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Rakugo

rakugo, rakugo tennyo oyui
Rakugo 落語, literally "fallen words" is a form of Japanese verbal entertainment The lone storyteller 落語家, rakugoka sits on stage, called Kōza 高座 Using only a paper fan 扇子, sensu and a small cloth 手拭, tenugui as props, and without standing up from the seiza sitting position, the rakugo artist depicts a long and complicated comical story The story always involves the dialogue of two or more characters, the difference between the characters depicted only through change in pitch, tone, and a slight turn of the head

Contents

  • 1 Lexical background
  • 2 Description
  • 3 History
  • 4 Important contributors
    • 41 Current performers
  • 5 Titles
  • 6 List of rakugoka
    • 61 Edo Tokyo
    • 62 Kamigata Osaka
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

Lexical backgroundedit

Rakugo was originally known as karukuchi 軽口1 The oldest appearance of the kanji which refers specifically to this type of performance dates back to 1787, but at the time the characters themselves 落し噺 were normally read as otoshibanashi falling discourse

In the middle of the Meiji period 1868–1912 the expression rakugo first started being used, and it came into common usage only in the Shōwa period 1926–1989

Descriptionedit

The speaker is in the middle of the audience, and his purpose is to stimulate the general hilarity with tone and limited, yet specific body gestures The monologue always ends with a narrative stunt known as ochi 落ち, lit "fall" or sage 下げ, lit "lowering", consisting of a sudden interruption of the wordplay flow Twelve kinds of ochi are codified and recognized, with more complex variations having evolved through time from the more basic forms2

Early rakugo has developed into various styles, including the shibaibanashi 芝居噺, theatre discourses, the ongyokubanashi 音曲噺, musical discourses, the kaidanbanashi see kaidan 怪談噺, ghost discourses, and ninjōbanashi 人情噺, sentimental discourses In many of these forms the ochi, which is essential to the original rakugo, is absent

Rakugo has been described as "a sitcom with one person playing all the parts" by Noriko Watanabe, assistant professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Comparative Literature at Baruch College3

Historyedit

Shinjuku suehirotei is a famous vaudeville theater in Tokyo which hosts rakugo events

Rakugo was invented by Buddhist monks in the 9th and 10th century to make their sermons more interesting and its written tradition can be traced back to the story collection Uji Shūi Monogatari 1213–18 Gradually the form turned from humorous narrative into monologue, probably upon the request of the daimyō, feudal lords, seeking people skilled enough to entertain them with various kinds of storytelling

During the Edo period 1603–1867, thanks to the emergence of the merchant class of the chonin, the rakugo spread to the lower classes Many groups of performers were formed, and collections of texts were finally printed During the 17th century the actors were known as hanashika found written as 噺家, 咄家, or 話家; lit “storyteller”, corresponding to the modern term, rakugoka 落語家, lit “person of the falling word”

Before the advent of modern rakugo there were the kobanashi 小噺: short comical vignettes ending with an ochi, popular between the 17th and the 19th century These were enacted in small public venues, or in the streets, and printed and sold as pamphlets The origin of kobanashi is to be found in the Kinō wa kyō no monogatari Yesterday Stories Told Today, ca 1620, the work of an unknown author collecting approximately 230 stories describing the common class

Important contributorsedit

Asakusa Engei Hall is another famous vaudeville theater in Tokyo which hosts rakugo events

Many artists contributed to the development of rakugo Some were simply performers, but many also composed original works

Among the more famous rakugoka of the Tokugawa Era were performers like Anrakuan Sakuden 1554–1642, the author of the Seisuishō Laughter to Chase Away Sleep, 1628, a collection of more than 1,000 stories In Edo today's Tokyo there also lived Shikano Buzaemon 1649–99 who wrote the Shikano Buzaemon kudenbanashi Oral Instruction Discourses of Shikano Buzaemon and the Shika no makifude The Deer's Brush, 1686, a work containing 39 stories, eleven of which are about the kabuki milieu Tatekawa Enba 1743–1822 was author of the Rakugo rokugi The Six Meanings of Rakugo

Kyoto was the home of Tsuyu no Gorobei 1643–1703, whose works are included in the Karakuchi tsuyu ga hanashi One-liners: Morning Dew Stories, date of composition unknown, containing many word games, episodes from the lives of famous literary authors, and plays on the different dialects from the Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto areas

Of a similar structure is the Karukuchi gozen otoko One-liners: An Important Storyteller, date of publication unknown in which are collected the stories of Yonezawa Hikohachi, who lived in Ōsaka towards the end of the 17th century An example from Yonezawa Hikohachi's collection:

A man faints in a bathing tub In the great confusion following, a doctor arrives who takes his pulse and calmly gives the instructions: "Pull the plug and let the water out" Once the water has flowed completely out of the tub he says: "Fine Now put a lid on it and carry the guy to the cemetery"

For the poor man is already dead The joke becomes clearer when one notes that a Japanese traditional bathing tub is shaped like a coffin

Current performersedit

Current rakugo artists include Tachibanaya Enzō, Katsura Bunshi 6th, Tachibanaya Takezō, Tatekawa Shinosuke and Hayashiya Shōzō 9th Furthermore, many people regarded as more mainstream comedians originally trained as rakugoka apprentices, even adopting stage names given them by their masters Some examples include Akashiya Sanma, Shōfukutei Tsurube, and Shōfukutei Shōhei4 Another famous rakugo performer, Katsura Shijaku, was known outside Japan for his performances of rakugo in English

Titlesedit

  • Jugemu
  • The Cat's Plate Neko no Sara
  • Yamamura, Kōji, Mt Head a traditional rakugo tale adapted to film  Nominated for the "Best Animated Short" Oscar in 2003
  • Shibahama
  • Pacific Saury of Meguro Meguro no Sanma
  • Manjuu are scary Manjuu kowai
  • Botan Dōrō
  • Momotarou

List of rakugokaedit

Edo Tokyoedit

  • Kairakutei Black I Henry Black
  • Hayashiya Sanpei I
  • Hayashiya Shōzō IX
  • Kokontei Shinchō
  • Tatekawa Danshi
  • Tachibanaya Enzō
  • Reireisya Bafū
  • Kokontei Shinshō
  • San'yūtei Enchō
  • San'yūtei Enraku V
  • San'yūtei Enraku VI formerly San'yūtei Rakutarō
  • Katsura Utamaru
  • San'yūtei Koyūza
  • San'yūtei Kōraku
  • Hayashiya Kikuō formerly Hayashiya Kikuzō I
  • Shunpūtei Shōta
  • Hayashiya Konpei
  • Hayashiya Taihei
  • Reireisya Suzumaru Yamada Takao
  • Shunpūtei Koasa
  • Shunpūtei Ryūshō
  • Yanagiya Kosan
  • Sanshōtei Yumenosuke
  • Katsura Yonesuke
  • Ryūtei Chiraku
  • Yanagiya Kosanji
  • Tatekawa Shinosuke
  • Tachibanaya Takezō

Kamigata Osakaedit

  • Hayashiya Somemaru IV
  • Katsura Bunshi V
  • Katsura Bunshi VI formerly Katsura Sanshi
  • Katsura Beichō
  • Katsura Bunchin
  • Shōfukutei Nikaku
  • Tsukitei Kachō
  • Katsura Harudanji
  • Tsukitei Happō
  • Shōfukutei Matsunosuke
  • Shōfukutei Shōkaku
  • Katsura Shijaku II
  • Shōfukutei Tsurube
  • Shōfukutei Kakushow
  • Showfukutei Showko
  • Katsura Sunshine
  • Tsukitei Hōsei formerly Yamasaki Hōsei

See alsoedit

Media related to Rakugo at Wikimedia Commons

  • Shōwa Genroku Rakugo Shinjū
  • Fallen Words
  • Stand-up comedy
  • Manzai
  • Kyōgen
  • Xiangsheng

Referencesedit

  1. ^ Rakugo, Big Serving, retrieved 11 May 2007 
  2. ^ Rakugo: universal laughter by Tim Ryan Retrieved 11 May 2007
  3. ^ Rakugo related interview from Baruch College Retrieved 11 May 2007
  4. ^ Rakugo Performers Retrieved 11 May 2007

External linksedit

  • English-Rakugo web site
  • YouTube Rakugo examples
  • Rakugo video in English SFGTV San Francisco
  • Bilingual Kamigata Osaka Rakugo web site
  • Katsura Sunshine's essay concerning the difference between KamigataOsaka rakugo and EdoTokyo rakugo
  • Learning Japanese Language and Culture through Rakugo Appreciation

rakugo, rakugo anime, rakugo in english, rakugo japan, rakugo katsura sunshine, rakugo shinjuu, rakugo sit down theatre, rakugo stories, rakugo storytelling, rakugo tennyo oyui


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    Rakugo beatiful post thanks!

    29.10.2014


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