • Ninja-IDE – a cross-platform integrated development environment IDE for Python
  • Object Pascal140 – an object oriented variant the one used in Delphi and Lazarus of Niklaus Wirth's original Pascal language Free Pascal is the compiler in Lazarus
  • Processing – an IDE built for the electronic arts, new media art, and visual design communities with the purpose of teaching the fundamentals of computer programming in a visual context
  • Scratch – a cross platform teaching IDE using visual blocks that stack like Lego™ originally developed by MIT's Life Long Kindergarten group The Pi version is very heavily optimised141 for the limited compute resources available and is implemented in the Squeak Smalltalk system
  • Squeak Smalltalk – a full scale open Smalltalk
  • V-Play Game Engine – a cross-platform development framework that supports mobile game and app development with the V-Play Game Engine, V-Play apps and V-Play plugins
  • Xojo – a cross-platform, professional RAD tool that can create desktop, web and console apps for Pi 2
  • PowerBerry142 – a port of POWER-KI143 programming language on Windows 10 IoT – The PowerBerry Manager PBM allows the managing of the board and its distribution contains demo and test Apps GPIO, WEB, PCA9685

Reception and useedit

Technology writer Glyn Moody described the project in May 2011 as a "potential BBC Micro 20", not by replacing PC compatible machines but by supplementing them144 In March 2012 Stephen Pritchard echoed the BBC Micro successor sentiment in ITPRO145 Alex Hope, co-author of the Next Gen report, is hopeful that the computer will engage children with the excitement of programming146 Co-author Ian Livingstone suggested that the BBC could be involved in building support for the device, possibly branding it as the BBC Nano147 Chris Williams, writing in The Register sees the inclusion of programming languages such as Kids Ruby, Scratch and BASIC as a "good start" to equip kids with the skills needed in the future – although it remains to be seen how effective their use will be148 The Centre for Computing History strongly supports the Raspberry Pi project, feeling that it could "usher in a new era"149 Before release, the board was showcased by ARM's CEO Warren East at an event in Cambridge outlining Google's ideas to improve UK science and technology education150

Harry Fairhead, however, suggests that more emphasis should be put on improving the educational software available on existing hardware, using tools such as Google App Inventor to return programming to schools, rather than adding new hardware choices151 Simon Rockman, writing in a ZDNet blog, was of the opinion that teens will have "better things to do", despite what happened in the 1980s152

In October 2012, the Raspberry Pi won T3's Innovation of the Year award,153 and futurist Mark Pesce cited a borrowed Raspberry Pi as the inspiration for his ambient device project MooresCloud154 In October 2012, the British Computer Society reacted to the announcement of enhanced specifications by stating, "it's definitely something we'll want to sink our teeth into"155

In February 2015, a switched-mode power supply chip, designated U16, of the Raspberry Pi 2 Model B version 11 the initially released version was found to be vulnerable to flashes of light,156 particularly the light from xenon camera flashes and green157 and red laser pointers However, other bright lights, particularly ones that are on continuously, were found to have no effect The symptom was the Raspberry Pi 2 spontaneously rebooting or turning off when these lights were flashed at the chip Initially, some users and commenters suspected that the electromagnetic pulse EMP from the xenon flash tube was causing the problem by interfering with the computer's digital circuitry, but this was ruled out by tests where the light was either blocked by a card or aimed at the other side of the Raspberry Pi 2, both of which did not cause a problem The problem was narrowed down to the U16 chip by covering first the system on a chip main processor and then U16 with Blu-Tack an opaque poster mounting compound Light being the sole culprit, instead of EMP, was further confirmed by the laser pointer tests,157 where it was also found that less opaque covering was needed to shield against the laser pointers than to shield against the xenon flashes156 The U16 chip seems to be bare silicon without a plastic cover ie a chip-scale package or wafer-level package, which would, if present, block the light Unofficial workarounds include covering U16 with opaque material such as electrical tape,156157 lacquer, poster mounting compound, or even balled-up bread156, putting the Raspberry Pi 2 in a case,157 and avoiding taking photos of the top side of the board with a xenon flash This issue was not caught before the release of the Raspberry Pi 2 because while commercial electronic devices are routinely subjected to tests of susceptibility to radio interference, it is not standard or common practice to test their susceptibility to optical interference156

Communityedit

The Raspberry Pi community was described by Jamie Ayre of FLOSS software company AdaCore as one of the most exciting parts of the project158 Community blogger Russell Davis said that the community strength allows the Foundation to concentrate on documentation and teaching158 The community developed a fanzine around the platform called The MagPi159 which in 2015, was handed over to the Raspberry Pi Foundation by its volunteers to be continued in-house160 A series of community Raspberry Jam events have been held across the UK and around the world161

Use in educationedit

As of January 2012update, enquiries about the board in the United Kingdom have been received from schools in both the state and private sectors, with around five times as much interest from the latter It is hoped that businesses will sponsor purchases for less advantaged schools162 The CEO of Premier Farnell said that the government of a country in the Middle East has expressed interest in providing a board to every schoolgirl, in order to enhance her employment prospects163164

In 2014, the Raspberry Pi Foundation hired a number of its community members including ex-teachers and software developers to launch a set of free learning resources for its website165 The resources are freely licensed under Creative Commons, and contributions and collaborations are encouraged on social coding platform GitHub

The Foundation also started a teacher training course called Picademy with the aim of helping teachers prepare for teaching the new computing curriculum using the Raspberry Pi in the classroom166 The continued professional development course is provided free for teachers and is run by the Foundation's education team

Use in home automationedit

There are a number of developers and applications that are leveraging the Raspberry Pi for home automation These programmers are making an effort to modify the Raspberry Pi into a cost affordable solution in energy monitoring and power consumption Because of the relatively low cost of the Raspberry Pi, this has become a popular and economical solution to the more expensive commercial alternatives167

Use in commercial productsedit

OTTO is a digital camera created by Next Thing Co It incorporates a Raspberry Pi Compute Module It was successfully crowd-funded in a May 2014 Kickstarter campaign168

Slice is a digital media player which also uses a Compute Module as its heart It was crowd-funded in an August 2014 Kickstarter campaign The software running on Slice is based on Kodi169

Astro Piedit

A project was launched in December 2014 at an event held by the UK Space Agency The Astro Pi competition was officially opened in January and was opened to all primary and secondary school aged children who were residents of the United Kingdom During his mission, British ESA Astronaut Tim Peake plans to deploy the computers on board the International Space Station He will then load up the winning code while in orbit, collect the data generated and then send this to Earth where it will be distributed to the winning teams The themes of Spacecraft Sensors, Satellite Imaging, Space Measurements, Data Fusion and Space Radiation were devised to stimulate creative and scientific thinking

The organisations involved in the Astro Pi competition include the UK Space Agency, UKspace, Raspberry Pi, ESERO-UK and ESA

Historyedit

An early alpha-test board in operation using different layout from later beta and production boards

In 2006, early concepts of the Raspberry Pi were based on the Atmel ATmega644 microcontroller Its schematics and PCB layout are publicly available170 Foundation trustee Eben Upton assembled a group of teachers, academics and computer enthusiasts to devise a computer to inspire children162 The computer is inspired by Acorn's BBC Micro of 1981171172 The Model A, Model B and Model B+ names are references to the original models of the British educational BBC Micro computer, developed by Acorn Computers148 The first ARM prototype version of the computer was mounted in a package the same size as a USB memory stick173 It had a USB port on one end and an HDMI port on the other

The Foundation's goal was to offer two versions, priced at US$25 and 35 They started accepting orders for the higher priced Model B on 29 February 2012,174 the lower cost Model A on 4 February 2013175 and the even lower cost US$20 A+ on 10 November 201443 On 26 November 2015, the cheapest Raspberry PI yet, the Raspberry PI Zero, was launched at US$5 or £4176

Pre-launchedit

  • July 2011 2011-07: Trustee Eben Upton publicly approached the RISC OS Open community in July 2011 to enquire about assistance with a port177 Adrian Lees at Broadcom has since worked on the port,178179 with his work being cited in a discussion regarding the graphics drivers180 This port is now included in NOOBS
  • August 2011 – 50 alpha boards are manufactured These boards were functionally identical to the planned Model B,181 but they were physically larger to accommodate debug headers Demonstrations of the board showed it running the LXDE desktop on Debian, Quake 3 at 1080p,182 and Full HD MPEG-4 video over HDMI183
  • October 2011 – A version of RISC OS 5 was demonstrated in public, and following a year of development the port was released for general consumption in November 2012184185186187
  • December 2011 – Twenty-five Model B Beta boards were assembled and tested188 from one hundred unpopulated PCBs189 The component layout of the Beta boards was the same as on production boards A single error was discovered in the board design where some pins on the CPU were not held high; it was fixed for the first production run190 The Beta boards were demonstrated booting Linux, playing a 1080p movie trailer and the Rightware Samurai OpenGL ES benchmark191
  • Early 2012 – During the first week of the year, the first 10 boards were put up for auction on eBay192193 One was bought anonymously and donated to the museum at The Centre for Computing History in Cambridge, England149194 The ten boards with a total retail price of £220 together raised over £16,000,195 with the last to be auctioned, serial number No 01, raising £3,500196 In advance of the anticipated launch at the end of February 2012, the Foundation's servers struggled to cope with the load placed by watchers repeatedly refreshing their browsers197

Launchedit

  • 19 February 2012 – The first proof of concept SD card image that could be loaded onto an SD card to produce a preliminary operating system is released The image was based on Debian 60 Squeeze, with the LXDE desktop and the Midori browser, plus various programming tools The image also runs on QEMU allowing the Raspberry Pi to be emulated on various other platforms198199
  • 29 February 2012 – Initial sales commence 29 February 2012200 at 06:00 UTC; At the same time, it was announced that the model A, originally to have had 128 MB of RAM, was to be upgraded to 256 MB before release174 The Foundation's website also announced: "Six years after the project's inception, we're nearly at the end of our first run of development – although it's just the beginning of the Raspberry Pi story"201 The web-shops of the two licensed manufacturers selling Raspberry Pi's within the United Kingdom, Premier Farnell and RS Components, had their websites stalled by heavy web traffic immediately after the launch RS Components briefly going down completely202203 Unconfirmed reports suggested that there were over two million expressions of interest or pre-orders204 The official Raspberry Pi Twitter account reported that Premier Farnell sold out within a few minutes of the initial launch, while RS Components took over 100,000 pre orders on day one174 Manufacturers were reported in March 2012 to be taking a "healthy number" of pre-orders158
  • March 2012 – Shipping delays for the first batch were announced in March 2012, as the result of installation of an incorrect Ethernet port,205206 but the Foundation expected that manufacturing quantities of future batches could be increased with little difficulty if required207 "We have ensured we can get them the Ethernet connectors with magnetics in large numbers and Premier Farnell and RS Components the two distributors have been fantastic at helping to source components," Upton said The first batch of 10,000 boards was manufactured in Taiwan and China208209
  • 8 March 2012 – Release Raspberry Pi Fedora Remix, the recommended Linux distribution,210 developed at Seneca College in Canada211
  • March 2012 – The Debian port is initiated by Mike Thompson, former CTO of Atomz The effort was largely carried out by Thompson and Peter Green, a volunteer Debian developer, with some support from the Foundation, who tested the resulting binaries that the two produced during the early stages neither Thompson nor Green had physical access to the hardware, as boards were not widely accessible at the time due to demand212 While the preliminary proof of concept image distributed by the Foundation before launch was also Debian-based, it differed from Thompson and Green's Raspbian effort in a couple of ways The POC image was based on then-stable Debian Squeeze, while Raspbian aimed to track then-upcoming Debian Wheezy packages199 Aside from the updated packages that would come with the new release, Wheezy was also set to introduce the armhf architecture,213 which became the raison d'être for the Raspbian effort The Squeeze-based POC image was limited to the armel architecture, which was, at the time of Squeeze's release, the latest attempt by the Debian project to have Debian run on the newest ARM embedded-application binary interface EABI214 The armhf architecture in Wheezy intended to make Debian run on the ARM VFP hardware floating-point unit, while armel was limited to emulating floating point operations in software215216 Since the Raspberry Pi included a VFP, being able to make use of the hardware unit would result in performance gains and reduced power use for floating point operations212 The armhf effort in mainline Debian, however, was orthogonal to the work surrounding the Pi and only intended to allow Debian to run on ARMv7 at a minimum, which would mean the Pi, an ARMv6 device, would not benefit213 As a result, Thompson and Green set out to build the 19,000 Debian packages for the device using a custom build cluster212

Post-launchedit

  • 16 April 2012 – Reports appear from the first buyers who had received their Raspberry Pi217218
  • 20 April 2012 – The schematics for the Model A and Model B are released219
  • 18 May 2012 – The Foundation reported on its blog about a prototype camera module they had tested220 The prototype used a 14-megapixel module
  • 22 May 2012 – Over 20,000 units had been shipped221
  • 16 July 2012 – It was announced that 4,000 units were being manufactured per day, allowing Raspberry Pis to be bought in bulk222223
  • 24 August 2012 – Hardware accelerated video H264 encoding becomes available after it became known that the existing license also covered encoding Formerly it was thought that encoding would be added with the release of the announced camera module224225 However, no stable software exists for hardware H264 encoding226 At the same time the Foundation released two additional codecs that can be bought separately, MPEG-2 and Microsoft's VC-1 Also it was announced that the Pi will implement CEC, enabling it to be controlled with the television's remote control48
  • July 2012 – Release of Raspbian227
  • 5 September 2012 – The Foundation announced a second revision of the Raspberry Pi Model B228 A revision 20 board is announced, with a number of minor corrections and improvements229
  • 6 September 2012 – Announcement that in future the bulk of Raspberry Pi units would be manufactured in the UK, at Sony's manufacturing facility in Pencoed, Wales The Foundation estimated that the plant would produce 30,000 units per month, and would create about 30 new jobs230231
  • 15 October 2012 – It is announced that new Raspberry Pi Model Bs are to be fitted with 512 MB instead of 256 MB RAM232
  • 24 October 2012 – The Foundation announces that "all of the VideoCore driver code which runs on the ARM" had been released as free software under a BSD-style license, making it "the first ARM-based multimedia SoC with fully-functional, vendor-provided as opposed to partial, reverse engineered fully open-source drivers", although this claim has not been universally accepted126 On 28 February 2014, they also announced the release of full documentation for the VideoCore IV graphics core, and a complete source release of the graphics stack under a 3-clause BSD license233234
  • October 2012 – It was reported that some customers of one of the two main distributors had been waiting more than six months for their orders This was reported to be due to difficulties in sourcing the CPU and conservative sales forecasting by this distributor235
  • 17 December 2012 – The Foundation, in collaboration with IndieCity and Velocix, opens the Pi Store, as a "one-stop shop for all your Raspberry Pi software needs" Using an application included in Raspbian, users can browse through several categories and download what they want Software can also be uploaded for moderation and release236
  • 3 June 2013 – 'New Out Of Box Software or NOOBS is introduced This makes the Raspberry Pi easier to use by simplifying the installation of an operating system Instead of using specific software to prepare an SD card, a file is unzipped and the contents copied over to a FAT formatted 4 GB or bigger SD card That card can then be booted on the Raspberry Pi and a choice of six operating systems is presented for installation on the card The system also contains a recovery partition that allows for the quick restoration of the installed OS, tools to modify the configtxt and an online help button and web browser which directs to the Raspberry Pi Forums237
  • October 2013 – The Foundation announces that the one millionth Pi had been manufactured in the United Kingdom238
  • November 2013: they announce that the two millionth Pi shipped between 24 and 31 October239
  • 28 February 2014 – On the day of the second anniversary of the Raspberry Pi, Broadcom, together with the Raspberry PI foundation, announced the release of full documentation for the VideoCore IV graphics core,clarification needed and a complete source release of the graphics stack under a 3-clause BSD license233234

Raspberry Pi Compute Module Raspberry Pi Model B
  • 7 April 2014 – The official Raspberry Pi blog announced the Raspberry Pi Compute Module, a device in a 200-pin DDR2 SO-DIMM-configured memory module though not in any way compatible with such RAM, intended for consumer electronics designers to use as the core of their own products40
  • June 2014 – The official Raspberry Pi blog mentioned that the three millionth Pi shipped in early May 2014240
  • 14 July 2014 – The official Raspberry Pi blog announced the Raspberry Pi Model B+, "the final evolution of the original Raspberry Pi For the same price as the original Raspberry Pi model B, but incorporating numerous small improvements people have been asking for"38
  • 10 November 2014 – The official Raspberry Pi blog announced the Raspberry Pi Model A+43 It is the smallest and cheapest US$20 Raspberry Pi so far and has the same processor and RAM as the model A Like the A, it has no Ethernet port, and only one USB port, but does have the other innovations of the B+, like lower power, micro-SD-card slot, and 40-pin HAT compatible GPIO
  • 2 February 2015 – The official Raspberry Pi blog announced the Raspberry Pi 2 Looking like a Model B+, it has a 900 MHz quad-core ARMv7 Cortex-A7 CPU, twice the memory for a total of 1 GB and complete compatibility with the original generation of Raspberry Pis241
  • 14 May 2015 – The price of Model B+ was decreased from US$35 to 25, purportedly as a "side effect of the production optimizations" from the Pi 2 development242 Industry observers have skeptically noted, however, that the price drop appeared to be a direct response to the CHIP, a lower-priced competitor243
  • 26 November 2015 – The Raspberry Pi Foundation launched the Raspberry Pi Zero, the smallest and cheapest member of the Raspberry Pi family yet, at 65 mm × 30 mm, and US$5 The Zero is similar to the model A+ without camera and LCD connectors, while smaller and uses less power It was given away with the Raspberry PI magazine Magpi #40 that was distributed in the UK and US that day – the MagPi was sold out at almost every retailer internationally due to the freebie42
  • 29 February 2016 – Raspberry Pi 3 with a BCM2837 12 GHz 64-bit quad processor based on the ARMv8 Cortex A53, with built-in Wi-Fi BCM43438 80211n 24 GHz and Bluetooth 41 Low Energy BLE Starting with a 32-bit Raspbian version, with a 64-bit version later to come if "there is value in moving to 64-bit mode" In the same announcement it was said that a new BCM2837 based Compute Module was expected to be introduced a few months later244
  • February 2016 – The Raspberry Pi Foundation announces that they had sold eight million devices for all models combined, making it the best-selling UK personal computer, ahead of the Amstrad PCW245246 Sales reached ten million in September 20166
  • 25 April 2016 – Raspberry Pi Camera v21 announced with 8 Mpixels, in normal and NoIR can receive IR versions The camera uses the Sony IMX219 chip with a resolution of 3280 × 2464 To make use of the new resolution the software has to be updated247
  • 10 October 2016 – NEC Display Solutions announces that select models of commercial displays to be released in early 2017 will incorporate a Raspberry Pi 3 Compute Module248
  • 14 October 2016 – Raspberry Pi Foundation announces their cooperation with NEC Display Solutions They expect that the Raspberry Pi 3 Compute Module will be available to the general public by the end of 2016249
  • 25 November 2016 – 11 million units sold250
  • 16 January 2017 – Compute Module 3 and Compute Module 3 Lite are launched251

See alsoedit

  • Computing portal
  • Education portal
  • RACHEL
  • Comparison of single-board computers

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Further readingedit

  • Raspberry Pi For Dummies; Sean McManus and Mike Cook; 432 pages; 2013; ISBN 978-1118554210
  • Getting Started with Raspberry Pi; Matt Richardson and Shawn Wallace; 176 pages; 2013; ISBN 978-1449344214
  • Raspberry Pi User Guide; Eben Upton and Gareth Halfacree; 312 pages; 2014; ISBN 978-1118921661
  • Hello Raspberry Pi!; Ryan Heitz; 320 pages; 2016; ISBN 978-1617292453
  • Getting Started with Wolfram Language and Mathematica for Raspberry Pi; Agus Kurniawan; 73 pages; 2016; ISBN B01BON8NCI

External linksedit

  • Raspberry Pi Foundation official website and forums
  • Raspberry Pi Wiki, supported by the RPF
  • The MagPi newsletter
  • Raspberry Pi gpio pinout
  • Raspberry Pi component map
  • ARM1176JZF-S ARM11 CPU Core Technical Reference Manual, ARM Holdings

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