Pristinamycinpristinamycin antibiotic, pristinamycin product information
Pristinamycin INN, also spelled pristinamycine, is an antibiotic used primarily in the treatment of staphylococcal infections, and to a lesser extent streptococcal infections It is a streptogramin group antibiotic, similar to virginiamycin, derived from the bacterium Streptomyces pristinaespiralis It is marketed in Europe by Sanofi-Aventis under the trade name Pyostacine
Pristinamycin is a mixture of two components that have a synergistic antibacterial action Pristinamycin IA is a macrolide, and results in pristinamycin's having a similar spectrum of action to erythromycin Pristinamycin IIA streptogramin A is a depsipeptide PI and PII are coproduced by S pristinaespiralis in a ratio of 30:70 Each compound binds to the bacterial 50 S ribosomal subunit and inhibits the elongation process of the protein synthesis, thereby exhibiting only a moderate bacteriostatic activity However, the combination of both substances acts synergistically and leads to a potent bactericidal activity that can reach up to 100 times that of the separate components
The pristinamycin biosynthetic gene cluster is the largest antibiotic supercluster known so far, with a size of ~210 kb, wherein the PI and PII biosynthetic genes are not clustered individually but are scattered across the complete sequence region Furthermore, this biosynthetic gene region is interrupted by a cryptic type II PKS gene cluster
Despite the macrolide component, it is effective against erythromycin-resistant staphylococci and strepcococci It is active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA Its usefulness for severe infections, however, may be limited by the lack of an intravenous formulation owing to its poor solubility Nevertheless, it is sometimes used as an alternative to rifampicin+fusidic acid or linezolid for the treatment of MRSA
The lack of an intravenous formulation led to the development of the pristinamycin-derivative quinupristin/dalfopristin ie, Synercid, which may be administered intravenously for more severe MRSA infections
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA
- ^ Hamilton-Miller J 1991 "From foreign pharmacopoeias: 'new' antibiotics from old" J Antimicrob Chemother 27 6: 702–5 doi:101093/jac/276702 PMID 1938680
- ^ Mast Y, Weber T, Gölz M, Ort-Winklbauer R, Gondran A, Wohlleben W, Schinko E 2010 Characterization of the ‘pristinamycin supercluster’ of Streptomyces pristinaespiralis Microbial Biotechnology doi:101111/j1751-7915201000213x
- ^ Weber P 2001 "" Pathol Biol Paris 49 10: 840–5 doi:101016/S0369-81140100255-3 PMID 11776696
- ^ Leclercq R, Soussy C, Weber P, Moniot-Ville N, Dib C 2003 "" Pathol Biol Paris 51 7: 400–4 doi:101016/S0369-81140300054-3 PMID 12948760
- ^ Edited by Sean C Sweetman, ed November 30, 2004 Martindale: The complete drug reference 34th ed London: Pharmaceutical Press ISBN 0-85369-550-4 CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list link
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