Prochloraz, brand name Sportak, is an imidazole fungicide that was introduced in 1978 and is widely used in Europe, Australia, Asia, and South America within gardening and agriculture to control the growth of fungi It is not registered for use in the United States Similarly to other azole fungicides, prochloraz is an inhibitor of the enzyme lanosterol 14α-demethylase CYP51A1, which is necessary for the production of ergosterol – an essential component of the fungal cell membrane – from lanosterol The agent is a broad-spectrum, protective and curative fungicide, effective against Alternaria spp, Botrytis spp, Erysiphe spp, Helminthosporium spp, Fusarium spp, Pseudocerosporella spp, Pyrenophora spp, Rhynchosporium spp, and Septoria spp
Like many imidazole and triazole fungicides and antifungal medications, prochloraz is not particularly selective in its actions In addition to inhibition of lanosterol 14α-demethylase, prochloraz has also been found to act as an antagonist of the androgen and estrogen receptors, as an agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and as an inhibitor of enzymes in the steroidogenesis pathway such as CYP17A1 and aromatase In accordance, it has been shown to produce reproductive malformations in mice As such, prochloraz is considered to be an endocrine disruptor
- ^ 1997 ; Consolidated list of products whose consumption and/or sale have been banned, withdrawn, severely restricted or not approved by governments Pharmaceuticals United Nations Publications pp 576– ISBN 978-92-1-130219-6
- ^ a b G W A Milne 2 September 2005 Gardner's Commercially Important Chemicals: Synonyms, Trade Names, and Properties John Wiley & Sons pp 517– ISBN 978-0-471-73661-5
- ^ Bill Carlile 28 September 2006 Pesticide Selectivity, Health and the Environment Cambridge University Press pp 81– ISBN 978-1-139-45756-9
- ^ a b c d e Vinggaard AM, Hass U, Dalgaard M, Andersen HR, Bonefeld-Jørgensen E, Christiansen S, Laier P, Poulsen ME 2006 "Prochloraz: an imidazole fungicide with multiple mechanisms of action" Int J Androl 29 1: 186–92 doi:101111/j1365-2605200500604x PMID 16466539
- ^ a b c Kalyani Paranjape; Vasant Gowariker; V N Krishnamurthy; Sugha Gowariker 22 December 2014 The Pesticide Encyclopedia CABI pp 406– ISBN 978-1-78064-014-3
- ^ a b c d e Philippa D Darbre 21 March 2015 Endocrine Disruption and Human Health Elsevier Science pp 86– ISBN 978-0-12-801120-1
- Prochloraz in the Pesticide Properties DataBase PPDB
|See also Receptor/signaling modulators Androgens and antiandrogens Estrogen receptor modulators Progesterone receptor modulators List of androgens/anabolic steroids|
|See also Receptor/signaling modulators Estrogens and antiestrogens Androgen receptor modulators Progesterone receptor modulators List of estrogens|
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